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Collection of Puritan Literature. 

Division ^Sv^ 

Section J...ST.0 I 


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O N 

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By the Reverend D r Walter 'Raleigh, Dean of Wells, and 
Chaplain in Ordinary to His late iMajefty King Charles the Firffc 


Printed by J. Macocl^, for Jojeph Hmdntarfi, at the Black. 

Bull in Comhilj over agamic, the Royal Exchange. M DC LXXIX. 

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IF the Reader be dejirdus to know who the Author 
oftheje Vfcourfes was, he may be pleafed to take 
this jhort, but true account, which 1 have from 
thofe who Were well acquainted with him. He wasfecond 
Son of Sir Care w Raleigh, a gentleman of an and* 
mt Family in Devonfhire; defended, as appears by 
a (jeneology I have in my bands, from John de Ra- 
leigh, a great man in the time of William the Con* 
cfueroirr, who flighted him in the i d year of his ^eign. 
His Mother was the tf^eliB of Sir John Thynne of 
Longleate in Wiltfhire, and Daughter of Sir Wil- 
liam Wroughton , Vice- Admiral under Sir John' 
Dudley {afterwards Duke of Northumberland) in 
the expedition againfl the Scots, 1544. in: the latter 
end of the ^eign of Henry the 8 ch . 

Concerning both which perfons I fl?all forbear to fay 
any thing - y becauje, if it be an honour to be. related to 

A' 5 thofe: 



A brief Account of the Author. 

thofe that are Great and Worthy, there is nothing great- 
er of this kind, in my opinion, that can be faid of him, 
than that he "pas Nefhew to the famous Sir Walter 
* Antiqui- Raleigh : "fthom a late Author * hath honoured with 
"err. oxon this Character, that He was greater than the ex- 
F> amples of times pad, and the imitation of thofe 
to come : Vohofe Hi/lory, I may add, which {as Ca- 
iaubon, in his Preface to Polybius, [ayes a Hifiory 
ought to be) is a kind of praBicd Thilofophy, will make 
his name immortal among us. 

The place and time of his Birth I cannot certainly 
learn, nor where he was bred; till he came to Win- 
chefter School : where he made fuch proficiency, that 
he was ripe, I am informed, very early for the Univer* 
fity. And being fent to Oxford was made a Qentle* 
man Qommoner in Magdalen Colledg -, a famous Nur* 
fery of many great men. jimong whom we fiould have 
found, no doubt, this Doctor placed, in the late Anti- 
quities of that Univerfity, had the fe Difcourfes come 
out foon enough, to have given the Author of that work, 
occafion to make a better inquiry after him, than it is in 
my power to do. Who can learn nothing further of him 
there, than that he was admired for his Dictations in 
the Schools even ivhen he wm an Under-graduate 5 
and having taken his Degrees of Batchelour and Mafier 
of Arts, was made Junior of the publick ,AB : Dohich 
fa performed with exceeding great applaufe. For be- 


A brief Account of the Author. 

fide the quicknejs of his witt, and ready elocution ; h: 
leas majter of a Very ftrong reafon: which won him the 
familiarity and friend ) hip of thoje great men, who were 
the envy of the laft Age, and the wonder of this, the 
Lord Falkland, Dr. Hammond, and Mr. Chilling- 
worth. The laft of which was wont to fay (and no 
yuan was a better Judge of it than himjelf) that. 
Dr. Raleigh was th> beft Difyutant , that ever he 
met withal. 

And indeed there is a very great acutenejs eafdy to', be 
obferved in his writings : which would haVe appeared 
more if he had not been led, by the common nj'ice ofthofe 
times, to imitate too far a Very eminent man, rather 
than follow his own excellent Genius. A fault that 
ought to be carefully avoided by thofe that fnidy Elo- 
quence -, in eViry Kind of winch, as Quint ilian ob* 
ferVes *, there is fomething which is common to all Elo- * l. x. in- 
quence, id autem imitemur, quod commune sft>\ *! 
and that alone is the thiw which ouvht to be imitated. 

But in that way which he took, his Fame grew fey 
great, that feveral of the Nobility ")Vere defirous to en- 
tertain him into their Families.: And at laft William 
Earl of Pembroke gained him for his Chaplain. With 
whom he had not lived above- two years, befwe he became 
his kmd Tatron; beftownig on. him a Very good Bene- 
fice, in a plentiful Country, rffcChedzoy ia SomtYtei- 
ktftiire. Where king filed he took t&Wifc a Dan -rhttr 


A brief Account of the Author. 

of Sir Ralph Gibbs, Sifter to the Reverend Dr. 
Charles Gibbs, one of the prefent Prebendaries of 
St. Peters Weftminfter. (By whofe ajfeHionate care 
And falxgence thefe Tapers were retrived and preferred 
from perifbing : as a great many others are like to do ; 
unlejs they, into whofe hands they are fain, will be fo kind 
and juft as to fend them to him, or to the Bookfeller, or 
undertake themfehes to give a faithful account of them to 
the 'World. 

Wlio will be glad, no doubt, to fee more of the fruits 
of fo happy a brain, efpecially thofe of his Maturer 
years. When he grew Famous at Court y as he had been 
before in the Univerjity and Qountry ; and was made 
Chaplain in Ordinary to f\ing Charles the Martyr. 
Before whom fome of thefe Sermons were Treachedy 
particularly that upon Matth. vi. 33. which it appears 
by the Conclufion, was tfo laft Sermon His Majefty 
heard before he began his Journey into Scotland. From 
whence being returned, he beftoloed upon t1?e Dotrtor, 
the Deanery of Wells : intending to confer farther fa- 
vours on him, had not the unnatural War which pre- 
fently after broke out, put an untimely end to both their 

Never, I think, was any Nation fo diftraBed, and 
perfectly be fide it felf, as this of ours in thofe miferable 
times -, when they could not fee the happinefs they enjoyed 
in fo excellent a Prince as God had fet over us, and in 


A brief Account of the Author. 

fuch Twus and Learned Divines as be had about him : 

afrainft whom they perpetually declaimed in the mojl abu* 

the Language y deprived them of all their Eftates, and 

at lafl barbaroufly Murdered jome of them, together 

with their ^oyal Mafter. Such, 1 am fure, was the 

fate of this DoHor ; who being fequeftered, and hurried 

from one Vrifon to another, and Jltfi there immured, 

Tbbere fever al ^rif oners dyed of the blague, was at lafl 

fl?ut up in his own Houfe at Wells, Vohich they had 

turned into a Gaol: and after he had efcaped the Teftt- 

Imce in many places, Voas Vilamoufly Murdered by him, 

who was appointed to be his peeper. The manner of it, 

was thus : 

The Committee of that Qounty coming to Jit at Wells, 
the DoBor defired to be permitted to fyeak with them ; 
hoping to gain fo much liberty as to go to Chedzoy to 
his Wife and Children, in order to fettle fome affairs 
which nearly concerned them. In which reafonable re* 
cjueji meeting with a denial, though a Gentleman of a 
thoufand pound a year offered to be bound for his return, 
at the time they flwuld appoint him, he could not but ex* 
poftulate the matter with them : and happened to fay, 
among other things, it was Very hard that he JJ?ou!d be 
refujed a courtejy from them which f ever al other perfons 
obtained without them; who had liberty to <ro home, 
fome for a week, fome for a month, when they pleafed. 
Wlikb in flead of mollifying the Committee towards him, 

a only 

A brief Account of the Author. 

only fl?arjmed their anger towards the Cjaoler ; whom 
they chid for his remifjnejs, and threatned to turn out 
of bis place, if he took upon him any more to grant this 
licence to any Trifoner. This rebuke Jluck in the feU 
lows Jhmach • and the next morning entering into the 
Doctors Chamber, when he was writing to his Wife, to 
let her under ft and he could not procure leave to come and 
jce her; he clapt hps hand upon the Taper, and de- 
manded a fight of it. To which the Dofior fairly re- 
plyed, that he fhould with all his heart, if he had any 
authority from the Committee to require it : other wife he 
might be fatisfed With his protejiation that it was no- 
thing elfe but a Letter to his Wife, to acquaint her 
with the denial the Committee had given him, m he 
hieDo well enough already. Whereupon the Keeper be= 
gan to endeavour to take it from him by force; but the 
DoBor being too ftrong for him, wrefted it out of his 
hands. Which being done, the fellow ftept back, drew his 
Sword, ran it immediately into the good Mans Belly ; and 
gave him an incurable Wound: of which though after a 
few days, he dyed, his Murderer notwithflanding Was 
fuffered to live. And <m the Author of a Book called 
* Better Ruina Anglix * nnformes as, the Committee were fo 
bipsby ±e little ajfe fled With the bufnejs, that afterwards they 
wtnjfu turned the Doctors Wife and Children out of 
£fw?47. doors i an ^ forced his Son to fly the Country, 
for that he would have profecuted the Law a- 


A brief Account of the Author. 

gainft his Fathers Murderer, Whether that be ex* 
aclly true or no, I am not able to fay ; but this may be 
relied on (coming from an undoubted hand) that though 
his Wife Trofecutcdhim tMro Affixes together, Jhe could 
not get him brought to a Tryal : But fl?e falling fick 
before the third came y and not able to attend it ; then 
the fellow appeared and ivas acquitted ; there being no 
body ready to make good the charge againjl him. 

Thus fell this Excellent perfon ; in whofe writings I 
bejeech all the Authors and Abetters of the late Confuji* 
ons, Tbho ftill furvive, to fee what kind of men they 
perfecuted in their blind rage : that it may be a warning 
to them for ever, and they may give their Tofterity a 
charge, to beware boD? they let looje the like furious paf 
fion in time to come. By "tohtch \ as an unknown 
Writer fyeaks concerning another of thofe Sufferers 
(Dr. Stuart) they either robbed themlelves of 
thole holy men, and means, which God in his 
mercy had given them : or elle exchanged zpvo-ax, 
2ctAK«cuj/ Gold for Counters, the Cherubins of 
the Temple for the Calves of Bethel. 

There was a monument, 1 have been told, defigned, 
if not promifed, for the preferVation of his Memory. 
But I think non this Book is all he is like to have ; 
and it is the bejl perhaps that can be made for him, be- 
caufe made by himfelf. Who was a Majler- workman 
even in his Youth ; when fever al of thefe pieces, it is 

a z evident, 

A brief Account of the Author. 

evident , were compofed: And had been a far greater, 
if he had not fain, as I J aid, into a way, wherein his 
Majierly wit wasfo much confined, that at lajl he broke 
out of it. As appears by his Dijcourfe of Oaths, which 
is jirong and nervous, clear and judicious, as well as 
full of fyirit and life : and may be fufficient to fhow 
Tbhat he could have done , if he had jet himfelf to it, 
in other Arguments , and handled them in the fame 
manner, that the reft of his Friends before named did 
thofe wherein they ivere engaged. 

To which Friends of his, I J7?ould have added two 

other Eminpit perfons ; one of which is dead alfo, the 

late Earl of Clarendon Lord High Chancellour of 

England; the other yet liv'ing y the ( J{ight Reverend 

Father in God the prefent Lord Ttifrop of Winchefter. 

Who was a great lover of this T>oEior, and flill pre* 

ferVes, J am confident, fo Kind a remembrance of him, 

that, if he had not wholly fequeftered himfelf to the 

thoughts of another world y he might be eajily perfwaded 

to bejloivfuch a Character of him, as no man now alive 

but himfelf (who in a great old Age retains a marVeU 

lorn Vivacity of fyirit, and foarpnefs of wit) is able to 


Inftead of which I have, thought good to conclude this 
Treface with the following Epitaph which an Admirer 
of his, in the other UriiVerfity, was pleafed to make for 


E L O G I U M 

Viri Defideratifllmi Raleighet 

Do&oris S. S. T. &c Decani Wellenfis : pro 

Caufa Regis & Ecclefias a flio 

mifere trucidati* 

SI commune fygni buftum, unam reliquit lachrymam, 
limns (qu<cfo} rore lachrymuU fiargito hos Cine- 
Viator, (res, 
Turn mentor Hofyitis Jul, hoc Mamwr extillabit alteram. 
]>{on hie Vdis harpago feB& neoteric & 
^ttus mducens noVosjveteres ut liguriret reditus: 
Sed (jf{aleigheusjacet (0 nimis Verecundus lapis ! 
Hicjacet Jpreta Majefias, T^pbilitas, Lex & Huma- 

Qm dum oppugnat dedecws hoc ultimum Mundi 
Et dehrantis TS[atur£ informem Jobolem 

SociaYit fuos cum patrut Cineribus. 
Veriim , quot Qarceres honejiaYit prius ? cMagnum 

( Luminare 
Quoties fub modio conclufum eft ? Tandem, jSlefas ! 
Ektinftum a poteftate tenebrarum. 


V aflat a Ecclefla, nequiit flare diutius 
Hoc Templum Spiritus Sanfti: 
Quifi tnfremuit Qarcerariusffu^icatus & Carcerem 

Tali Hojfiite nunc iri confecratum. 
Ergo eVaginavit gladium, t? ferri clctve Sacrilega 
Jppermt, aut effregit fores 
Emifitfy Captivum jam emeritum, 
TerVagari per campos beat* lucis isr sterna prat a. 
lino iBu duplici liber aYit cuflodia ; 
Efuo & e corporis fui Ergaflulo. 
Sic nempe Nofler hie 
A carceribus tranfiens ad optatam metam 
Cupiit diffohi & effe cum Chrifio. 


TiTLEsofthe SERMONS, with 

their Order, Number, and Texts. 

A Difcourfe of Oaths. Folio I* 

Jerem. iv. 2. 
And thotijhdh Swear \ The Lordliveth^ in Truth, in Judg- 
ment and m Right eoufnefs. 


Of the Duty of Man. . fol. 47. 

Ecckf xii. 13. 

Let us hear the Conclusion of the whole mutter : Fear God, 
and keep his Commandments. For this is the whole Du- 
ty of Man. For God, &c 


Of Chrift's coming to Judgment. fol 83. 

Matt. xvL 27. 
For the Son of Man JJjall come in the glory of his Father 

with his Angels : And then he fhall reward every Ma?i 

according to his werks. 


Of the Original of Wars. foi 1 29* 

James iv. 1. * 

From whence come Wars, and Fightings among you 5 Come 
they not hence, even of the Lujis that war in your Members ? 


A Difcourfe of Election and Reprobation.^/. 15 1, 174. 

Hofea xiii. 9. 
Ijracl, thou hafi dejiroyed thy fclf but in w is thine help. 

S E R M- 


The way to Happinefs. fol. 206. 

Matt. vi. 33. 
But feeh^ye firji the Kingdom of God and his Righteoujhejs, 
and all theje things fiall be added unto you. 

A Preparation for the Holy Communion. fol. 236. 

1 Cor. xi. 28. 
But let a Man examine himfelf andfo let him eat of that 
Breads and drinh^ofthat Cup. 

On ChriftmaG day. fol 268, 295, 324. 

I. on Luke ii. 10, 1 1. 

And the Angel faid unto them. Fear not: for behold, I 
bring you tydings of great joy which fiall be to all people. 

For unto you is born this day in the City of David a Savi- 
our , which is Chriji the Lord. 

II. on Gal. iv. 4, 5. 

When the fulnefs of time to as come, God fent forth his Son, 
made of a Woman, made under the Law : 

That he might redeem them that are under the Law, that 
we might receive the adoption of Sons. 

III. on Efay liii. 8. 
And who jhall declare his Generation ? 


Two Funeral Sermons. fol 356, 384. 

I. For the Mother, on Pfal. cxlii. verfe ult. 
Bring my Soul out of Prifon, that I may give thanks unto 

thy Name*? which thing if thou wilt grant me, thenfiall 

the Righteous refirt unto my Company. 

II. For the Daughter, on Rom. viii. 10. 

And if Chrifi be in you, the Body is dead becanfe of Sin : 
but the Spirit is life becaufe of Right eoufnefs. 



O F 



Upon J e r. iv. 2. 

jfnd thou jl alt /war, The Lordliveth, in Truth, 
hi Judgment and in ^ighteoufnefs. 

T Hough all Sins be dangerous unto the 
Soul of man , and none fo fmall as may 
be neglefted,fince a man may be choaked 
under a heap ot Sand, as well as crufh- 
ed to death by the fall of a Tower 5 
yet the greater a fin is, and the more general it is grown, 
the greater danger and more inevitable deftruftiondoth 
attend it. And therefore it doth require ouj; chief 
labour and diligence both to avoid fuch in our felves, 
and to give the beft notice we can unto others of the 
peril. By negligence the leaft Leak may drown the 

B r Ship- 

A ^Difcourfe of Oath. 

Ship : but the Pilot's fpecial care is of the Rock, on 
which if his Veffcl fall, it certainly fplits. 

Now of all the Sins wherennto the Corruption of 
man is fubjeft, I think there is fcarce any fo -great and 
fo common, fo great in it felf, and (b common in the 
world, fo injurious unto the Majefty of God, and fo 
frequent amongll the Sons of men, as the fin of Swear- 
ing : The vain and irreverent ufing, rather abufing of 
that Sacred Name in our ordinary fpeech, which if 
well confidered we fhould tremble but to think on. 
A fin which the Wife man tells us, will bring a Curfe 
upon the houfe, where it is ufed 5 and it is no lefs likely 
to bring a Curfe upon a whole Land and Nation 
where it is univerfal. So that this impiety of all o- 
ther, as it brings with it a greater and more general 
danger : fo it calls for from all , efpecially from all us 
whom it mod: concerns, a great and univerfal care: 
All endeavours fhould run forth to the quenching of a 
common fire. 

It is indeed often galled and fnarply taxed from 
fuch places as thefe, obvioufly and by the way: But 
the point contains much, and will require a ftt dit 
courfe of that and nothing elfe : for we cannot be 
too induftrious againft a publick mifchicf For which 
reafon I have now made it the fubjeft of my difcourfe, 
as it is of this Verie : Wherein you have the whole Na- 
ture and full doftrine of an Oath, i:nd how prepared, 
it may be wholefome, which otherwife ufed is deadly 
poifon. For an Oath is not fimply and utterly unlawful, 
my Text fays, Thou fialt faear, but then it muft be 
qualify ed with the due form and matter and manner: 
The form muft be [_As the Lord Hvc:h7\ that is, in the 
Na;me of the living Lord: The matter \Tfcuth and 
Righteouftiefs :~\ the manner or modification \JJndg- 
nttnt .*] Thou fialt, Sec. But 

ZJfon J e r. iv. verfe 2. 

But before you may fully apprehend the divifion of 
the Text, it will be requiltte that I fhew you fome 
divifions of nn Oath, for there are divers forts. 

There is a bare and fimple Oath rand there is an Oath, 
mixt with a Curfe and execration. The bare and fim- 
ple Oath, is only a plain and naked conteftation, where- 
in we call God to witnefs of what we fay : The exe- 
cutory, is, when we bind over and oblige either our 
(elves or fomething dear unto us, unto fome notorious 
punifhment, if fo be that be not true which we lay, as 
whenonefwearsby his Life,Soul, Salvation, and the like. 

Again there is an Oath wherein there is a manifeft 
and exprefs affumptton of the Name of God , which 
needs noinftance, we know it too well, by daily and 
fearful example =, And there is an Oath wherein God is 
called to record, tacitly and implicitly, under the Name 
of thofe Creatures wherein his Glory doth efpecially 
(hine and anpear : So he that fweareth by heaven, 
fweareth both by heaven and by him that dwelleth 
therein. And laftly, which is fpccially material, There 
is an Oath Affertory, and an Oath Obligatory. Aflcr- 
tory, when we affirm or deny any thing, paft or pre- 
sent : Obligatory, when we promife or threaten fome- 
thing to come. Which being obferved, you may eafily 
make a tit Application of the three terms in my Text } 
Truth, Judgment and Righteoufnefs: Truth unto an 
afltrtory Oath : Righteoufnefs unto a promiflory : 
Judgment and difcretion unto both 5 For which caufe 
it is placed in the midft between both. For an AC- 
fertory oath , muft be True, left we fwear falfly : A 
Promidbry, Righteous, left we fwear to do unjuftly:, 
and both with difcretion and judgment, left we fwear 
lightly and rafhly. Thou Jl) alt fwear, &c. 

So then we may in fome cafe fwear f, but the Oath 

B 2 muft 

A Difeourfe of Oaths 

rnuft have the right form, it muft be made in the name 
of the Lord: And the due matter, in Truth if AC- 
(ertory,in Righteoufnefs if Promiflory: And then in 
a difcreet manner, with premeditation and judgment 
in both. Wherein you fee, how we may fwear, and 
how we may not (wear: In Truth, Judgment and 
Righteoufnefs we may fwear .• but falfly,unjuftly, and 
rafhly and vainly we may not fwear. Of thefe points 
in their order, beginning with the firft, The Lawful- 
nefs of an Oath, and that in cafe a man may fwear 3 
Thoufoalt^ Sec. 

i. There are not wanting fome and thofe even 
amongft the Fathers themfelves, who have cenfured all 
Oaths ( though permitted by the Law, yet ) as con- 
demned by the Gofpel , which contains they (ay a 
Doftrine of more than legal perfection : of this opi- 
nion were St. Bafil? and Theo$hyla&, and it is the er- 
ror of the Anabaptift unto this day. Others have 
thought that an Oath may be lawful under the Go- 
ipel, but then only before a Magiftrate, and when 
it is required by fuch as have authority thereunto. But 
the common and more general opinion both of the 
Antient Fathers and Modern Divines is, that it is not 
fimply unlawful for a private man to fwear, and in a 
private aftion , when (bme urgent caufe, either the 
honour and Glory of God , or (bme great good and 
benefit of our Neighbour doth call for it at our hands 3 
fince it is not the u(e of an Oath, but the abufe that 
makes it evil : for that it is both lawful and good in 
it (elf, in its own nature and kind, is evident, if we 
confider either the original from whence it fprings, or 
the end for which it was ordained. The original 
is from Faith , and a faith of the knowledge, om- 
nifcience and power of God, for it is grounded upon 

VponJ&R. iv.verfi 


a perfuafion, that God underftands and knows whe- 
ther we fpeak the Truth, and is able to take revenge 
ot us if we fpeak otherwife: an oath being nothing 
elfe but the calling of God for a witnefs of our fpeech, 
and a Judge againft us if we fpeak untruly, for a fur- 
ther Confirmation of fuch things as have no other hu- 
mane witnefles or proofs. And the End is no lefs pro- 
fitable than the Original Religious 5 for it is ordained 
to no other purpote but to give an aflurance of the 
Truth in queftion , and fo to determine diffentions 
and controverfies among men, as the Author to the 
Hebrews teftifies, for an Odth, faith he, is an end of 
allftrife, Heb. vi. 1 6. For which reafons, efpecially 
the firft, it is, that an Oath wherein God is confeffed 
and acknowledged as an immutable and infallible Truth 
in himfelf, fo a Judge and revenger of taKehood in 
others, as being the only fearcher of the heart, that 
alone can bring to light the fecrets that lie hid in the 
Clofets thereof; for this caufe I fay, it is, that an Oath 
if rightly performed, both is, and in Scripture is of- 
ten accounted, as a part of the very fervice and wor- 
fhip of God. And therefore in the vi. of Dent. 13. 
it is fet down, fide by fide , with the fear and fervice 
of the Lord, wherewith it is made but one Command- 
ment, I'hoH JJjalt fear the Lord and fervc hh?/ y and 
frvear by his Name. So Efay prophefying of the Vo- 
cations of the Affyrians and Egyptians unto the fime 
Covenant and woriliip of God with ifrae!^ exprefleth 
it in theft terms, They flail til/pea^ the language of 
Canaan^ and [wear in the Name of the Lord, as if the 
fw.earing in his Nanw were a futficient profelling of 
the Religion he commands, Eft. xix. 18. yea the very 
Heathen themtelves did acknowledge it an honour due 
only unto th~ Gods. 


A Difcomfe ofVatbs 

Prafens Divus habebitur 

Auguftus, &C. 
we honour thee Auguftus when thou art prefenta 
God, erefting Altars whereon we (wear by thy Name. 
So that an Oath is not only goc:l in it felf, but a fpe- 
cial ASt of Religion , and therefore cannot be evil 
unlefs irreligioufiy ufed. And though this religious 
ufe be more evident and Solemn in Oaths that are pub- 
lick, yet it may be no lefs truly though not ib mani- 
feftly in others, that are private, if performed with a 
due refpeft unto God, and out of a Charity to our 
Neighbour; which is then done, wl reverent re- 
fpeft unto God in him that makes the Oath, and the 
utility of him whofe infirmity requires it, do meet to- 
gether. And though the other have a ftronger founda- 
tion by precept, yet this wants not evidence in Scrip- 
ture, and frequency of example 5 for if the Oath be- 
tween Abraham and Abimeleck^ were publick as is 
pretended and is likely, yet that between Jacob and 
Laban was certainly private. Boas was a private man, 
and ye*- he confirms the promife of Marriage unto 
Ruth with an Oaxh^RHth iii. 13. Obadiah was a private 
man, yet a juft man and one that feared the Lord, as 
the Text hath it, yet he fpared not to ftrengthen his 
fpeech even unto the great Prophet Elias with an 
Oath, As thy Soul Uveth^ &c. 1 King, xyiii. 10. A- 
gain in the 2 King v. 16. the holy Prophet E///7^him- 
felf fwears : in the 1 Cor. xv. and in divers other pla- 
ces the holy Apoftle St. Paul fwears .• In the x. Apoc. 
an Angel of heaven fwears .• yea s ad in many places 
God himfelf fwears, and yet none of them required 
unto it by a Superior that had authority over them. 
And it hath as well evidence in Scripture as example. 
For there is no fufficient reafon why that teftimony of 

St. Paul 

ZJpon J e r. iv. verfe 2. 7 

St, Paul unto the. Hebrews (fcould be retrained unto 
publick Oaths.- And it cannot he , but that my Text 
rnift extend it fclf unto fuch as are private, and if it 
did not, yet that in the xv. rfalm is without queftion, 
where he that fwears unto his Neighbour and difap- 
points him not, is faid to be the man that (hall dwell in 
the Tabernacle of God, which no man can doubt to 
be fpoken of a private oath. 

But leaving thofe that acknowledge publick Oaths 
and deny private , let us come unto thofe that con- 
demn both, both publick and private 5 the ufe whereof 
they confels was tolerated under the Law, vrfiich now 
they conceive as wholly abolifhed by the Coming of 
the Gofpel. The foundation and only ftrength of 
which opinion is grounded wholly upon that fpeech of 
our Saviour, Mdtth, v. Tou have heard it hath been 
faid by them of old, Thou J/jalt not forfwear thy felf 
but J/jalt perform unto the Lord thine Oath, But I 
fay unto yon, Swear not at all, neither by Heaven, for 
it is Gods throne; neither by the Earth, for it is his 
footflool, 8tc. But let your communication be yea, 
yea, nay, nay? for rvhatfoever is more than thefe 
cometh of Evil $ from whence they infer a double 
Argument; the one from <:he Inhibition, the other 
from the reifon of it. The inhibition is general (Non 
jura bis omnino) fivear net at all : and the reafon is 
as univerfal, laying the ftain of evil upon all others 
equally without difference or diftin&ion of any, for 
rrhatfoever is more than yea and nay, cometh of evil 5 
The place feens to be very ftrong for them , and fure 
is not without fome difficulty 3 from which that we 
may the earlier free it, we mull: (peak lbmething of 
both : But firft of the Inhibition , and then of the 


8 A Difcowfe of Oaths 

And firft we are to confider that there are many 
paffages of Scripture fet down in general and univer- 
lal terms, which notwithftanding have not fimply and 
abfolutely an univerfal fence, but univerfal in a certain 
kind. What can be more generally pronounced than 
that in the P faints ? God looked down from Heaven up- 
on the Sons of mm to fee if there were any that 
would feek, after him, and behold they were all gone 
afiray, they were altogether become abominable, there 
was none that did good, no not one. And yet not- 
withftanding in the fame Pfalm we find another fort 
of people clean oppofite unto thefe, whom God terms 
his own people, btcaufe they faithfully ferved hitn % 
a people therefore whom thofe wicked ones could 
not endure but fought to deftroy and utterly devour, 
eating up my people as it were bread. So that the for- 
mer paffage cannot be underftood fimply of all the 
Sons of men whatfoever, but only of all in a certain 
kind , of all the Sons of men who were only the 
fons of men, and not by the fpirit of Regeneration 
become alfo the Sons of God. In which fence the 
Apoftle St. Paul in the beginning of his Epiftle to the 
Romans, ere he feeks to infer the neceffity of the 
Gofpel, doth apply it to (hew that all men are na- 
turally evil and deprived of the glory of God, and 
therefore ftand in need of the Grace of Chrift that 
they might attain unto it. In like manner it is faid 
in another place, Omne Animal in Area Not, that 
every Creature was in Noahs Ark, which notwith- 
ftanding cannot be verified of every Creature, but of 
one of all forts and kinds of Creatures , and not of 
thofe abfolutely neither, but of all kinds that could 
not live in the waters, for there were no Fifties there. 
It were eafy to give you inftance in many more, but 
thefe may fuffice. Now 

Vpon J e r. iv. verfe 2. 

Now that in this place, this Inhibition here is of the 
like nature, though abfolute in terms, yet not in fence, 
reftraining Oaths, but yet not all without limitation or 
diftincYton, is manifeftboth by the letter of the Scripture 
and the example of St. Paul that writ it, and the per- 
petual prafticeof all Churches fince.TheText of Scrip- 
ture is that before cited in the 6. to the Hebrewf^where 
St. Paul doth not only approve and allow of an Oath 
now under the Gofpcl, but fets it down as a principal 
remedy for the eftablifhing of peace, and diflolving of 
quarrels and difcords amongft men, if fo be that St. 
Paul were the Author of that Epiftle as is mod com- 
monly held, (though it be not greatly material whe- 
ther he were or no 5 for it skills not much who was 
the Pen, where it is confeft by all that the Holy Ghoft 
was the Writer. ) And if he were not the Author of 
the Doftrine, yet he doth elfewhere frequently main- 
tain it by his own praftice and example, often confirm- 
ing his fpeecheseven in his holy writings,fometimeswith 
a bare and fimple Oath,as Rom. i. 9. God is my witnefs % 
rvhom I ferve in the Spirit, &c. Sometimes even with 
an execratory mixed with imprecations, as (Tefiem in- 
voco Deum in Animam meam ) I call God for a re- 
cord upon my Soul, 2 Cor. i. 23. and in divers other 
places. Now who can imagine that bleffed Apoftle either 
io ignorant or lb evil, as not to underftand the pre- 
cepts of Chnft, or elfe fo often to difobey them, efpe- 
cially in thofe holy pages and facred inftruftionsof the 
whole Church, wherein he was but the quill or at 
mofr the Scribe unto the blefled Spirit that did dictate 
and indite them ? Whereunto if we add the confent 
of all famous Churches from that Apoftles time unto 
this very day, not only approving, but in divers cafes 
even requiring of an Oath, it will be more than abun- 

C dantly 

I o A ^Difcourfe of Oaths 

dandy manifeft, that that fpeech of our Saviour is not 
fo absolutely Univerfal as to be received without all 
limitation, and reftraint 3 only the difficulty is, unto 
what kind of Oaths it ought to be reftrained. For 
even they that confent unto a limitation, as the moft 
of the Fathers do, yet they do not confent in the 
fpecialty whereunto it is to be limited. Some con- 
ceive that our Saviour doth here prohibit not thofe 
Oaths that are made in the Name of God , but fuch 
only as are fworn by fome of his creatures : for which 
caufe, after the inhibition [_Swear not at all~] he im- 
mediately infers, neither by heaven for it is his Throne, 
neither by the Earth, for it is his Footjiool } of this 
opinion was St. Hilary jjez and St. Hierom^ Confider 
faith he, (upon this place) that our Saviour doth not 
here forbid men to fwear by the Lord, but by the Hea- 
ven, the Earth, Jcrufalem and his head. But this 
Commentary feems to fail, becaufe the afluming of a 
Creatures Name in an Oath is not utterly unlawful, 
(as you (hall hear when we come to it) asalfofor 
that the words of our Saviour tying up our fpeech un- 
to yea, yea, nay, nay 5 and afterwards that whatfoever 
is more proceeth from evill ', doth clearly exclude 
all forms of Oaths promifcuoudy as well thofe in the 
name of the Creator,as thole by the name of a Creature. 
Others are of opinion, that the words are to be re- 
ftrained unto all faife Oaths , taking jurarc for peje- 
rare, fwearing for forfwearing} To whom if youob- 
jeft that according unto this exposition, nothing is ad- 
ded by our Saviour about that which was faid unto 
them of old, if /wear not at all^ be no more than 
thou ffialt not for fwear thy felf ; They anfwer, yes 
that there is, becaufe the Lord in the latter part doth 
forbid all kind of forfwearing, even that by the Crea- 

ZJpon J e r. iv. verfe 2. 11 

tures fpecified in heaven, earth, Jerufalem and the 
head, which the Jews did not conceive to be forbid- 
den of all, for they had a Tradition which they fuck- 
ed from thePharifees,that there were certain Creatures, 
by whom if they made their Oath, they did not ftand 
bound to perform it.Itistrue indeed that fuch a Traditi- 
on they had which made a diftin&ion of Creatures in 
this of the Temple,and the gold of the Temple, 
the Altar and the gift on the Altar, affirming that to 
(wear by the one was nothing, but he that fware by 
the other was a debtor 5 which our Saviour in the 23 
of this Evangelift doth both mention and refel, and 
not without indignation. But it feems not to be his 
intent here, both becaufe, yea and yea, and nay and * 
nay, doth debar all fwearing as well as forfwearing 5 
as alio for that our Saviour doth purpofely alter the 
firft word, forfwearing, into fwearing, to (hew and 
fignify that he underftands an Oath as it differs from 
Perjury.AndyetSt.^«/?/# himfelf Qib,de Sermon. Do- 
mini Cap. 1 7.) did fometimes give this Interpretation. 
Others again ( as St. Bernard, and Chrijiianus Duth- 
minus that lived long before him)upon this place defire 
to have itefteemed rather for a Counfel than a Mandate, 
aCounfel of extraordinary perfe&ion rather than a 
Mandate of neceilary duty, wherein he that fails doth 
not fin, though he that obferves it doth the better. 
But neither may this fatisfy, for it is clear that our 
Saviour doth prohibit fomething which the Scribes 
and Pharifees thought to be lawful : Neither is it likely 
that St. Paul whom we find often fwearing in his E- 
piftles, would neglect the Counfel of Chrift, when 
he ought to give example of perfeftion unto others. 
But St. James puts it out of all quefl:ion,who repeating 
thofe very words of our Saviour, he lo repeats them 

C 2 as 


A Difcourfe of Oaths 

as a Mandate and Commandment, as he makes dam- 
nation a punifhment of the breach : for, where Chrift 
fays, let your fpeech be yeayea^ and nay nay^ for rvhat- 
foever if ixore comet h of evil ^ he to (hew that this 
evil is fin, and a fin that deferveth death, doth para- 
phrafe it thus, let your fpeech be yea> yea^and nay, nay, 
left you fall into Condemnation : No counfel there- 
fore, James v. But not to hold you any longer with 
feveral and erroneous opinions, They feem to make 
the beft interpretation, that reftrain this prohibition 
unto the idle, trivial and cuftomary Oaths of common 
fpeech,which the Lord did forbid, as well as unjuft and 
falfe Oaths in weighty matters 5 though the Scribes 
and Pharifees and fubtile Gloffes had corrupted it 5 for 
they had a Tradition, as appears by Philo in the begin- 
ning of his Book , that in leffer and fmaller matters 
they were not to (wear by the name of the immortal 
God but by fome of his Creatures, fuppofing that 
though they fware never fo idly by them, yet they 
were free from any breach of the Law , fince they 
took not the name of their God in vain, which that 
did forbid. And therefore fo long as they fware truly, 
they cared not for fwearing lightly and frequently, fo 
it was not by the Lord himfelf, but by fome of his 
works. Our Saviour therefore, feeking in this place 
not to inlarge the Law, but to free it from thofe de- 
pravations and corrupt comments of the Pharifees, 
fhews them that they were to refrain as well from 
fwearing raftily and undoubtedly idly, as falfly : As alfb 
that they are no lefs guilty of the vain abufe of his 
name, who fwearby it obliquely and covertly under the 
Creatures, than thofe that affume it direftly and plain- 
ly in a proper appellation, fince there is not any work 
or workmanfhip of his whereon he hath not in fome 


ZJpon J e r. iv. verfe r. 13 

. « — 

fort as it were ingraven himfelf and his Name 3 All of 
them from his Throne unto his Footftool being either 
pledges of his favour,or illustrations of his power and 
glory, if not both 5 fo that Oaths made by them do 
reach home even unto himfelf, vvhofe they arc, and 
whofe greateft Attributes of Glory and Goodnefs they 
do plainly fet forth. And therefore the fenfe is, Swear 
not ufually and vainly at all, that is, with no kind of 
Oath, neither by heaven nor Earth nor any thing elfe 
whether Creature or Creator, for the word (oA»*at 
all) doth not fo much relate unto [wear not that goes 
before, as unto thofe feveral forms of fwearing that 
follow after, and therefore doth not exclude all Cafes 
wherein an Oath may be required, but all forms which 
for difference and diftinftion the Pharifees had inven- 
ted, as (hewing that no forms or titles may juftify an 
Oath that in it felf is vain and unnecellary. And this 
is the expofition of Mr. Calvin (lib. 2. Inft. c. 8. J 
refer Martyr and divers learned men befides, and it 
agrees well with that interpetation of St. Anftin (in 
his Bookie Mcndacio) where he fays, We are not fo 
much forbidden by this place, to fwear, as to love, • 
affeft and delight in theufeof fwearing 3 And indeed 
that which our Saviour add-, Let your Communica- 
tion be yea, yea, and my-, nay, plainly (hews that he 
relates unto the frequent and affefted Oaths of daily 
and familiar difcourfe. And thus much of the Inhi- 
bition, which rightly underftood, you fee, concludes 
nothing for the objectors. 

Now one word of the reafon of it, Qfor rvhatfo- 
ever is wore than thefe^ to wit yea and njy^ cometh 
of Evil ) And I think this will conclude as little. 
St.JuJi/n (de Serm. Domini) doth interpret this Evil 
from whence an Oath doth proceed, to be the infir- 


14 A Difcourfe of Oaths 

mity and incredulity of Others, which though it be 
not a fin yet it is evil, and as the effeft of fin, fo the 
caufe of fwearing 5 for no man (hould need an Oath, 
if another would believe his word. And after the 
fame manner doth Innocentius the %d. expound it, 
de Jhrejurando* A malo eji> fed non tarn culp£ qnam 
fcen£i nee exhibentium fed ex'tgentium Jur amentum^ 
It is from Evil, faith he, but the evil not of offence 
but of punifliment, neither the evil of him that exhi- 
bits the Oath, but of him that exa&s it. Others again, 
otherwife, A malo, hoc eft, a mendacio, from evil (ay 
they, that is from evil deceit and lying 3 for if the lips 
of men were not fubjeft to falfhood, no man would 
require an Oath for the afliirance of the Truth. 

Chryfoji. Euthytnius, Theophylatt, do render ex, rS 
njrovnpvy not from evil, but from the evil one, the evil 
one by an Antonomafie^ that is the Devil, becaufe as 
fome render the reafon,the Devil firft brought in fin,and 
fin firft occafioned an Oath, fince in the ftate of In- 
nocency, where there could be no fufpicion, there 
needed alfo no confirmation of any mans fpeech. But all 
thefe Interpretations though they are true in them- 
'(elves, yet they are not pertinent to the place : Firft 
becaufe they concern alj Oaths, for there is none fo 
goefd and lawful but in thefe fenfes proceed from evil. 
2, Becaufe they place the evil from whence the Oath 
doth proceed, not in him that fwears, but in him to 
whom the Oath is made 5 whereas our Saviour doth 
not reftrain all Oaths promifcuoufly, (as is proved al- 
ready) but only fome, becaufe they proceed from evil, 
which could be no fufficient reafbn of the reftraint : 
neither, if confeft, that evil be an offence, and an of- 
fence not of another but of the fwearer himfelf $ for 
if fuch a general and occafionary original from evil 


Vpn J e r. iv. zierfe 2. 15 

were fufficient ground for a prohibition, we might as 
well be forbidden to believe in Chrift, or repent from 
dead work ; fince if fin had not entred into the 
world, there had never been any ufe either of fuch 
faith or repentance. And therefore I rather like 
Abulenfts Commentary, A malo eft Jur amentum, id 
eft malum eft, the Oath here forbidden is fo from 
Evil and the evil one, as it is evil it felf 5 and fo evil 
as it deferves condemnation, faith St. James 5 for Chrift 
here fpeaks only of irreverent and unneceilary Oaths, 
Qua & mala Junt , & a malo Yeccatorc &> ore pro- 
ficifcuntur, which are both evil, and proceed from 
the evil mouth of an evil (inner, ((kith Barradius.) 
Neither doth this any way prejudice our caufe, for 
tphatfoever^he Term of Univerfality herein the Reafon 
will help them as little , as the [_ not at all~\ hath done 
in the precept, which is not at all, for they mult be 
both convcrfant about the fame matter, and therefore 
as that doth reftrain, fo this doth condemn only vain 
and fuperfluous fwearing 3 fo that the whole fence is 
only this : 

Swear not idly and vainly in any form whatfoever ; 
for whatfoever is more than yea and nay in your daily 
and ordinary communication proceedeth from evil: 
So that both do leave room for the moderate and cha- 
ritable ufe of an Oath when any urgent and neceffary 
paufe, as the benefit of our Neighbour, the Church or 
Commonwealth do require it 5 fo that the Gofpel 
you fee doth not thwart with the Law, and fivear 
not at all, in the one, if rightly underftood, doth not 
hinder but that there may be neceffaf y Caufe, wherein 
we may fay Thcufialt Jwear^ with the other, that in- 
hibition of idle Oaths no way deftroying this precept 
of fuch asare ferious and requiiite ; but as they are great 


1 6 A Difcomfe of Oaths 

fins, fo thefe may be holy fervices, and a man may 
as well offend againft Charity in omitting thefe,' as fin 
againft God in committing the other. And therefore 
it ftill remains firm and unfhaken, Jttrabts, Thonfijalt 
fwear, &c. 

Well then, fometimes it may be Lawful for us to fwear} 
but yet as we may not (wear in all cafes, fo neither 
under all forms, But thoufljatt fwear, The Lord liveth, 
that is,only in the Name of the living Lord 3 And the 
reafon of it is evident, by that which hath been (aid 
already •:, for fince an Oath is an Aft of religious wor- 
fhip, as containing in it a tacit acknowledgment of 
the infallibility and verity, omnifciency and omnipo- 
tency of him whom we make the witnefs and the Judge 
of the otherwife unknown Truth and falfhood of our 
fpeeches, it muft needs be an honour due only unto the 
alfeeing and ever-living God, to whom alone thofe At- 
tributes are proper 5 And cannot but be direct and 
grofs Idolatry to communicate it unto any thing elfe. 
And fo God himfelf doth ever interpret it as a mani- 
feft defection from himfelf} Filii tni dereliquerunt 
me, Your fons have forfaken me, faith God in the Pro- 
phet, and they fwear in the Name of thofe that are 
not Gods, Jer. v. 7. The greatnefs of which crime he 
doth elfewhere aggravate, by declaring the punifh- 
ment, Perdam eos, I will deftroy them that fwear in 
the name of the Lord and of Alalchaw, Zefhany i. 5. 
But this point, thefwearingin the name of falfe Gods, 
is fo grofs in it felf and fo frequently forbid in the 
(cripture, as we (hall not need to difeourfe any farther 
of it. Only I vvift note two things out of St. Auftin^ 
and fo pafs from thence unto fwearing by the Crea- 
ture. The firft is, that it is not (imply unlawful to re- 
ceive an Oath of him that fwears in the name of falfe 


ZXfon J e r. iv. verfe 2. 17 

Gods, if juft neceffity doth exaft it, and he acknowledge 
not the true God of whom it is exa&ed ^ as when a Chri- 
ftian King confirms a League or Peace or any other bufinefs 
of high importance with a Prince that is an Infidel : This 
St. Aujiin doth exprefsly affirm in his 1 54 Epiftle, where 
he doth not doubt neither but it might be confirmed by 
examples out of the Scripture, as by thofe Covenants 
which ifaac and Jacob made with Abivteleckmd Laban 
who were Idolaters, and that by an Oath on either fide 
given and received } though I fee not how thefe may justi- 
fy the point, for though AbimcUch and Laban were I- 
dohters, yet they acknowledged the true God, and in 
thofe Covenants feem to fwear by his Name 3 And there- 
fore I rather think that of Judas Maccabeus with the 
Romans might be more pertinent to the matter. The 
fecond is, That they which fwear falfly by falfe Gods,not- 
withftanding both are and are taken and punifhed too 
for Perjurers by the true God, whether it be done by 
thofe that do not acknowledge him, or others that do \ 
for even fome Chriftians of the Primitive times when they 
meant to deceive the unbelievers with whom they lived, 
that they might the better do it and with the left fin, 
would fwear by their Gods, as taking it for nothing to 
fwear falfly by thofe Idols which they knew to be no- 
thing, whom St. Aujlin, Epift. 154. doth finely refell, 
(hewing that inftead of leilening the fin they double the 
crime, bis utiquepeccat^iov fuch a one,faith he^fins twice, 
Sluia & juravit per quos non debuit, & contra pollici* 
tarn fecit fidem quod non debuit .• firft in fwearing by 
that which he ought not to worfhip, and then in break- 
ing his faith which he ought to have kept $ And God 
will alluredly punifh both, Non audit te Lipis loqitentunt, 
fed punit te Dewt faUcntem, for the ftone doth not hear 
thee by whom thou fweareft, yet that God will take ven- 
geance of thee who iecs thy deceit, (faith the fame Fa- 

D therj 

1 8 A&ifcourfe of Oaths 

ther.)And he feems to have learnt both out of the Wifdom 
of SolomoitfNho fays the fameofgrofs Idolaters that fwear 
by the Idols which they worftip 5 for faith the Author 
of that Book , In as much as their truji is in Idols that 
have no life, though they fwear faljly yet they Ucl^not 
to be hurt : but for both cavfs J/jali they be jujily fit- 
nifoed 3 both becaufe they thought not well of God gi- 
ving heed unto Idols, and alfo unjuftly fware in de- 
ceit defpifing holinefs Wifdom xiv. 28, 29, 30. 

But I leave the ftlfe Gods, and come unto Works and 
Creatures of the living God j for though thetv be no 
doubt, but the Oaths made in the name of them are fin- 
ful and Idolatrous, yet it is much queftioned whether a 
man may lawfully fwear by thefe 5 and there want not 
great and learned men that affirm and maintain it too, and 
I allure my felf very rightly : for he fhould aflume too 
much boldnefs and referve too little Charity to himfelf 
that durft cenfure and condemn others for irreligious, 
even all thofe holy men of God whom we find in the 
Scripture to have fworn by his Creatures 3 both before, 
under, and after the Law. Before the Law Jacob fware 
by the fear of his Father ifaac , which if it may be taken 
objeBive for the God whom he feared, yet that ofjofeph 
cannot, who fwore by the life of Pharaoh. Under the 
Law examples are many, As thy foul liveth, faith devout 
Anna unto Eli the Priefl: : So (aid Obadiah unto Zlias 
the Prophet : and fo Eiifia the fame unto the fame Pro- 
phet, and that three times in one Chapter for failing: 
And I pro t eft by your, or our rejocing (as fome read it) 
/ die daily, faith St. Paul under the Gofpel, I Cor. xv. 
and many good Chnftians even unto this day (wear by 
the Evangel, body of Chrift, their own faith, foul and the 
like 5 and it were hard to condemn them all, as fome do, 
which had they but obferved that diftin&ion of Aquinas 
and other Schoolmen, they would not have done , for 


Vpn J e r. iv. verfe 2. 19 

an Oath, faith he, made in the Name of a Creature may 
have a threefold rcfpcct. The firft is, when a Creature is 
called for a witncfs, fimply confidered as it is in it felf, 
without any further relation unto the Creator, and this 
is ever finful and Idolatrous, as attibuting a Divinity unto 
that which hath it not. The fecond is, when the Crea- 
ture is called upon, not as confidered in it felf, but with a 
refpeft and reference unto that God whofe goodnefs or 
glory is manifefted in it,which though it be in all Creatures, 
yet it is more confpicuous and eminent in lome 5 and this 
may be done without any fin : for though the Creature 
be only named, yet thus taken, it is not the Creature, 
but that God whofe favour or power we honour in it, 
that is called for the witnefs, as the Mafter of the Sen- 
tences doth interpret it,nay as our Saviour himfelf doth ex- 
pound: who for this very reafon inthexxiii. of Matthew 
doth plainly affirm, that whofoewcr five are th by the Tem- 
ple, fweareth both by it and by him that dwelleth there- 
in 5 and w ho joever fweareth by heaven, fweareth by the 
Throne of God and by him that (itteth thereon 5 And 
after the felf fame manner, that Oath by the foul of ano- 
ther (as thy foul liveth) fo frequent amongft the holy 
men under the Law is to be received, for they fware not 
by the foul alone but by that God whofe image andliknefs 
it is, for fo it is to be underftood, As thy foul liveth by the 
power and providence of him that firft made it to his 
likenefs and doth ftill preleve it by his mercy. The 
Third and laft is, when a man names a Creature in an 
Oach, not as fwearing by it but as expofing it by way 
of imprecation unto the judgment of that God who is the 
true witnefs of his fpeech, which is the execratory Oath 
touched in the beginning 5 fo when a man fwears by his 
own Soul, it is not meant as if that were called to the re- 
cord of that he fpcaks, but as pledging and pawning un- 
to God the welfare and Salvation of it upon the truth of 
his fpeech. D 2 And 

2o A Dtfcourfe of Oaths 

And therefore he that (wears by his Soul, doth in ab- 
brevation fay no other than what St. Paul did in plain 
and full terms, J call God to record upon my Soul, for 
that is the meaning of it, and both the meaning and ex- 
ample are ftrong proofs that it cannot be fimply under- 
ftood. Now that other of Jofeph (by the life of Pha- 
raoh) may be underftood both thefe ways 3 for either he 
calls that God to witnefs whofe judgment by the mini- 
ftry of Pharaoh was executed upon Earth 5 or elfe by 
way of imprecation, he doth upon the truth of thefpeech 
appignorate unto God the health and fafety of Pharaoh 
as a thing of all other moft dear unto him. The Mafter 
of the Sentences is for the firft, and others for the latter 3 
both may be good, but this in the Text the more proba- 
ble. So then there may be divers forms wherein the 
Creature is named, and yet the Oath made only by the 
Creator 3 for he doth ftill fwear by him, that (wears by 
any excellent work or mercy of his, with reference to 
him 5 in which fort, he that (ays (as thy Soul liveth) 
doth at the fame time and in the fame words fwear as my 
Text requires, As the Lord liveth^ for the full (en(e and 
meaning is, as the Lord liveth by whom thy Soul hath 
life. And though peradvcnture it may be better when 
juft occafion doth require an Oath, to make it clearly 
and exprefsly in the Name of the Lord? yet the inter- 
pretation of our Saviour and the examples of fo many 
holy men , do forbid us utterly to condemn all fuch as 
do but implicitely call him to record under his Creatures. 
And fure if they want not other neceflary conditions of an 
Oath, they will hardly be believed for this, the form will 
free it fclf, if they want not the right manner and matter, 
if they be performed in truth,judgment and righteoufneft, 
the qualities and infeparable companions of a lawful 
Oath, which now come to be confidered in their order, 
and firftof the firft, Jurabjs in Veritate, Thou Jlxalt facar 
The Lord liveth in Truth. From 

Vfon J e r. iv. verfe ?. 21 

From the Form we come unto the Matter, and having 
(cen in whole Name an Oath is to be made, we are now 
to confider with what Conditions it is to be qualified j 
And they are but three, in all whereof Truth hath the 
firft place} and moft defervedly,fince nothing is (o oppo- 
fite to the very nature and eilence of an Oath as falfhood : 
for the Perfon whofe name in an Oath is affumed, is the 
God of truth 5 the end for which an Oath it felf was or- 
dained, is the confirmation of truth ; and the perjurer by 
difhonouringthat and fruftrating this abufeth both often- 
times to the hurt and damage of his Neighbour, but ever 
unto the great prejudice of his Creator. And therefore the 
Egyptians (faith Diodorus Siculus,) did ever punifh the 
perjurer with death, whereof they efteemed him twice 
worthy, ut & qui pi et at em in deos violaret, & fidem 
inter homines t oiler et, maximum Societal is vinculum, 
as one that did both violate his piety to God, and his 
faith to men, the greateft bond of Society. 

But to omit thefe injurious effefts of a falfe Oath unto 
man as depriving him fometimes of his Credit, good name, 
and reputation,and fometimes even of his Goods and Life 
too 5 do but only fee and confider how impious it is a- 
gainft God, and how infinitely he fins that (hall call him, 
who is not only true, but truth it (elf, to teftify his falf- 
hoods, and (b, as far as in him is, make him a Lyar like 
himfclf} for as Ejiius fays, in lib. *.fent. difi. 39. 5, 6. 
§>ui fa I Jam jurat, quantum in ft eji Deum facit vcl men- 
da cem vel ignorant em, he that lwears falfly, as much as in 
him lies makes God either ignorant or a liar. Falfhood is 
ever vile and odious in it felf, but when it is fattened up- 
on God, when we teach our own Inventions (thofe fpu- 
nous brats and baftards of our own Brain,) to call him 
Father,it muft needs be deteftable. For wecloath him with 
the Attribute of the Devil who is properly a liar and the 
Father of lies, Job. viii. And therefore even we our (elves, 


22 A Difcowfe of Oath. 

though we be all liars, yet we cannot endure to hear it, 
and when we do, nothing can (Itisfie but his blood that 
tells us fo, though never fo truly 5 How then, may we 
think, and with what indignation will God receive it, 
when they are fo unjuftly pinned and ftuck upon him, 
who hates a lie more than we can love our (elves ? And 
with what feverity may we imagin he will revenge it > 
what reward wrll he give unto fuch a falfe Tongue, but 
(harp Arrows and hot burning Coles at the leaft, even 
thofe Arrows in Job , the Arrows of Gods wrath, the 
venom whereof drink up the fpirits of him in whom they 
ftick : and thofe Coles or rather Flames of St. jf ohn^ for 
all liars, faith ht^fiall have their fart in the lake that 
burneth with jjre and brimjlone^ Rev. xxi. 8. And if all 
Liars have a part, then how great a portion will be affigned 
to the Perjurers?for if God will not hold him guiltlefs that 
ufeth his holy Name but vainly, how (hall his guilt mul- 
tiply and his Sin become exceeding finful that doth abufe it 
falfly ? and if he will deftroy thofe that do but (peak out 
their lies (as it is in the v. Pfalm) ThonJIialt dejlroy thofe 
that fpeak^ Leafing^ how great (hall their deftruftion be 
that fear not to fwear them out and uphold them by the 
holinefi of his name ? Certainly (o great, as I think the 
depth and bottom of Hell doth not know any greater} 
for I aflure my felf that neither the Idolatrous Gentile, 
nor the unbelieving Atheift (hall lie lower in that Pit of 
everlafting horror than the contemptuous Perjurer 3 for 
the one doth wor(hip no God, the other a falfe God, but 
this makes a falfe witnefi of the true God : his Sin is Infi- 
delity, the others Idolatry, but this man's is not without 
blafphemy, which is worfethan either 3 for it may wor- 
thily be efteemed a lefs Crime to acknowledge any thing 
for God, yea or not to acknowledge any God at all, than 
to be contemptuous and injurious unto the God which 
we acknowledge. 


Vpn J e r. iv. verfi 2. 23 

And as their Sin is greater, fo (hall be their punifhment 
in that laft and fearful day when-God whom at their pleafure 
they have here made a falfe vvitnefs of their lies, fball then 
come to (hew himfelf a juft judge and fevere Revenger, 
that will vindicate his own truth} At what time, none of 
all our cunning Inventions, no counterfeit and new-na- 
med Oaths fo frequent in thefe times, nor no devices of 
former Ages , neither the fv.btlenefs of the Scribes and 
Pharifeesthat had forms of purpofeto forfwear by 5 no nor 
yet ( which exceeds the cunning of the Scribes and de- 
ceit of the Pharifees, though later,) the equivocation of 
a Prieft and mental reservation of a Jefuit (hall ever be 
able to excufe and free them 5 for as the formers Tongue 
doubles with an Oath , fo the laters mind doubles with his 
Tongue, when God requires Truth in both efpecially in 
the inward parts, {he that fpea^eth the truth from hts 
heart, faith David , vfilm xv. ) and therefore will cer- 
tainly take vengeance of both for their falfhood. Rightly 
then is Truth the firft property of a lawful Oath, but of 
an Oath Aflertory that doth deny fomething prefent or 
paft : but becaufe it is fo evident in it (elf, I leave it and 
come to the Oath that-is Obligatory,that doth promife to 
do or omit fomething to come, whofe material property- 
is Righteoufhefs. W hich though it be the third and laft as 
they are here fet down, yet the order of method requires 
that it Ihouldnot be laft handled, as being peculiar only 
unto an Obligatory Oath as the firft is to an Adertory, 
when the fecoi ■ J is common unto both, between which 
it lies, an^ therefore will be beft confidered after both. 

Firft therefore of Righteoufnefs,wherein I will be as brief 
as in the formcr,it being manifeft and clear in it felf as that 
was. For it is plain and evident to every mans eye, that 
Juftice or fvighreoufnefr is as proper to a Prom ; (e,as Truth 
to an Aflcrtion s and he that with an Oath doth vow todo 
evil, is as refolute a (inner, as he that in an Oath affirms a 


24 A Difcourfe of Oaths 

falftood 5 the one abufeth Gods truth for the ftablifhing 
of a lie, the other his holinefs to the a&ing of mifchief : 
and 'tis hard to fay whether is word, both being no lefi 
injurious to God than pernicious unto men. For he that 
fwears to do unjuftly, doth but call God to witnefs that 
he will injure his brother whom he hath commanded to 
love as himfelf,and fo in effeft he only fwears by God that 
he is refblved that he will difobey God $ an Oath moft 
impioudy made and yet is more impious to be afted, fince 
the more religioufly a man doth obferve it,the more irre- 
ligious he is : for that which begins with unrighteoufnefs 
and ends in villany, muft needs be ill made, but worfe if 
it be executed. And therefore we ought to be throughly 
perfwaded and allured of the lawfulneis, honefty, and 
goodnefs of that promife which we bind with an Oath, 
left we be enforced either to offend God and injure our 
Neighbour, or elfe to violate our Oath and forfwear our 
felves, which in this cafe is rather to be chofen, thebreach 
of fuch an Oath being ever a le(s fin, and fcarce any fin 
in comparifon of the obfervance 5 for though a promiC 
ibry Oath be obligatory, as they fay , yet it doth not 
always oblige and bind men unto the performance. 
There are three cafes wherein a man is evidently free, 
and in two of them, even when the thing promifed and 
fworn is juft and lawful. The firft is,when he to whom the 
Oath is made, remits the obligation 5 for though the one 
bind himfelf, yet the others releafe unties the bonds and 
fets him at liberty 5 from which tie the Oath though in it 
ielf obligatory ,doth yet through anotherscourtefy ceafeto 
oblige 5 neither is it then thought to be termed a falfe Oath 
if not performed, be the thing never fo juft, as neither a 
bare promife in this cafe* to be accounted falfe, fince either 
are to be underftood quatentts ab eo cui fit , acceptatur > 
according to his acceptance unto vvhom it is made,for with- 
out it the very ejfsntia , reafon of a promife did either 


ZJpon ] e r. iv. verfe 2. 25 

not fubfift, or elfe doth prefently expire. The fecond is, 
when the thing promifed , though lawful, be yet impo£ 
(ible, whether it were impoffible then when it was fworn, 
or elfe became (b afterwards 5 and the reafon is, {Quia ne- 
mo tenetnr ad impojjlbilia 3 becaufe as the vulgar Axiome 
hath it, No man can be bound unto impoffibtlities 5 But 
yet this cafe is not abfolute and without reftraint, for 
though he that fwears knew not of the impoffibility, yet 
if it be fuch as he fhould or might have known it, his 
Oath is not without Sin 5 but if he knew it to be impof- 
fible before, or elfe through his own default it became 
fo afterwards, it is then not only finful, but perjurious. 
As for example, If a man fhould fwear to pay a certain 
fum of Money at fuch a time, which notwithftanding 
either becaufe he ufed not his Induftry to procure it 5 or 
for that he riotoufly plaid or mifpent it, he cannot then 
poffibly do 5 the Impoffibility here will not free him 
from the guilt of Perjury, becaufe it was his own negleft 
that wilfully made it Co. The fame fault that made his 
performance impoflible, doth at the fame time make him- 
felf perjurious. The third and laft which was before 
mentioned is, when the thing that is fworn is unjuft and 
evil in it felf, or moft likely to be pernicious unto others } 
and the reafon why in this cafe we ftand not bound to per- 
formance is manifeft, (quia nihil eft quod hominem ob- 
ligare pojfit ad peccandum) becaufe there is nothing 
can oblige or bind a man to fin wilfully againft God. A 
worthy example of this we have in Davids who though 
he had rafhly fworn the deftru&ion of churlifh Nabal 
and all his family, yet afterwards being better advifed 
he refufed to perform his Oath, which he taw without 
great danger could not be performed, as bimfelf confef- 
feth, even bleffing God who withheld him from it. Bene- 
di&us Deus , Blejjed be the Lord that hath kspt his 
fervant from doing evil, 1 Sam, xxv. The contrary ex- 

E ample 

2 6 A' c J)ifcourfc of Oaths 

ample whcreunto, you may behold in Herod, who what 
he had rafhly fworn would needs more rafhly fulfil, choof- 
ing rather to deftroy a holy Prophet of God, than not 
to obferve his own inconfiderate Oath 5 In Vovendo jlitl- 
ty#, In Reddendo impu*, becoming, as foolilh in vow- 
ing, fo more impious in performing. Rightly therefore ifi- 
dore, In malk protnijfu refcinde fidem^ in evil promiics 
rather break faith than violate honefty. Which is the 
opinion alfo of St. Aufiin and St. Amhrofe^ reverend Bede 
and many more of the Fathers, yea and fome Councils, 
which for brevity fake in fo clear a cafe, may well be omit- 
ted. And thefe three ways it is true that the obligation 
of a promiflory Oath is naturally diffoved, which other- 
wife in all other cafes, when the thing fworn is juft and 
good in it felf, and poffible unto him that fwears it, and 
accepted and required by him to whom it is fworn,though 
it be unto his own damage, and then too though won 
from him by fraud or enforced by violence, it is notwith- 
ftanding religioufly and inevitably to be obferved. The 
example unto this purpofe of Jojfjua and the Gibeoniter, 
is moft remarkable 5 for though JoJ/jua had a Commiffion 
from the Lord to root out and deftroy all the Nations that 
bordered upon the Land of Canaan^ and to give their 
Cities and poffeffions unto the Children of ifrael^ yet ha- 
vingfworn a League with the Gibeonites a neighbour Na- 
tion, who counterfeiting themfelves a ftrange People that 
came from far, deceived him, and by this fubtilty obtained 
Peace, he feared for all that ever to violate the Oath 
which himfelf and the Princes of the Congregation had 
made with them. And though all the people murmured 
at the League, for the Gibeonites had fair Cities, yet he 
never fought unto the high Prieft for Abfolution or Dif- 
penfation, thofe high Myfteries of Iniquity were not then 
known 5 neither yet did he plead that Treacherous Axi- 
om> That Faith is not to be kept with Hereticks and 


Vfon J e r. iv. uerfe 2. 27 

Infidels, which were by the Council of Conflance againft 
all Faith both Humane and Divine (hamcfully decided, 
and with the blood of Innocents more barbaroufly con- 
firmed. Such fubtilties were too acute for the dull fim- 
plicity and honefty of thofe better times ; But without 
all fhifts and devices both himfelf and all the Princes that 
had taken the Oath,refolutely anfwer the mutinous Con- 
gregation, We have fie or n unto them by the Lord God of 
Ifrael^norv therefore we may not touch them, Joflj. ix. 19. 
And that you may perceive how precious in Gods fight fuch 
facred Atteftations be that are made in his holy Name, do 
but confider with what feverity and bitter revenge the 
Lord perfecuted the breach, though long time after in 
the days of Saul, even of this very Oath, which though 
it was at the firft obtained by the Gibeonites with fraud 
and impofture,and confirmed by Jofiua befides,if not con- 
trary to, his Commiffion,and that without ever confulting 
the Lord, ( as the Text doth efpecially mention ) and at 
length violated by Saul not without a good and zealous 
intent, for Saul fought to flay them ( faith the ftory ) in 
his zeal unto the houfe of ifrae I and Judah ; yet for all that 
becaufe the thing was not unjuft in it felf, fo highly did the 
breach difplcafe and offend the Lord, that for this very 
caufe, even after the death of Saul in the days of David, 
he fent three years famine upon the whole Land, for 
which no attoncment might be made until this fin were 
particularly revenged , and feven of Sauls Sons hung up 
before the Lord in Gibeon, and then the famine ceafed, as 
you may read 2. of «?<*/». xxi. In which Chapter there isone 
thing more obfervable unto this purpofe, for it leaves us 
a double example, recording at once unto poftcrity, as 
Sauls impious breach of this Oath with the Gibeonites, fo 
Davids religious obfervance of his Oath with Jonathan ; 
for when he delivered up the poftcrity of Saul unto the 
revenge of the Gibeonites, he fparcd Afcphibofieth the 

E 2 Grand- 

28 A Difcomfe of Oaths 

Grandchild ofsaul and Son of Jonathan, beca afe (faith 
the Text) of the Lords Oath that was between them 
between David and Jonathan the Son of Saul, v. 7. of 
the fame Chapter, for Jonathan and David had fworn, 
as youknow,a league of friendfhip,and though Jonathan 
were dead and gone, yet faithful David (far unlike the 
falfenefs of this world) remembers it in his pofterity, and 
fails not to (hew that love and kindnefs to the Son which 
he had formerly vowed and fworn unto the Father. And 
whence it is alfo more remarkable that this Oath is not 
termed Davids Oath or Jonathans Oath, but the Lords 
Oath, the Lords Oath that was between David and Jo- 
nathan, to (hew and (ignify that the Lord is interefted in 
the performance of an Oath wherein his name isaflumed, 
and that his truth is difhonouredin the breach, unlefs the 
falfhood be revenged by his juftice, w hereof he will ne- 
ver fail, either here or hereafter 5 fometimes (yea and of- 
ten)here,but ever and for ever hereafter 5 And therefore 
either make no Oaths, or elfe perform the Oaths which 
you make 3 either make them in Righteoufnefs, or make 
them not at all : and being righteouQy made,be fure they 
be not unrighteoufly broken, for there is, as righteoufnefs 
in the making, fo alfo a righteoufnefs in the obfervance, 
and if either be wanting, God will not fail to (hew his 
righteoufnefs in the avenging of both. And fo I leave 
Righteoufnefs and come to Judgment, Jurabis in Ju- 
dicio, Thou (halt fwear as in truth and righteoufnefs, fo 
alfo in judgment. 

For though we may fometimes affirm a truth, and 
lornttimes confirm a lawful and juft prornife with an 
Oath, yet notwithftanding we may not fwear promifcu- 
oufly every Truth, nor yet bind every fuch prornife with 
tiie atteftation cf God whofe name is holy, and in ordi- 
nary and trivial cecafions cannot be ufed without profa- 
narioiu And therefore befides Truth and Righteoufnefs 


ZJfon J e r. iv. verfe 2. 29 

in the thing fworn, there is required alfo judgement and 
difcretion in the fwearer, that he may difcern between 
cafes and caufes of moment,and not unadvifedly temerate 
this facred name, when neither the weight of the bufi- 
nefs nor our brothers weaknefs doth make it neceiiary 5 
for as St. An ft in hath it, lib. 1. de Scrm. Dom. £>ui in- 
teliigit non in bonis? fed necejfariis jurationem ejje 
habendum? refr£net fe quantum pot eft, ne ea utaturni- 
ft nccejfitate. He that knows that an Oath is not food 
but phyfick, not to be defired for it felf but to be ufed 
for anothers neceffity, let him refrain from fwearing till 
that neceffity doth require it, and when that is, the next 
immediate words will (hew us, cum videt pigros ejfe ho- 
mines ad crcdendum quod its utile eft credere, niji ju- 
rat i one fir met ur, when he fees men otherwife unwilling 
to believe what he knows is behoofeful for them to be- 
lieve : But Mr. Calvin who doth alfo allow of a neceiiary 
Oath, left we (hould enlarge the cafes of this neceffity 
at our own pleafure, gives a fuller rule to prevent it, Non 
alia pr£tendi poteft necejfitas quam ubi vel religioni 
velcharitati ei? ferviendum } We may never pretend ne- 
ceffity (faith he) but when we may do fome good fer- 
vice to Religion or Charity, that is, to God or our 
Neighbour : So that as the two former properties do re- 
ftrain us from untrue and unrighteous, (o this latter from 
unneceflary fwearing : They forbid us that we fwear not 
falfly and unjuftly , and this that we fwear notrafhly and 
vainly, the one thing fpecially intended. And when the e- 
grcgious licentioufnefs ofthefe times doth require a princi- 
pal labour in reproof, as being a fin that like a deluge 
hath overrun the whole World, and covered the face 
of the whole Earth as a flood, which is fo much the more 
intolerable (faith Calvin) quod ajjuetudine ipfa pro de- 
licto imputari defiit, That the frequent ufe and cuftom 
hath taken away 'the fenfc and apprehenfion of the fin , 


30 A Difcowfe of Oaths 

and though there be little hope in this cafe of redrefs, for 
(as Seneca fays well) dejinet ejfe remedio locus, nbi qua 
fucrunt vitia mores funt, there is no place left for re- 
medy when thofe things which were made to be vices, are 
now become fafhions and manners 3 yet not defpairing 
of Gods goodnefs and mercy unto any, both for our own 
fakes and yours, we are at leaft to (hew you the peril 
and danger of fo great a fin , and leave the fuccefs unto 

And fure there were danger enough in it, though it 
were no fin, and did we never tranfgrefs fo long as we 
fwear frequently, for as St. Aufiin hath it, life runs in- 
to facility, into cuftom, and from the cuftom of fwear- 
ing weeafily fall into the deteftable fin of Per jury and 
forfwearing. And indeed it is almoft impoflible that he 
which (wears daily and hourly and almoft perpetually, 
fhould not fometimes fwear deceitfully and falfly. Nei- 
ther do I think there is any, if he impartially examine 
and obferve himfelf, that doth familiarly ufe the one, but 
he will find that he hath often and eafily dipt into the o- 
ther 3 for the Confcience that dares to play with the (a- 
cred name of God and continually to ufe it with irre- 
verence and contempt, it is likely will not ftick now 
and then to abufeitby perjury. And therefore the Coun- 
sel of the fame Father is good, Epifi. 8-\ ad Hit. 2. Ab- 
ftain from fwearing as much as is poftible, melius quippe 
nee verum jurat ur, quam jurandi confuetudine in per- 
jurium fiepe caditur & femper perjurio propinquatur, 
For it were better not to fwear any truth than that by a 
cuftom of fwearing we fhould often forfwear our felves, 
and ever endanger it. Excellently therefore to the fame 
purpofe he concludesin another place, Falfa juratio exz- 
tioja eji: Vera juratio periculofa : at nulla juratio 
fecura , Falfe fwearing is damnable and exitious : true 
fwearing is dangerous: but no fwearing is fecure 5 which 


Vpn J e r. iv. verfe 2 . 5 

is the rcafon that under the name of fwearing is included 
oftentimes perjury and forfvvearing 5 the Scripture for 
this caufe knitting and linking them both together as in 
the fin, foin the punifhment : Since no Man can be fub- 
jed unto that but he will be found alfo often guilty of 
this. And therefore there were danger enough (as I 
faid) in this unadvifed cuftom, if it were no fin : but how 
much more then when it doth not only lead and conduce 
unto fin and the greateft almoft of fins, but alfo is little 
lefs finful in fell, I am fure is more exprefly forbidden in 
the Commandment, which (ays not, Thonfialt not [wear 
fal/ly, though that be included, but thou fhalt not take 
the name of the Lord thy God in vain^ that is, lightly 
and idly : and David gives the reafon, for faith he, holy 
and reverend is his name. Now that which is holy, if 
it be brought into common ufe, it is prophaned \ And 
that which is reverend, if it be irrefpedtfully handled, is 
contemned. So that it is not only a bare fin but a three- 
fold, a trebble fin and terrible, compounded of irreve- 
rence, profanation, and prefumptuous contempt ^ The 
leaft whereof were enough to plunge a rebellious Soul in 
the depth of eternal forrow, whereof he is now thrice 
worthy as being guilty of all three. For what indignity 
muft it needs be unto the Divine Majefty, and how un- 
fufferable, with idle and empty, fupervacuous and un- 
neceflary Oaths every moment, and in caufes of no mo° 
ment, irreligioudy and contemptuoudy to tofsand ban- 
dy, if not tear in pieces that facred name, which fhould 
never be thought on but with trembling, nor ever be 
uttered without religious adoration ? That Name vene- 
rable above all names, fo excellent and admirable in all 
the world, how excellent is thy natne in all the world 
(faith David^by way of queftion, and none can anfwer 
it $ That Name which the Jews thought fo facred, 'as 
they never durft utter it, nor was lawful for any bn'c 

the •- 

52 A 'Difcourfe of Oaths 

the high Prieft ever to carry it about him , Exod. xxviii. 
fo much as written, who was commanded to wear it on 
his forehead in a leaf of Gold,the very fight whereof made 
the greateft Monarch of the World, (even proud Alex an- 
der) that would needs be a God himfelf,yet to ftoop and do 
his reverence : Laftly,that Name which the very Devils in 
Hell and fpirits of darknefs cannot hear without horror 3 
no nor Powers and Principalities, Cherubin and Sera- 
phin,the bleffed Angels of God ever mention without glory 
and great worfhip ? What difhonour muft it needs re- 
ceive to be at length thus (hamefully contemned by 
duft and aflies : thus hourly and idly to be belched out 
from the foul mouth of a finful man without all efteem 
or refpeft, yea or fo much as ever thinking of it? Rather 
confider thofe glorifyed Spirits and tremble 3 I faw God, 
laith the Prophet 1 fat ah Chap. vi. fitting on his Throne, 
high and exalted,and the Cherubins and Seraphins Hand- 
ing round about it, crying and calling unto one another, 
and faying, Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabbath, 
Heaven and Earth are full of thy Glory. Behold, faith 
Chryfoftom, with what fear and horror, with what re- 
doubling of praife and glory they make mention of his 
holy name J may fay thrice holy,that is mod facred, Name! 
And (hall the Sons of men prefume contemptuoufly to 
violate that which the Angels themfelves when they men- 
tion, do with Reverence adore ? Why, it we fay (faith 
the fame Father ) of one of our felves, if of extraordi- 
nary vertue and worth, Os lava, wafh or wipe your 
mouth before you name him 5 And if a fervant will not 
mention his Lord, nor a fiibjeft his Prince without Titles 
of Refpedt and Honour, with what fear and reverence . 
fhould the name of the Lord of Lords and King of Kings, 
the God both of men and Angels be warily pronounced ? 
Our mouths here had more need of fire than water, not 
to be wafhed, but with J fat as Cole from the Altar in- 

Vpn J e r. iv. verfe 

fhall they ever be held guiltlefs, but receive a juft reward 
and recompence in both. Concerning this later what and 
how grievous it is, you may read in the 23. oiEcclef. 
before cited 3 It is briefly thus, and I befeech you mark 
it, Vir multumjurans, a man that ufethmuch fwearing, 
flail be filled with iniquity, and a plague or curfe fljall 
never depart from his houfe. How terrible and dread- 
ful is this ! himfelf fhall be filled with iniquity, and the 
curfe of God (hall be upon his houfe, nay which is worfe, 
flail never depart from his houfe 5 his Spirit will forfakc 
the one, that being given up unto a reprobate fenfe, he 
may fill up the meafure of his fins, and fat hirolelf againft 
the day of (laughter, he flail be filled with iniquity ••> 
and his bleffing will leave the other unto the wafte and 
fpoil of a confuming raaledi&ion, until mine eat it up 
and wholly root it out, the curfe fljall never depart from 
his houfe. Gods judgments for other fins are great, yet 
they feem to extend themfelves but to the third or fourth 
Generation at the fartheft \ how deadly then is this ini- 
quity ,and how heavy the revenge,that ftaies not there.but 
runs through all Generations ? (hall never depart from the 
houfe,untilthe houfe it felf depart,and be no more ? A bit- 
ter curie indeed,that wafts and fpoils wherefoever it comes, 
but utterly ruines the Houfe where it remains, nay leaves 
not fo much as any ruines to remain, neither Stone nor 
Timber, for it eats up both, as you may read in the Pro- 
phet Zechariah, where you (hall find the curfe written 
in a Role, a large curfe as it (hould feem, for the Role 
hath room enough for more curies than ever the Spirit of 
God hath regiftred 3 for it was twenty Cubits long and 
ten Cubits broad, a great and flying Role, which when 
that Prophet beheld in a Vifion,the Angel which gave the 
interpretation, laid, This is the curfe, that goeth forth 
over the face of the whole earth : according unto which 
the fwearer JJjall be cut off\ for it flail enter into his 

G houfe, 

42 A Difcourfe of Oaths 

houfe, and remain in the midfi of hk houfe and foall 
confume it^ with the timber thereof and the ftonet 
thereof, Zech. 5. 4. A ftrange remaining wherein no- 
thing not fo much as Timber and Stone (hall remain, and 
a heavy maledi&ion when a Man (hall be emptied of all 
his goods, and filled only with his own Sins, He Jhall he 
filled with iniquity ! How many deaths and deftru&i- 
ons do attend and inviron this accurfed Sin ! the death of 
his eftate and fubftance which (hall be confumed, the 
death of Sin, or rather of Grace through Sin ! where- 
with he (hall be filled 5 and the everlafting death of Bo- 
dy and Soul in a lake of burning brimftone wherein he 
(hall- be perpetually tormented : So true is that of Syra- 
cides before mentioned, but never enough repeated, it 
is a wordcloathed about with death: and we can never 
enough repeat his prayer, God grant it be not found in 
the heritage of Jacob. 

Confider thefe things now, and then fay It is a Cuftom 
and I cannot leave it 5 (hall it excufe the Malefadtor, if 
he (ay to the Judge, I take no pleafure in Theft, only my 
fingers have been inured to it from my youth, and I can- 
not now forfake the habit? and yet the Thief (who not- 
withftanding hath his Curfe written alfo in the other fide 
of Zecharies flying Role) may be the better excufed of 
the two, for though he take no pleafure, yet there may 
be profit in the fin s But the Cuftom whether without or 
upon pretence (hall never excufe either, till both forfake 
the Cuftom. It is this only through which we (hall be. 
held guiklefs, and by which alone we may remove this 
Gurfe of God both from our feives and our houfes. 
And why can it not be done ? what fhould hinder that 
we may not forfake it ? where lies the labour or wherein 
doth the difficulty confift that it fhould be fo invincible > 
Why, what faith Chryfojlom ("Homil. 17. on Mat. ) Nnn- 
qaicl vecuniamm opw ejl jmpenfa £ Nnnqnid arumnis 


ZJpon J e r- iv. verfe ?. 43 

& [adore perficitur ? is it a bufinefs that requires the ex- 
pence of any great fums of our money, or elfe of our 
fpirits in fweat and painful labour to atchieve it? Tan- 
turn mo do Velle fafficit, & totum quodjubetnr imple- 
turn eft : No fuch thing ! only will, that is, bend thy 
mind and thy will to it, and the thing required is pre- 
fently fulfilled 5 As ufe hath bred a cuftom, fo difufe muft 
deftroy it, and a contrary ufe beget a contrary Cuftom , 
And fure the Will of man cannot think of a Cuftom fo 
eafy to be difufed as this 5 all others are deeply rooted in 
natural Affe&ions, and therefore hard to be plucked up 5 
but this hath no hold in Nature, not one Appetite in the 
infirmity of man, that gapes and waters after it, it can 
neither quench the Thirft, nor kill the Hunger of any 
defire whereunto our Corruption is fubje& $ but is only 
an external, a naked and a bare Cuftom which only u(e 
hath begotten, and doth ftill nourilh, and difufe with- 
out any great difficulty can again ftarve and ftrangle, 
Tantnntmodo velle fufficit^ only fet thy will to it 5 and the 
bufinefs is ended 5 for as St. Auftin hath it, lib. 8. Confef. 
In the ways of God, Ire & pervenire , is nothing, but 
Velle ire^ to walk is only to will, and whofoever wilk, 
cannot but walk, but then it muft be velle fortiter & 
integre, no cold and faint defire, but a ftrong,a total and 
a refolute will. The fluggard may be willing to rife,and 
yet for all that lie ftill in his warm Bed 5 but it is not a 
Will that he hath but only a Velleity or willingnefs, for 
when he will, he rifeth, yea when he wills he cannot 
poffibly choofe but rife, for the body doth naturally 
obey the mind fo eafily and readily, ut vix h fervitio 
difcernatur imperiutn, that the wit of man (faith St. An- 
ftin,) can hardly difcern between the command of the 
one and the execution of the other ;, And therefore to 
will is to do, and he that doth not do, did never will 5 
he that doth not do what is polfible for him to do, did 

G 2 never 

44 A Difcomfe of Oaths 

never will, fince if he will fuch things, it is impo£ 
fible for him not to do So that rightly in this Velle fuf- 
ficit, there is nothing required but thy Will, yet thy full 
and total WilL,not a faint and lazy Velleity, but a refolved 
Will, that is ever accompanied with watchful and dili- 
gent endeavour,which the Tongue of all other doth cfpe- 
cially require of us, (as the fame Father elfewhere fpeaks) 
Lingua facilitate??* habit motur, in udo pofit a e/?,. facile 
labitur in lubrice, The Tongue hath a great facility in 
motion, and isfeated in a moift and (lippery place, where 
it is eafy to Aide of it felf, but much more through 
Cuftorn 5 And therefore quanto ilia citius tnovetur, 
tanto tu adverfw illam fixus efio, The more movable the 
Tongue is, the more immovable and fixtmuft be thy re- 
folution and Care 5 and the longer the Cuftom D the great- 
er thine intention to break it. For vigilance will con- 
quer it, and the fear of God will beget vigilance, and 
the meditation that thou art a Chriftian, that muft render 
an account of all at the lad day , is able to inftil the 
fear of God into thy heart , faith the fame St. Auftin^ 
who doth alfo incourage us not only by his exhortation, 
but even by his own example, who feems to have been as 
deeply engaged in this evil habit as another y but how freed 
he himfelf? Timendo Deum Jurat ionem abftulintus de ore 
mjlro-y The fear of God ( faith he ) ftripped it from my 
Tongue, LuBatm fum^ &c. For I wreftled with the 
evil ufe and wreftling I called upon God, and Gods a£ 
fiftance delivered me from the Cuftom : And now, nihil 
mihi facilim qnam nonjurare 9 there is nothing fo eafy 
to me as not to fwear. . 

Beloved, let us imitate the holy Father and we (hall alfo 
as eafily vanquirti, he hath beaten out a ftraight and plain 
path to viftory, and we need only to tread in his fteps 5 
And therefore with him, Let us caft up our eyes upon 
thatiacred and dreadful Majefty which we offend, and 


Vfon J e r. iv. verfe 2. 43 

then fear, and fearing wrcftle, and wreftling call, and cal- 
ling, we fhall certainly receive affiftance , undoubtedly 
to conquer yea and to infuh over it conquered, with a 
Nihil mihi facility, nothing is now fo eafy unto me as 
not to (wear. And fure the fear of God is ever the ber 
ginning of Wifdom, especially here, where the fin is the 
direct oppofue to it, as being a prelumptuous irreverence 
in the very face and againft the very honour of the Al- 
mighty, which cannot poffibly confift with his fear, which 
is the fureft bank and bulwork againft all ungodlinef^ 
And therefore, when that like a Flood-hatch is plucked 
up and caft a(ide, no marvel if difhonour be prefently 
poured forth upon God, and men become filled and over- 
flown with Iniquity: And as little marvel that the Lord 
for both refpefts, as well for our benefit and good as 
for the fear and revorence of his own Name,injoineth this 
as the very firft thing we fhould beg of him in our 
prayers, San&ificetur Nomen tuum , hallowed be thy 
Name : and as the firft thing inhibited with a fpecial 
note of revenge ( for he will not hold him guilt lefs that 
taketh his Name in vain\) and as a prime inftruftion of 
the firft Sermon that ever he preached, I fay unto you 
fwear not at all. That which he was fo careful as to 
make the Inftruftion of his firft Sermon, the firft petition 
in his prayer, and the firft revenge m the Decalogue, can- 
not be thought a matter of light importance : but muft 
needs argue it a fin no lefs odious unto himfelf than per- 
nicious unto man 5 for which rcafon , St. James fecms 
worthily toinlarge our Saviour's inftruftion, [wear not at 
all, with an Ante omnia, above all things, my brethren^ 
fwear not at all. To whofe exhortation, we may all 
yet well add another, Ante omnia^ of Prayer above all 
things. O Lord plant thy fear in our hearts that we fwear 
not at all 5 ff the awful fear of thy Maiefty may rot 
deter us , at leaft let the dreadful feas of thy Judgments 


46 A Difcourfe of Oaths, &c. 

terrify us from this prefumptuous fin, that it get not the 
dominion over us: So (hall we be innocent from the 
great offence , and freed from the great maledi&ion, 
Thy curfe upon our felves, and houfes whileft we live, 
and deftruftion of Body and Soul in everlafting forrow 
when we die. Which the Lord of his infinite mercy 
avert 5 and inftead thereof grant unto us, lb to Reve- 
rence his holy Name now, as we may be admitted with 
Saints and Angels everlaftingly to magnify and adore it, 
in thy Eternal Kingdom hereafter. Whereunto God of 
the feme infinite Goodnefs, &c. Amen. 






Upon Eccles. xii. 13. 

Let as hear the Conclufion of the lohole matter : Fear 
Cjod, and keep his Commandments. For this is the 
whole Duty of Man. For Qod y &cc. 

THIS whole Book is nothing elfe, but a Search 
and Enquiry of King Solomon into that grand 
and famous Queftion de Summo Bono^ what 
may be the chief Wifdom and happinefs of Man 
m this Mortality. And this Verfe with that other which 
follows, as they clofe up the Rook, fo they contain the 
Conclufion of the point, a full difcovery and refolutioti 
of that which in the former Chapters was but fearched af- 
ter and enquired into: w hereunto his anfwer is (hort and 
plain, but thus, Far God and l@ep his Commandments, 
This only the whole matter of his Conclufion 5 and 

48 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

that we may take it for full fatisfa&ion to the Queftion, 
he affures us, that it is the Conclufion too of the whole 
matter, Let m hear, &c. 

A Conclufion then we may be bold to term it, for fo 
it is, and fo k terms it felf: A Conclufion that hath two 
parts: Fear God 9 and keep his Commandments, And 
both backt with two Reafons, (He will not beg the 
Conclufion, but prove it) For this is the duty, the 
whole duty^ not of the Prieft or fome of the People, but 
univerfally of Man. Every Mans Duty, and the whole 
Duty of every Man: That is the firft Reafon. There is 
a fecond in the next Verfe, and I may mention it, though 
at this time not meddle with it, drawn from the day 
of Gods Retribution: For there is a day approaching 
wherein he will make a fevere enquiry into this Duty, 
cenfure the Breakers Terribly, and honour the Obfer- 
vers Eternally. For God will bring every worh^into Judg- 
ment, &c. 

So that you fee he doth not beg the Conclufion, if he 
beg any thing, it is Audience and Attention, which 
indeed he doth in a Solemn Preface for the purpofe, 
Let us hear, &c. 

And this too he feeks to win with reafons of weight, 
as well as beg: For it is a Conclufion, and that no trivial, 
no narrow one neither, but material and univerfally 
material, worth the hearing. 

Thefe down-right points grate fomething clofe upon 
the Soul 5 and men it feems do not much delight in the 
hearing of them, and therefore he is driven to Pray and 
Preface for Audience, before he delivers them, and to 
back them ftrongly too, when they are delivered, for 
Acceptance: That fo his diftafteful Conclufion lying be- 
tween both, between the Preface and Proof, might be 
fortifyed behind and before, in the Van and in the Reare, 
be led in and carry ed out with Reafons and Argu- 

ZJpon J e r. iv. Z'erfe 2. 55 

flamed with a religious zeal, when we dare to mention 
it. Judge therefore in your (elves how great is his Sin 
that can afTume boldnefs not only with unhallowed and 
polluted lips to mention, but even with idle, nay rheto- 
rical and wanton Oaths, fearfully to prophane and lacerate 
that Name which fome mens Reverence never durft utter, 
and no Angels without terms of praife and glory will ever 
pronounce ? Now if our light , trival and cuftomary 
Oaths are fo derogatory unto the honour of God, what 
then may we think of intemperate, paffionate and cho- 
lerick Oaths, the Oaths of Gamefters and others wed- 
ded unto other fports, who if a Die or Dog run not 
to their liking, or a Kite fly where they would not 
have him, fall inftantly into fuch a fit of hideous Oaths, 
as if with Jobs Wife they were refolved prefently to 
curfe God and die : If the former were profanations, 
thefe fure are direft blafphemies, when men enraged with 
their trifling misfortunes pour forth floods of direful 
Oaths, as the defire to wreak their anger upon that God 
whofe providence they know doth guide them, and be- 
caufe they cannot reach unto his Eflence, they will at 
leaft this way avenge themfelves on his Name. For you 
(hall fee fuch Tear-Gods fometimes fwear a whole Ca- 
talogue of Oaths over and over, (till fv^ear them and 
(till (ay nothing elfe,as having no other end in their fvvear- 
ing but to fwear, for they fwear not to affirm a truth or 
confirm a promife, yet they fwear and to no other purpofe 
but to offend God by fwearing.Their Tongue,as the Pfal- 
mifi fpeaks, walketh through the Earth, and they fit their 
mouth again ji heaven, and yet as if neither Heaven nor 
Earth could afford thtm Oaths enow to fwear by, they 
fet their invention on work for (trange, uncouth and un- 
heard of blafphemies, which not without rancor of mind 
they dart at God himfelf, and (pit with more than Epi- 
curean Liberty in the very face oi the Almighty. The 

F Tongue^ 

54 A tDifcourfe of Oaths 

Tongue, faith St. James, is hut a little member, yet it 
hath in it a world of wick^dnefs^ it fets the world on 

fire, and its felf is fet on fire of Hell Which though it 
were fpoken of the malicious and (landerous Tongue, yet 
it may be no lefs true alfo of the blafphemous, for this, 
if any, is certainly fet on fire of Hell, and flames with a fin 
hot enough, and likely enough to fet fire on the whole 
world in the laft day, when for that world of wickedneft 
it (hall find a world of forrow and torment 5 and as it 
was fired from Hell before, fo it (hall now be fired in Hell, 
where ( like Mofes bulh ) it (hall ever burn and never 
be confumed 5 for this later fire , none (hall ever efcape, 
but fuch as with a River of penitent Tears do quench 
the former before they come there. But omitting fuch 
high and horrid blafphemies, the hellifh impiety whereof 
every one muft needs perceive, and none that have any 
goodnefi remaining can choofe but abhor : 

We will a little infill: only on thofe lefler Prophanati- 
ons in the vain and frequent Oaths of common fpeech, 
which though men can be content to account a fin, yet 
they would willingly efteem it fuch as may eafily be ex- 
cufed. It is only a Cuftom that is grown upon me, I like 
it not, but I cannot leave it 3 the plea of the world as 
common as the fwearing, and if it might (land for an 
excufe, it wefe eafily excufed indeed : But confider it 
well and you will find it fuch an excufe as only feems to 
make the fin more inexcufable : fince that very reafon 
which they give to leffen the Crime, is the principal thing 
that augments the offence : for fin never becomes a- 
bove meafure (inful, until it grow into Cuftom, that 
heaps it up infinitely and fo makes it immenfurable, un- 
til it rule and reign in our mortal bodies, which alone 
can ftile us, not only finful but the (laves and vaffals of 
fin, and then we are (inners indeed. There is no man, 
not the beft of us without fin 3 yet all are not finners 5 it 


ZJpon J e r. iv. verfe i. 35 

is not the falling into fin, but the habit and ferving of fin 
that gives the denomination : A man may fin and be the 
fervant of God, for what fervant of Gods doth not fome- 
times fin ? but to ferve fin and be the fervant of God, is 
impoffible $ And therefore of all things elfe, the habit 
andcuftome of fin, efpecially mortal and prefumptuous 
fin, is moft dangerous, as being incompatible with the 
ftate of Grace and reconciliation with God, who never 
gives remiffion of the fin, unlefs we abhor and utterly 
renounce the cuftom \ for which caufe the Swearer (and 
no man hath the name of a fwearer but from the habit of 
fwearing) is fet down in the fame Catalogue with the A- 
dulterer, the Drunkard and other heinous finners, which 
St. Paul tells us Jfjall never enter into the kingdom of 
God. And therefore let no man flatter himfelf and de- 
ceive his own Soul$ it is a cuftom that we muft leave one 
time or other, or God will eternally leave us. The 
which that we may be the better induced to do, I befeech 
you, do but confider befides the greatnefs of: the fin al- 
ready (hewn, to how little or rather no purpofe it is 
committed, and with what feverity it will be punifhed 
both here and hereafter 5 for fo highly to offend God. 
and no way in the world to pleafure our felves, is the 
utmoft of folly, and treads on the very heels of madnefc. 
Why, he that burns in Hell for his Miftris had once yet 
fome delight for that torment he fhall ever fuffer 5 All 
other fins have their ftrong provocations in our corrupt 
nature whereunto they give lome content: but this idleand 
wanton fin is without all inftigation of the depraved 
flefh, and can give fatisfadion to no one appetite of our 
frail condition, unlefs death and everlafting forrow dwell 
in our defires. And as it can give no pleafure and do 
light, bccaufe it hath no affeftion in nature to fulfil and 
content : fo neither (that you may perceive it to be ut- 
terly vain) can it plead any other benefit, there being 

F 2 no 

3 6 A Difcourfe of Oaths 

no juft pretence or reafon or end for it, why it is ufed. 
And if neither pleafure nor profit be in it, the malice of 
the Devil is in it, if to gain nothing here we will run 
headlong into eternal deftruftion hereafter. If there be 
any end of it in the world or benefit that we may reap 
by it, it can be no other than the gaining of credit to our 
fpeech, and to be believed of others when we fpeak, 
which is indeed the true and proper end of an Oath, 
but an end which the trivial and cuftomary fwearer of 
Oaths in reafon cannot expeft, and if he deal with ra- 
tional and wife men, (hall never obtain , though they 
urge it often and think it their beft plea to ftop the 
mouth of reproof for this fin, Why, they would not be- 
lieve me ? whereby notwithftanding inftead of excufing 
they do but condemn themfelves, and yet gain not their 
purpofe with others. For firft,if they mark it, what doth 
it argue but that they do not ufually fpeak truth, that 
cannot be believed without an Oath? §>ui jurat ^fnJpe&Ht 
eft de perfidia^ The very ufe of fwearing is a manifeft 
fign that he is fufpe&ed of perfidy, faith Vhilo. And there* 
fore rightly St. Bafil^ Turpe & omnino ftultum &c. he 
doth no lefs bafely than foolifhly accufe himfelf as un- 
worthy of credit and belief,that perpetually flies unto the 
fafeguard and fanftuary of an Oath 5 for which caufe the 
Ejfeni^ faith Jo[ephu* 9 did avoid and abhor fwearing no 
lefs than perjury, as conceiving that he was before-hand 
condemned for lying, that could not be credited with- 
out fwearing. And as they condemn themfelves, fb they 
obtain by this cuftom as little credit from others. For 
that which doth breed a fufpicion in their perfons, can- 
not well beget an aflurance of their Oaths. And indeed 
what truft or confidence may be repofed in an ufual and 
ordinary fwearer? whom the very cuftom of fwearing 
doth condemn of perfidy, how can he choofe but be fuf- 
pedted of perjury ? fince. he that cares not how often he 


ZJfon J e r. iv. verfe 2 . 37 

fwears, it is likely will fometimes care as little what he 
fwears: So that as the word of a faithful and honeft Man 
is as good as his Oath 5 fo the Oath of a falfe and perfidi- 
ous Man is no better than his word: And therefore he 
only gains thus much by (wearing that the more often 
he fwears the lefs he is to be believed, fince the beft way 
of gaining credit is to accuftom our felvcs not to fwear- 
ing,but not to fwears for he that lives juftly and upright- 
ly and fpeaks the truth calmly, (hall be believed upon his 
word, when the other's Oaths (hall not that fwears fre- 
quently, though he fwear never (b earneftly. I have of- 
ten heard it pleaded, with chryfojlome, how. 26. Unlefs ' 
I fwear he will not believe 5 true, nor when thou fvvear- 
eft neither: but thou, faith he, art the caufe of this un- 
belief that doft fo lightly and ealily fwear 5 for if thou 
didft not fo, and it were manifeftly known that thou 
wert no fwearer, believe me that only fay it, ghtod iis 
qui mille devorant juranfenta, ma'] or em ipfc fidem folo 
Tjutu invcnires. Thy only beck and nod thouldfind more 
efteem and credit than a thoufand Oaths poured forth 
by another. And in like manner, I have beheld, iaith 
Philo the learned Jew, the impiety of feme with fuch in- 
tolerable impudence heaping and hudling up the religious 
names of God not to be heard without horror, as if they 
thought by the number and multitude of their impious 
Oaths to evince and even extort belief from the hearer : 
Fjtui quinon intcUigunt confrntudtnemcrebrojurandi 
argumtntum ejfe pzrfidi<£ non fidei. \ oo!s, faith he, that 
do notunderftand that the cuftc~iof often (wearing is 
an argument not of fidelity b\ pertidioufnefs. And 
therefore though they fwear ur I they burft, they [hall 
never the (ooner gain any credit 5 only this they gain, 
that by their often (wearing the) have bereaved tbetn- 
felves of all means of gaining belief, firm and allured be- 
lief, even when they (wear the truth; for it is notmultw 


5 8 A Difcourfe of Oaths 

tudeS and millions of Oaths, but the truth and fincerity of 
a mans behaviour that (hall win him reputation and cre- 
dit. Non juramentum fed vit£ tefiimoninm^ It is not 
our Oaths (faith Chryfofiome HomiL 7.) but the teftimo- 
ny of our lives that can give affurance to our words. 
And therefore excellently (St. Aujiin de Serm. Dom.64..) 
Chrifiianus verum loquatur^neq^ jurationibus crebris 
fed tnorum probitate commendet veritatem , Let a 
Chriftian only fpeak the truth, and let not his Oaths 
but the probity of his manners commend or confirm the 
truth of his fpeech. For the Chriftiansare termed the 
faithful (Jzxxhjofephns lib* 2. de Bello c. 7.) though but 
half a Chriftian himfelf. And therefore tanta fan&itate 
orn at a fit fides ut fine jnrejttrando faciat fidem^ Their 
faith ought to be adorned with fo much fan&ity as it 
fhould be able without the affiftance of Oaths to beget 
faith and credit in another : which ifthe fincerity of their 
life cannot do, the frequency of their Oaths will much 
left obtain, whereby inftead of gaining credit with others 
they do only further difcredit themfelves. And there- 
fore fince it doth breed a juft fufpicion rather than any 
certain belief 5 what end there is of this vain and un- 
godly cuftom, what profit or colourable pretence it may 
have to fhrowd it felf under, I cannot underftand any, 
unlefs peradventure fome men efteem it as a mark of no- 
blenefs and gentry, which they have little reafon to do 
fince the vileft Beggar wears the fafhion as well as them- 
felves, and though he have not twopence a year Starling 
can (wear after the Revenues of a great Lord that hath 
thoufands 5 or it may be, fome take it as an ornament of 
fpeech. Or others an argument of valour 5 and fare he 
is very hardy that fears neither God nor Hell, which if 
it be valour let every good Man be a Coward ; and how- 
ever unto ungracious hearts, it may be thought a grace 
in their tongue, yet unto a good mind that defires to 


Vfon J e r. iv. verfe 2. 39 

worfhip God, and think on him with reverence, it is a 
found that's worfe than the turning of Brafs grates, and 
horror to his ears, if it be not the greateft torture and 
torment unto his righteous Soul. And is it not now mod 
ftrange that we fhould be fo defperately wicked againft 
God, or Co wretchedly careleft of our (elves, as thus 
wantonly to offend him, and prodigioufly to fpend our 
own Souls in a iin that hath neither pleafure nor profit, 
no juft end, nor yet fo much as a fair pretence to give it 
colour ? But the lefs colour and pretence a fin hath, the 
greater ftill it is, and with the greater puniihment it fhall 
ever be rewarded, and this of all others fhall be fure not 
to be forgotten 5 for it is not for nought and to no pur- 
pofe that in thofe brief precepts of the Law written with 
the very finger of God, all other fins are barely inhibited, 
Murder, Adultery and the reft of our crimes meerly for- 
bidden, without any fpecial mention of puniihment un- 
to the offenders 5 only this fin, as if it difpleafed him a- 
bove all the reft, is not without a peculiar commination 
of revenge annexed, for the Lord will not hold him 
guiltlefs, that taketh his name in vain. Whether it be 
the vanity and needlefnefs of this wanton and prefumptu- 
ous fin, that hath neither pleafure nor profit nor pretence, 
doth exceed all other 5 or whether it be the extraor- 
dinary neglect of men in fufFering this fin of all others to 
efcapeunpunithed, that moved the Lord more particu- 
larly to allure us that he will take it into his own hands 
and fee it rewarded himfelf: whether this, or that or 
both or neither it is not certain, neither is it much ma- 
terial to inquire, fince it is enough that this is certain, 
that fomething there is in it odious above other fins, o- 
therwife he would never have been io careful above all 
others in particular to rcgifter the revenge of this. And 
as this doth affure, that it is a fin which fhall certainly be 
punifhed : fo there want not other places to (hew us 


4o fc A 'Difcourfe of Oath. 

what the punifhment (hall be. St. Paul delivers it nega- 
tively by exclufion from the Kingdom of Heaven : 
St. James affirmatively but indefinitely by condemnati- 
on, left ye fall into condemnation. But St. John doth 
affirm and fully define whither and to what they are 
condemned, even unto the inconceiveable forrows of 
Hell. They ft) all be caft into the la\e that burns with 
fire and brimflone? Apoc. And if you put all together, 
you have all the punifhment, and it is no lefs than all 
which a Sinner may receive, the punifhment of lofs, and 
the punifhment of fenfe, the lofs of all good in the ex- 
clufion from Heaven, and the fuffering of all evil in the 
torments of Hell. This expreftin Scripture, by an un- 
quenchable fire j that, by a gnawing and never dying 
worm \ Divines contending which is worft when either 
is infufferably bad , but both joined together make a 
double death and deftru&ion which none can conceive 3 
And therefore the Son oisyrach^ 23. 12. doth well term 
it a fin that is arrayed and apparelled with death, there is 
a word (faith he) and it is clothed about with death : 
God grant it be not found in the heritage of Jacobs and 
that you may know what the word is, which he means, 
he prefently infers, ufe not thy mouth to intemperate 
/wearing^ for there is the word, the word of fin clothed 
about with death, and I pray God it may not be found 
in the heritage of Jacobs neither in our Jacobs nor his he- 
ritage, his Son or Subjeft, neither himfelf nor any of his 
Kingdom. And this were punifhment enough it (hould 
feem, were there no other 5 yet this is not all, for this 
general and univerfal deftru&ion of the world to come, 
is common to all fins and finners : but the fpecial threat 
and commination in that precept againft this fin, feems to 
relate unto fome fpecial revenge that God will take of 
it even in the life of this world here, before they depart 
unto the forrows of another: for neither in that or this 


ZJfon E c c l e s. xii. verfe 1 3. 49 

ments, that might procure and gain it entertainment. 
So then we have thefe Three, the Preface, the Con- 
clufion, and the Proof. The Conclufion, that is well 
feated in the midft, hath Two Branches: The Proof that 
follows, Two Reafons 5 and the Preface in the front, Two 
Infinuations. Of thefe in their order, fo far as the Text 
(hall lead us. And firft a word only or two of the Pre- 
face for Audience. Audiamus, Let us hear, &c. 

For the truth is, every Man hath not an Ear apt in it 
felf for fuch Conclufions, nor can have, fo long as it is 
farced and ftopt up with the filthy brood of their own 
Corruptions. Indeed every Man hath an Ear, but not 
an Ear to hear, at leaft not to hear all things 5 and there- 
fore when he utters fuch Points as thefe, He that hath 
Ears to hear, let him hear, faith not Solomon, but our 
Saviour himfelf. They are (ad and fullen Duties, Fear 
Cod, and keep his Commandments, and of an harfh 
found, as feeking to beat us from thofe delights , which 
peradventure, we are not refolved as yet to fbrfake. 
And then that which is diftafteful to the mind, will ne- 
ver prove over-pleafant to the Ear. Let us indeed feek 
out delightful words, fuch as may comply with Mens de- 
fires, let our invention to hunt, like Efau, after Veni- 
fon, make Men favor y meat, fuch as their Soul lov- 
eth 5 with what Appetite doth the Ear prefently fall to, 
and how ready themfelves (though couzened with a 
Goat inftead of Venilbn like blind ifaac) even to blefs 
us for it? There needs no Audiamus, no Exhortati- 
ons, or Prefaces for attention here 5 it'sMufick to their 
itching Ears, and they fuck it as the Ox doth watery but 
precepts of Duty, and daies of Doom, or the like are 
bitter Pills, and will not down without gilding, though 
Solomon himfelf be the Phyfician and Adminifter. His 
very Perfon, yea but his Name, a Man would think 
might be enough to prevail: Solomon the Wile! solo- 

H mon 

50 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

won the King! Solomon the Preacher! and all by way 
of Supereminence, the Wifeft of Men, the Royallift of 
Kings, the moft Excellent of Preachers & who (hall not 
attend unto him, and even hang n arrant is ab ore, if 
he but open his lips ? And yet in fuch cafes as thefe, 
(though he well knew his own Wifdom and Power) 
yet he is not fo confident of his Authority and Perfon, 
but thinks it well if he may gain hearing, though he 
pray and exhort for it himfelf, and give himfelf too, 
for an Example in it, become both Preacher and Au- 
ditor , not refofing to include himfelf in that Duty 
which he doth urge upon others } for fo it lyes, Let us 
hear, &c* It is the next way for our words to take, 
when we require nothing of our hearers , but what 
we our felves are as ready to do and perform ; an eafy 
matter it is to bind heavy burthens for other mens 
(houlders, but it is not fo eafy to perfwade the people 
to take them up to bear them, fo long as the binders, 
like thofe Pharifees in the Gofpel, refufe to touch them 
with the leaft of their Fingers., If we think to awaken 
the World out of their dead fleeps, it will not be enough 
to Crow unto others, unlefs withal we (hall beat our 
Wings too on our own fides. It will make a double 
noife, and the likelier to pierce the Ear when it comes, 
not with an indite vos oe Audi ant tlli, do you 
hear, or let them hear, but like Solomon in this place, 
with an Audiamus nos , Let us be hearers as well as 
fpeakers, efpecially in fuch Conclufions as this: Let ns 
hear the Conclusion, &c. 

And fare it is fbmething the likelier to be heard, 
and regarded too, for that, were it nothing elfe, that 
yet it is a Conclusion, a truth orderly drawn, and de- 
duced from its undoubted principles , a difcourfe that 
flutters not up and down at random, like a feeled 
Dove 3 but flyes on to its period, like an Eagle to her 


Vpon E c c l e s. xii. verfe 15. 51 

ftand, cutting its way through the vanity and vexati- 
on too of all things elfe, and not ftaying until it come 
to pitch and reft it felf on a Conclufion firm and ftable, 
even the Fear and Service of God 5 which as it is our 
whole duty here, fo will prove our happinefs eternal 
hereafter in that day, when God (hall bring every work 
into judgment,with every fecret thing,whether it be good 
or whether it be evil. And this (hews it to be fome- 
thing more than a bare conclufion, a material one, of and 
to the matter, indeed to that matter, which of all other 
is mod material. Let us hear the Conclusion of the whole 
matter^ &c. And that certainly is one degree higher, 
and would require too an higher degree of regard, that it 
is not only an orderly Conclufion but a material and im- 
portant 5 No curious, idle, frivolous difpute de Una ca- 
prina, no thin empty hungry fpeculation of the Schools, 
though thefe be the only conclufions the delicate ears of 
moft Men defire to be tickled withal, fuch as may exer- 
cife the wit, but no way affeft the Gonfcience. And 
indeed it is a principal Stratagem of the Arch-enemy of 
Mankind by curious impertinences to divert the mind 
from thofe real and neceffary points that concern their 
Souls, and the welfare of them for ever : An unhappi- 
nefi whereof thefe latter times have fufficiently tafted, 
the Children of the Church for thefe many years imploy- 
ing their wits in nothing fo willingly as in wrangling 
with their Mother , and that about trifles , every light 
Ceremony and almoft Circumftance, that concerns but 
the outward forms of the external worfhip of God, neg- 
lefting in the mean time that, which is indeed material, 
the internal truth and fubftance of his fervice. But to 
fuch wayward contentious fpirits, I (hall now only fay, 
it were much better for them to leave fuch unprofitable 
difputes, and betake themielves to obedience, and if they 
fear not God, yet at leaft that they would honour the 

H 2 King, 

5 2 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

King, reverence the Church, and keep the Command- 
ments of both, for this is their duty too, and this indeed 
would be to fome purpofe, that fo they might be at lei- 
fure to fet their working heads about fome more perti- 
nent queftions, not about a Cap or a Surplice or the like, 
but rather about fuch as are folid, fuch as that in the 
Gofpel-, §>uid faciendum ? What pall I do that I 
may inherit eternal life f and purfae it home, not leav- 
ing until they have brought it to Solomons Conclusion 
here, Fear God and keep his Commandments. For this 
is the Conclusion of every material queftion, not only of 
the matter, but the matter too of all Conclufions that are 
material : For it is the Conclulion totiu* materia which 
is our laft degree, and the higheft, as univerfal as mate- 
rial, of the whole matter, 

But of what whole matter ? ofthe matter of this whole 
book ? Yes of this and of all Books elfe, all Divine Books 
elfe whatfoever , and fb much we have here exprefly in 
the inference of it, of making many Bookj there is no 
end, and much fiudy is a rvearinefs ofthe fiefl) % the verfe 
immediately precedent. And therefore that we might 
have all in little he infers this, as briefly including the 
whole matter, not only of this and thofe books that 
were already written, but of all fuch alfo as fhould be e- 
ver written hereafter. 

And (ure all our difcourfes are but vain and empty, if 
not impious, at lead they will conclude nothing to the 
purpofe, unlefs they draw all at length unto this Conclu- 
lion, which is every way total whether we regard know- 
ledge or a&ion : For when we have smbroiled and wea- 
ried our felves in the purfuit ofthe things of this world, 
it will be to no purpofe, no though they fucceed accord- 
ing to our defires } For what (hall it profit a Man to gain 
the whole World, and enjoy it too for a feafon, if when 
he hath done, he lofe his own Soul afterwards for ever? 


ZJpon E c c l e s. xii. verfe 13. 53 

After all his vain labour fpent, he will find this is the 
only bufinefs and profitable imployraent he muft fet him* 
felf down unto in the end. When we have entangled our 
felves in all thofe fine and delicate webs of the Seraphi* 
cal Doftors, which when«Whce we come within Ken of 
the Port of Death, whither all winds ferve to drive us, 
will be fwept away in an inftant, like thofe of the Spidery 
when 1 fay all thcfe aerial difputes are ended, this will 
be found the only folid Conclufion, whereunto our me- 
ditations muft betake themfelves at the laft, as being the 
laft and utmoft iffue, end and up(hot of all Conclufions 
fpeculative or praftick, to be done or to be ftudied, Fear 
God and. keep his Commandments. It is the whole du- 
ty ofMan, rightly therefore the Conclufion of the whole 
matter. So much doth Solomon magnify his plain and 
defpifed text, that if it may not be received upon his au • 
thority, requeft and example, it might yet be entertained 
for its own worth, asbeing, rightly drawn, material and 
univerfal, that fo the plainnefs of it might be recompen- 
ced with the importance. This then for the urging of at- 
tention is but right and juft, and therefore Audiamus^ 
Let us hear the conclufion of the whole matter, We can 
do no left, and that we may do fo, hear it indeed, we will 
now pafi from the Preface to the Conclufion it felf, from 
the Conclufion of the matter, to the matter of the Con- 
clufion, Fear God and k?ep his Commandments 5 but 
we muft begin with the firft, Deumtime, fear God, and 
then k ee P h* s Commandments. 

And well do we begin here, at which all Religion, 
Piety, and true Wifdom doth begin : So faith our owi> 
Solomon^ and fo David his Father before him, The fear p &f. o& 
of the Lord is, the beginning of wifdom : But the Son 23# 
of Syrach goes farther, and makes it to begin and fi- 
ni(h it too unto the full, for the fear of the Lord, faith Ecduf. 2, 
he , is the fhlnefs ofwfdom? yea not only begins and l6 ' 


54 A Sermon of the 'Duty of Man 

Eccluf.i. f u ^' s > k ut cr °wns it alfo, The fear of the Lord is the 
1 8. crown of voifdom. Indeed I fcarce know any thing, 

whereof more contrarieties feem to be delivered, than of 
this fear of the Lord : Fear hath pain in it, and he that 
iJoh.iv. feareth is not perfeS in lov% faith St. John. But what 
Eccluf. i. &frh Siracides 3 The fear of the Lord maketh a merry 
I*- hearty and giveth joy and gladnefs. P erf e& love cajieth 

out fear, faith the fame St. John in that place: Nay not 
Pfal. xix. fa, The fear of the Lord is clean and endurethfor ever, 
faith David. Again, Worh^out your falvation with fear 
and trembling, faith St. Paul unto the Philippians : Ton 
have not received the fpirit of bondage again to fear, 
Horn. Tiii. faith the fame Apoftle unto the Romans : what is this but 
fear and tear not ? yea what elfe faith our Saviour? Fear 
not, little FlocJ^, for it is your Fathers pleafure to give 
mtt ' Xf yon a Kingdom: And yet fear him that can cafi body 
and Soul into Hell fire, faith our Saviour again unto the 
fame Flock: If affured of the Kingdom, what need they 
fear the fire of Hell ? and if they may fear that, how 
affured of the Kingdom? Of neceffity therefore, to re- 
concile thefe feeming contradi&ions, Divines have been 
driven to diftmguifh of fears and perfons too, unto whom 
they are appliable} For indeed all fear is not of one fort, 
but is divers, according to the diverfity of obje&s which 
it refpe&eth : if it look upon fecular and worldly evils 
( for generally Timor eji expect at io mali ) and through 
too much apprehenfion run into excels, it then takes the 
name of Timor mnndanus , a worldly and fecularfear, 
when men fear men more than God, temporary and cor- 
poral evils, more than ghoftly and eternal 3 And this 
fear is always evil, and fo are they ever in whom it hath 
dominion $ and when it hath not dominion, yet becaufe 
it hath undoubtedly in all, that are not perfefl; in love, 
fome greater hold than it fhould have,that of our Saviour 
is but juft, and for the moft part feafonable unto all, Fear 


Vpn E c c l e s. xii. verfe 15. 55 

not thofe that can kjU t£> e body^ but fear him that can 
caji both body and foul into Hell fire. Again, if it look 
upon God, and that Hell, which in his juftice he hath pre- 
pared for finners, as our Saviour here commands, the 
fear indeed is then good, becaufe as you fee commanded, 
and befides is an aft of faith and reftrains from evil 5 And 
therefore they that (imply condemn it, do but cut the 
banks and pluck up hatches, the better to make way for 
a deluge of wickednefs: But yet if it reft there, andlook 
no farther:, if our obedience have no better motive than 
this, though the fear be good, it is not yet (b good as 
it fhould be, for the man is Rill evil, and his fear there- 
fore (b long but (lavifh, and fo it is termed Timor fir vilify 
an illiberal and fervile fear 5 And this is that fear which,as 
St. John faith, hathpjin in it^ as curbing men in their de- 
fires } and we may add imperfeftion too, as not able to 
fanftify their Perfons : yet is it, as the Son of Sjrach 
fpcaks, the beginning of wifdom, and leads unto that 
which is-perfeft, for by conftatlt forbearance of evil, 
though out of terrour, men may come at length to love 
and delight in goodnefs, and then every degree of fuch 
love cafteth out a degree of that fear, till petfeft love 
at laft cafteth out all fear, all that is painful, but withal 
induceth another fear, of another both name and nature, 
Timor cafius & filiates, a chart and filial fear, the fear of 
offence, not of punifhment, a fear not only good in it 
felf, but fuch as makes the fubjed good too wherein it 
refide?. And this fear hath two Eye?, with the one it be- 
holds God, as the fuprenm and Soveraign good not only 
in himfelf, but of all thofe that adhere unto him, and 
then loving him as fuch, they cannot but withal fear to 
offend, or lofo that God and goodnefs, which above all 
things they iove : But the other Eye fattens it felf en 
God, as no lefs great than good, and contemplating, as 
v/ell as it may, or as far as it dares, the San&ity, Power, 


5 6 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

and Immenfity, the infinite Majefty and glory of the 
divine ElTence or Deity, is ftrucken with admiration and 
adoration too of lb great and inconceivable Excellence, 
from whence it takes another denomination, and is ftiled 
Timor reverential is, a devout and reverential fear. It 
is true that the time will come, when even this filial fear 
(hall lofe one of thefe lights , and be no whit the lefi 
comely and beautiful for that neither: for as the filial 
fear throws out that which is fervile, fo fruition will caft 
out the fir ft part of that w T hich is filial. For being confirm- 
ed in goodnefs, there is no room for the fear, when there 
is no danger of offending, or lofing that God which we 
enjoy. But this reverential fear is never thrown out by 
any thing elfe, but is that fear whereof Davidfyzkz? 
The fear of the Lord is clean and endureth for ever* 
It attends not on this life only, but runs it felf into im- 
mortality ; the fear of bleffed Angels now, and (hall be 
the fear of all holy Saints, as here, fo in that bleffednefs 
for ever hereafter : And then indeed it will be the fulnefs 
of wifom, and the Crown both of it , and that fiilnefs 
alfo. But as on thefe feveral fears, fo are we to look 
on men too, and their feveral conditions, otherwife our 
difcourfe will not be fo real as rational: But yet 
though thefe fears abftra&edly confidered, have their fe- 
veral forms whereby they are differenced, and are in 
fupream degrees fome of them incompatible 3 yet in the 
concrete as they fubfift in their fubjefts , they are not 
ufually in this life fo intenfe and pure, but that, though 
one be predominant, they are all three mixed for the raoft 
part and compounded together. Whence it is, that ho- 
ly men, even the greateft Saints and Servants of God, 
whole fear therefore filial, and founded in love, yet be- 
caufe liable, through this body of death , unto frailties 
and fometimes unto falls, are now and then found to be 
fallible aUb of his wrath: Even David himfelf, whole 


Upon E c c l e s. xii. verfe 13. 57 

Confidence otherwhilcs can carry him through the valley 
of death without fear, yet at other feafons is driven to 
cry out, A Judiciis tuis timui, I was afraid of thy judg- 
ments^ yea from my youth up, thy terrours have I Of- 
fered with a troubled mind. Holy Job, though a perfect 
and upright man, by the mouth of God himfelf, yet not 
fo perfeft in all his ways, and upright, but that we may 
fometimes read thefe fad complaints, the Arrows of the 
Almighty flick, fafi within me> the venom whereof drink,, J ob x ' : 
up my Spirit s\ and, gjtid faciam^ cum furrexerit ad jw 
dicandum Deus .<? And if it thus befal the green Trees, 
how Jhali it jure with the dry .<? If fuch Worthies fo 
corrplain and cry out under the terrour of divine judg- 
ment, how (hall we that are worfe, dare to rejeft it, as 
fervile ? Certainly he that doth fo, doth withal take him- 
(elf for perfect in love, fince perfeft love alone it is, that 
can cafl out all fear that is painful. Prefufamption in- , 
deed can do the like, caft it out too for a time, but will 
undoubtedly bring great fears upon them in the end. 
And therefore for fuch as grow high through the favours 
of God, and more confident than their behaviour un- 
der them can warrant, the Scriptures want not corro- 
Gves to beat down the proud flefh, and abate the pre- 
fumptuous Spirit. Be not high minded but far 5 yea, 
work^ <ut your Salvation with fear and trembling 
alfo. But on the other fide, where this fear and 
trembling hath taken hold , and the humbled Soul 
keeping it (elf in the fenfe and forrow of her fins, 
comes to labour under its own grie£ in this Cafe there 
wants not Balm in Gilead, neither Lenitives, nor Cor- 
dials for the wounded Spirit 5 Te have not received 
the Spirit of bondage again to fear, but the Spirit of 
Adoption, that cry a Abba Pater j and what is your 
Fathers will? why, fear not little Floc\, it is your Fa- 
thers will to give fuch for their (brrow now, a Kingdom 

I of 

58 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

of joy hereafter, to wit, in fenfn compofito^ if they run 
not back again into thofe fins, for which they are fo for- 

Thus the Scriptures are not contradi&ory , only they 
fuit divers fears with different properties,and contrary dif- 
pofitions with as oppofite exhortations, as is but juft and 
reasonable. To fcatter the proud in their imaginations, 
but to bind up and ftrengthen the broken-hearted. Now 
as thefe fears,more or lefs,at one time or other pertain un- 
to all, but to our grief, if not (hame of Chriftianity are 
fcarce truly to be found in any 5 fo are they all here in 
my Text, not all generally only and in grofs under the 
name of fear, but with fpecial intimations of all, and 
each of them in feveraL 

For firft, here is the worldly fear, but forbidden 5 as 
negatives are ever under their affirmatives. Fear God, 
not the world, or worldly evils which prefs only the 
body, but that God which can caft both Body and Soul 
into everlafting fire. Secondly, the very mention of du- 
ty in the firft reafon implies a fuperiority, and that ever 
requires Reverence, another of the Fears \ And when 
duties are performed formally on that manner becaufe 
duties, and fuch^ as in the breach whereof we know the 
God, whom we love, is offended, it is the fear then of of- 
fence not of punifhment : and both thefe make up the en- 
tire filial fean But yet the fear of punifhment is not left 
out neither, as good in it felf> though materially fervile, 
for that is a motive too, and as the leaft fo the laft of 
alls For God will bring every worh^into judgment, &c. 
as it is in the next verfe. So they are all joyned here in 
the text,and when they are joyned too in man their fiib- 
je&,the y will make up that compleat fear which indeed is 
the full and compleat worfhip, internal worfhip and fer- 
vice of God 5 Arid therefore in the Scripture, it is ufual- 
ly taken even for our whole Religion, Piety and Ado- 

ZJpon Eccles. xii. verfe i 3. 59 

ration of the Divinity, according to that of David, 
come hither, and I will teach you the fear of the Lord, pfalm. 
that is the worfhip of the Lord. So Jonah unto the xlm - 
Mariners that enquired of him , I am an Hebrew, faith 
he, and I fear the God of heaven, and that made the Sea Jon- i- 
and the dry land. So Jacob in like manner when he 
(ware unto Laban, he fwore by the fear of his Father Gen.xxxi. 
Ifaac, to wit by that God whom his Father ifaac feared, 55 ' 
that is worfhiped and (erved. Whence it is that what 
Mofes terms fear, Thou ftjatt fear the Lord thy God, 
that the Septuagint, and our Saviour himfelf renders by 
worftlip, Thoujhalt worffjip the Lord thy God^ and him Matt. iv. 
only Jfjalt thou ferve. And therefore we (ball not need 
to (cruple much at the enquiry, why the Text faith not 
Believe or Love, or the like, but rather Fear God and 
keep his Commndments 5 for he that hath (aid, Fear, 
hath faid all 5 no word can go beyond this : It includes 
both faith, and hope, and love, and all, yea fomething 
more than all. Not the meaneft of thefe fears, the fear of 
puniftiment, but implies faith,and the fear of offence both 
faith and hope and love alfo 5 but the reverential fear is 
love, and (bmething more than love, even Veneration 
too, as acknowledging the love to be, not like that of 
ordinary friendfhips inter Pares, between Companions, 
but at a diftance, and fuch an infinite diftance on Gods 
part, as requires the lowed: Reverence and Adoration 
from all that love him. For though it hath plcafed his 
goodnefs to make and ftile us his friends, yet I hope we 
do not ceafe to be hisftrvants, nor he to be our Lord, 
every way our Supream and Soveraign Lord : So indeed, 
our Lips ftile him at every word , and by that ftile 
and Title too he himfelf requires his fear at our hands 5 
if I be your Lord, ubi Timor mevs, where if my fear <? 
Where indeed his fear ot Reverence ? for he is Lord of 
Majefty and Glory. Where the fear of offence ? for he 

I 2 is 

60 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

is the Lord no left good than glorious : and as terrible as 
either, to his contemners 5 where then the fear of his 
wrath? And fure the queftion is pertinent enough, and 
it is but right that he demands, where it is, or what nny 
become of it? It feems to be fled with Ajlr<ea to Hea- 
ven, fure I am, it may trouble a man to find it out any 
where upon earth. His judgments are far oft\ as David 
fpeak?, even out of our fight, at leaft they feem yet to be 
beheld with fuch fecurity, as a Man would think moft 
Men were in a league with death and at a Covenant with 
Hell, as the Prophet fpeaks, to little fear is there of his re- 
venge : And fure they that fear not punilhment, will 
hardly be restrained by any filial, the fear of offence. 
Indeed it were fomething well, if we did not offend 
with lefs trouble, than any thing elfe. And as for the o- 
ther, the fear of reverence, and that principally in the 
holy place where his fpecial prefence hath made it efpe- 
cially due, that is fb far from regard, as it feems to have 
gotten an ill name of late : we are grown fome of us into 
fuch a familiarity with God, as the reverence of his San- 
ftuary^ orofhiminit, or any decency or dignity that 
may ferve thereunto is fufpefted now a days for an 
out-work of Popery : God grant we do not make it 
Idolatry too to reverence even God himfelf in his 
Temple. Is not the queftion juft then in thefe times alfb, 
nbi ttmor mens} where is his fear indeed, where any 
of his fears ? fure they have all left this world, and it 
feems left ink little but worldly fear behind them 3 That 
indeed and that alone runs through the world, and only 
prevails , For her we duck like Die-dappers at every 
Pebble that is thrown at us by a powerful hand, and yet 
can ftand up fturdily, like Cafanens upon the walls of 
Thebes, againft the Thunderbolts of the Almighty 5 we 
are become, as he faid well, Gyants, yea even Gods a- 
gainft God, but Slaves unto Men, whdTe Bodies and Con- 

ZJpon Eccles, xii. verfe 13. 61 

fciences are fometimes equally rotten. The rev( nge of 
the Law and (hame of the world is for the moft part all 
our fear '■> (6 we may avoid thefe, fave our goods from 
lofi, our names from difgracc, our skin from hurt, our 
bodies from death, we can fin on merrily, it little mat- 
ters for him that can caft both body and foul into Hell 
fire. This is the whole ot moft mens fears ; but fear not 
ye their fear, neither be afraid, but fanftify the Lord 
himfel£ Is wet us vefier^ is pavor cfto, let him be your l ^ tVm I2, 
fear, let him be your dread. But what then, is God only 
to be feared and nothing befides ? furely yes, God and not 
anything elfe,if any thing (hall ftand in competition or op- 
pofition with God} but yet under God,and in fubordinati- 
on unto him, we are to fear God and others too for Gods 
fake 5 And all the people feared exceedingly God, 
and his fervant Mofes. So the Apoftle, fear to whom 
fear, and honour to whom honour appertaincth, and both 
fure appertain to all Superiors, but eminently above all 
to him that is Supream : Reverential fear, for he hath a 
charafter of the Divinity upon him : Fear obediential, 
and filial fear too, for he is Pater Patrit: And fear of his 
wrath alfo. for he is Gods Minifter for vengeance. And 
therefore fear the King, for he carrieth not the fword in 
vain. Yea and I muft tell you fear the Church too, and 
thofe in the Church, that have power over us alfo, ano- 
ther kind of power indeed, but yet fuch as renders them 
Gods Minifters in like manner, and your Ghoftly Fa- 
thers, and therefore will require in their degree obedi- 
ence and reverence too, yea and fear of their wrath alfo : 
for they want it not for the wicked when occafions 
ferve,and therefore fear thefe too : for they carry not the 
Keys in vain. The Powers that are, they are all of God, 
and he that refifteth the power, whether Temporal or 
Spiritual, refifteth the ordinance of God, and receiveth 
damnation unto himfclf It is true thefe are two diftinft 


62 A Sermon of the T>uty of Man 

powers, yet is it as true alfo, they are not fimply colla- 
teral, but fubordinate, ever fubordinate when the Prince 
is Chriftian, as having, though not all power in himfelf, 
yet a Princely dominion over all Perfons, and that in all 
•Caufes whatfoever } neither is more claimed, and lefs can- 
not be denied. For two Supremacies in a Kingdom are 
no lefs incontinent, than two Omnipotences in the 
world 5 And therefore the Apoftle gives unto him uni- 
versal fubjeftion, and confcientious too. Let every one, 
yea omnis anima, let every foul be fubjett to the high- 
er powers. But however this Spiritual power be not col- 
lateral fimply, but fubordinate unto the Royal 5 yet is it 
in regard of its original, and derivation, clearly inde- 
pendent, as being not derivable into the Priefthood 
from any Prince or Potentate upon earth, but immedi- 
ately from him who hath it written on his Garment, and 
; ReVj on his Thigh, The Lord of Lords, and King of Kings. 
And being thus diftinft without derivation, itisnotpoP 
fible the cenfures of the one fhould come forth in the 
name of the other, but only indeed in Chrifts name and 
in their own perfons, who in this are the Minifters not of 
the King, but of Chrift, as exercifing no part of the pow- 
er belonging to the Svvcrd, but only of thofe Keys, that 
properly are their own, and underivable too from any 
upon earth, but thofe of their own Order. However 
therefore thefe powers are fubordinate, yet two diftinft 
powers they are, and both as was faid, immediately from 
God, and both therefore to be feared of men. And fure 
this latter, though the lefler, yet not a little to be feared 
neither } for though the Kings Laws bind the Confci- 
ence, yet his revenge for the breaches of them cannot 
reach home unto the Soul : His Sword is material and. can 
but la(h the Body, though fo la(h it, as fometimes to di- 
vide it from the Soul > but St. Pauls Sword is fpiritual 
and reacheth dire&ly to the fpirit, dividing the Soul, 


Vfon Ec c l e s. xii. verfe i 3. 63 

not indeed from its own Body, but from the Church the 
Body of Chrift, and fo from Chrift too, the head of the 
Body; a power therefore in it felt no way contempti- 
ble, it is Chriftsown, and he the more careful to vindi- 
cate it from contempt, yea not it only, but the power 
and perfon too of the meaneft Pried: amongft us : for that 
of his concerns all, tie that defpifethyou, defprfethme, Matt. 
and he that dcfpifcth me^ defpifcth him that fent me. 
But yet all this, were not that other Royal Power pro- 
pitious upon earth, I think would be of little force in 
thefe days to preferve them from contempt, or confufi- 
on, crufbing confufion 5 For did not the Sword of the 
Prince defend the Keys of the Prieft, they might well 
put them under their girdle, if not under the door and 
be gone. But blefled be God, he that is the defender 
of the Faith and Doftrine of the Church, in his Piety 
and Princely Goodnefs is pleafed to be the Defender al- 
io of her Jurifdiftion and Difcipline. Et defenforibus 
ijiis tempHs eget, for otherwife the Antihierarchical of 
thefe times and indeed Antimonarchical too, as not well 
affedring any either Power or Prerogative but their 
own, were it not for this, would foon level all by their 
own Rule, that is level with the ground, lay all Power 
Ecclefiaftick and Honour too, like Davids^ in the dull, 
if not rubbifh even Monafterial. But then they may do 
well to think of another duft too, the duft of our heels, 
which if but juftly fhaken, there is one that affures us 
the forrows of fuch Contemners will prove more infuf- 
ferable, than thofe of Sodom and Gomorrha in the day 
of Judgment. It is but right therefore and well too, that 
the Regal Power is the Superior,that fo as it is the Mode- 
rator and Governour of the temporal,it might be alfo the 
Protc&or of the fpiritual, caufing that fear and reverence 
which is due unto both, to be paid alio refpeftively un- 
to either. Neither in requiring this unto them do we 


6\ A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

divert from the right objeft of fear in my Text, for it 
is but fear God (till. For God himfelf hath in a fort Dei- 
fied Authority. He hath given them of his own power, 
and imparted his very Name unto their Perfons. / have 
[aid ye are Godsend ye are all [on s of them oft high thrift 
Gods indeed, not only by appellation, but in effeft al(b, 
for the great and univerfal benefit which they bring un- 
to mankind 5 For were not Man thus made a God unto 
Man, Men would foon become Wolves unto themfelves 
and devour one another. And therefore to fear fuch 
Men, is not to fear Men, but God, fince the fear is not 
fo much exhibited unto their naked perfons, as unto thole 
beams and participations of the Divinity wherewith they 
are clothed. And in thisfort, it is not amifs to fay, that 
God and not any thing elfe is to be feared 5 And indeed 
he that thus fears God, he only fears nothing elfe 5 
though the waves of the Sea rage horribly, and though 
the Hills of the Earth be carried into the midftof the 
Sea,nay as the Poet,$i fra&u* illabatur orbis^Impavidum 
ferient ruin£, though the whole world (hould disjoint 
and fall, he would be buried in the mines of it without 
fear, for he fears none but God, and the offending of 
that God whom he fears 3 That indeed he doth, as de- 
firous to obey him too, as well as fear him: and fo we 
muft all, it is our Duty alfo, for foit follows : Fear God^ 
and {sep his Commandments ? the fecond Part of our 
Conclulion, k^ep his Commandments. 

Thefe two are infeparable ever, and it is but juft, that 

they are not here only, but fo often joined together in 

Scripture 5 The fear of the Lord, faith David, is the he- 

ginning of Wifdom, and he fub joins, but a good under- 

Jiar?ding have all they that do thereafter : So God 

Jobxxviii. himfelf, as Job teftifies, And tint man he faid, as if it 

28 - were the produft and total of all that is or may be faid 

unto him, the fear oftht Lord } that is wifdow, and to 


Vpn E c c l e s. xih verfe 1 5. 65 

depart from eviU that is under ft an ding : The (elf fame 
in fubftance with Solomon here, Fear God and J{eep his 
Commandments. Neither may it poflibly be otherwife , 
Nature hath linked them as clofe as Scripture 3 for no man 
departs or can depart from the one, the Law of God, 
that doth not firft depart from the other,the Fear of God. 
The foul and body of man have not a ftrifter union, than 
thefetwo, the one the body, the other the very foul of 
the new and interiour man. And therefore the original 
hath it col ha adam^ for this is not the whole duty, but 
the whole man, the whole fpiritual man indeed: The 
outward works of the Law are wrought by the body, 
and fuch righteoufnefs of the body is but the body of 
righteoufnefs 5 but the fear of the Lord fan&ifies the 
foul, and the righteoufnefs of the foul is the very foul 
of righteoufnefs : And the fpiritual man created in ho- 
linefi and true righteoufnefs muft have both thefe parts 
as well as the animal, a foul and a body too : Some 
mens righteoufnefs indeed is all body , do many things 
good and commanded, but for ends upon by and viti- 
ous refpefts: here is a Carcafe of holinefi, but no foul 
to inform it, only hypocrify inhabits and gives it mo- 
tion 5 as the Devil fometimes, they fay, doth the body 
of a dead man : Others will be altogether Soul 5 Fear 
God as much as you will, every man likes it well, and 
thinks he doth it too, as well as any man : but bring 
them to the Commandments, to the corporal works ei- 
ther of Charity to the diftrefled, or of bounty for the 
publick honour and worfhip of that God, whom they 
pretend to fear, and then they leave you. This they 
begin to doubt whether it may be any part of their 
duty or no : But however the foul of the old and out- 
ward man may be immortal , though fevered from the 
body, yet is it not fo with the new man : Sever the fear 
of God, from the obfervance of his Commandments, and 

K it 

66 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

it will inftantly ceafe to be fear. As St. John of love, fo 
may we fay of this fear that includes it : He that faith he 
feareth God, and keeps not his Commandment s^is a liar. 
Again, obferve the Commandments but not in the true 
fear of God, and it will be, not obfervance, but difc 
fimulation 5 A Liar this, of all Liars, whole hypocrify can 
make the very fpirit of wickednefs to inform and aftuate 
the comely limbs and members of true holinefs. A pro- 
digious conjunction, and therefore a Monfter deteftable 
both to God and man ! It is but right then , and as it 
fhould be that thefe two here, make but one whole con- 
clufion, one whole duty, one whole matter, one whole 
man. They may be diftinguiflhed , they may not be di- 
vided : God hath joined them together, and let no man 
feek to put them afunder, but he that fears God, let him 
keep his Commandments alfo. 

Keep his Commandments ? durus eft hie fermo, this is 
an hard faying, and the world fure will be hardly brought 
to this part of the conclufion, yea it were fomething well, 
if thofe that feem pureft amongft us, did not conclude 
clean contrary 3 That the Commandments were not gi- 
ven to be kept, yea that there is no poffibility for any 
man , though under the ftate of grace, at any time, or 
in any aftion to keep without violation even the leaft 

But two things there are, that feem efpecially to deceive 
men in this point : Firft, an erroneous opinion, that a fpi- 
ritual action cannot be good, fo long as it may be bet- 
tered, as having fb much of fin, as it wants of abfolute 
perfection, which they fuppofe, the Law under the high 
terms of eternal death doth require at every mans hands. 
But this is apparently miftaken, for evident it is, that the 
Law under the penalty enforceth only efiential goodnefs, 
not fo,that,whu 1» is gradualothervvife the holy Angels may 
now. fin in Heaven, for tl xcel one another as in na- 

ZJfon E c c l e s. xii. verfi 1 3. 67 

ture fo in their zeal and operations, yea he that is holier 
than the Angels, Chrift himfelf would be endangered, of 
whom the Scriptures do plainly affirm, that he pray- 
ed at one time more earneftly than at another 5 And 
rightly, for goodnefs is not feated inpun&o, in any precife 
nick or indivifible Center, but hath its juft latitude, and 
is capable of degrees of comparifon in the Concrete, bo- 
nutjnelior^ optimus : So Vrifcian will inftruft them with 
this opinion, not admitting it hath falfe Latin in it, and 
falfe Divinity both at once. This the firft. 

The Second thing, is another fuppofal too, and little 
lefs erroneous than the former. That in every good and 
divine aftion the flefh lulling againfl: the fpirit, doth by 
that malignant influence, corrupt and vitiate even with 
fin the whole operation. But what if the lufting flefh 
do not always move and in every aftion? What if when 
it moves, it doth not yet enter into compofition with 
that aft, that fubdues and quells it ? as indeed it doth 
not: what if the vertue of fuch conquering afts be 
the greater by the oppofition? as indeed it is ever 
the more excellent, by how much it breaks through 
ftronger refiftance, according to that of our Saviour, 
virtus mea in infirmitate perficitur. Laftly,what if eve- 
ry aft of luft it felf be not in true propriety a Sin ? As if 
it be meerly natural, great Clerks conceive it is not, be- 
caufe fin is ever voluntary and moral. They take it for 
a true Rule, Lex datur non appetitui fed voluntatis 
and fo they conceive our Saviour doth interpret it, when 
he makes not every one whofe flefh lufteth, but him on- 
ly that lufteth in his heart, that is, with his will, to be 
an Adulterer. St. Paul, they fuppofc, follows his Ma- 
tters interpretation, and though no man doth define luft 
more than he, yet he doth it with caution, as the fin, not 
of the perfon, a fubjeft properly not capable of fin, but 
of the flefh: I know that in we, but with correftion, 

K 2 that 

68 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

that is> in myflejh, there k no good things It is no wore 
I that doit, but fin that dwelleth in me. And that wq 
take it not for fuch a fin, as tranfgreffeth the Law, he is 
Rom. 8. bold to fay, that the righteoufnefs of the Law is fulfilled 
in thofe y that walk^not after theflejl^ not that have no 
carnal motions, but after the Spirit. St. Auftin therefore, 
they conceive, faid well, that when the appetite doth luft 
but the will doth not like it, is as when Eve had eaten, 
but not Adzm. And as we finned at the ftrft, not in Eve? 
but in Adam^ fo is it ftill «, for unlefs Adam eat as well as 
Eve, the will confent, as well as the appetite water, the 
fall is not finifhed. The lufts therefore and appetites of 
Nature, if they arife immediately out of the Body, and 
be not raifed by our unhappy fancy, which the Will fets 
on work, or by fome aft or cuftom of Sin, which the 
Will hath already wrought, they are not in their opini- 
on finful, unlets we will make God the Author of Sin 
who is the creator of nature and natural appetites, yea 
andChrift too the fubjeft of fin, that was not without 
a natural inclination direftly oppofite to the known will 
of God, otherwife he could never have faid as he doth,. 
not my will, but thy will be done. No doubt but by 
the luftings of the flelh, humane frailties and imperfecti- 
ons more than enough may and do too often cleave like 
moles and ftains unto the divineft aftions of the moft (pi- 
ritual men 5 but a mole of frailty is one thing, and the 
corruption of mortal fin another. One thing claudi- 
care in via, to go on though halting fometimes, and inter- 
fering in the way to Heaven: and another to croft 
out of it, run counter direftly towards Hell. And there- 
fore from fuch furreptitious and involuntary defefts to 
conclude, that no man can love God with all his heart 
(clean contrary to the teftimonies ol the Scripture, That 
she jujl man faUeth ftven times a day, to wit into fin, 
though that Scripture intend no fuch matter, that all his... 


ZJfon Eccles, xii. verfe 1 5. 69 

righteoufnefs is but a defiled rag, and the divined a&i- 
on in the eye of the Law, but a mortal and deadly Sin) 
is an exaggeration that doth but rack and tenter a truth 
until it burft into two errors and dangerous ones, both in 
Gods regard and mans. As if men were bound unto 
meer impoiiibilities, and God, that hard man in the Go- 
fpel, reaping where he doth not (aw, and requiring a 
law at their hands, to whom he gives no ability for per- 
formance. In Gods name therefore and mans too, letU3 
be content to fpeak as the Scriptures do, which in this 
here and more than a thoufand places befides do feri- 
oully urge and neceilarily require the obfcrvance of ths 
Law and keeping of the Commandments, which St. John 
tells us, through the grace of Chrift are not grievous nei- 
ther. Such as will needs fpeak otherwife, that they may 
not be kept either for any time, or in any aftion, let 
them take heed left they open gates unto impiety, and 
like thofe Spies in the 13 of Numbers difcourage the 
hearts, and weaken the hands of the people of God 3 
yea let them beware, left they caft difhonour too as on 
God himfelf, fo efpecially on the blefled Spirit that in- 
habits, and Chrift jefus our Lord that dwells in his Saints^ 
if all yet can produce in any, not any thing, but fins. 
Much better therefore it were to leave difputing,and give 
good ear to that of our Saviour, He that breaketh tks 
leaji of thefe Commandments, and teachzth others ft> 
to do, flail be lea ft in the kingdom of heaven^ that is, 
as fome interpret, (hall leaft of all others enter into that 
Kingdom. For what is this indeed but to withdraw men 
from their duty, and teach them difobedience? forevea 
duties ceafe to be due, whenfbever they begin not to bo 
pofiible. But this is every mans conftant duty, and the 
whole duty of every man, the invincible reafon where- 
with Solowon here backs his conclufion, and withal coiiv 
flues this opinion. Fear God> and fyt'p.hit Command* 
ments^ for this is^ &c T i 

no A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

The Reafon is ftrong and full : three degrees or afcents 
there are in it. Firft a Duty, and Secondly univerfally 
of all men, the duty of man and mans univerfal duty, 
and Thirdly the whole duty of man 3 And though there 
be diverfe inventions fought out, many turns and wren- 
ches made to flip this duty, yet one of thefe three or o- 
ther will meet with and refel all our devices: For they 
that feruple at the conclufion as impoffible, evince that 
they will not flay there, but be as apt to quarrel with the 
duty atleaft, as not fimply neceffary 3 a duty perad venture 
in the rigid exa&ion of the Law, and of fuch as are 
under it, as they were to whom Solomon (pake this 5 but 
we are under the Gofpel, dead unto the Law, that we 
might be married unto one, even to Chrift our Lord 
and our life 3 what then hath this legal duty of Com- 
mandments to do with us, or we with it, fince we are 
mutually dead one to another > 

Yet be we under what times we will, or ftates either^ 
fo long as we lofe not our humanity, fo long as we ceale 
not to be men under any, as being not really dead, but 
morally, fo long it will have to do with us, for this is a 
duty not of fome times and perfons,but univerfally of man. 

Neither were they fimply under the Law, to whom 
this was fpoken 5 led indeed they were by the ceconomy 
of the Law, but yet under the promife and promifed feed, 
and were faved by the Gofpel, as we now are, though 
the Gofpel not fo diftinftly believed then, as now it is 5 
Neither indeed they, nor any people elfe under Heaven, 
fince that promife (The feed of the woman Jfjal/ bruife 
theferpents head) are fo meerly under the Law either 
of Mofes or Nature, but that if they do their duty, keep 
the Commandments which they have, and glorify God 
according to their knowledge, they may (for ought I un- 
derftand) be faved too by the Gofpel, which they knew 
not, for even the Gentiles fo doing, their incircumcifion 


ZJpon E c c l e s. xii. verfe i 3 

(hall be counted for circumcifion, as the circumcifion o- 
therwife is efteemed but as incircumcilion. In that day^ 
when God fj all judge the Jecrets of all hearts, not (im- 
ply by the Law, but according to my Gofpel, faith the 
Apoftle, Rom. 2. And indeed this is the only reafbn, why 
this duty continues ftill to bind, becaufe men are not 
under the Law (imply, but under the Gofpel ; for that is 
the ftate only of Devils, whofe doom is (baled : and 
though the law of their nature cannot be abrogated, as 
being a branch of eternal equity, yet they feem not to be 
lyableunto any mens punilhment, for the breaches of it 
now, becaufe not capable of any reward for the obfer- 
vancc. The Gofpel therefore doth not evacuate , as 
St. Paul fpeaks, but eftabliih the Law, fince every man is 
therefore bound in duty unto the Law becaufe not abfo- 
lutely excluded from all benefit of the Gofpel 5 But we 
who are under the fulnefs of this Gofpel, are in a fuller 
manner tied and in an higher degree unto the obfervance 
of the law, than any people elfe before that fulnefs came, 
as being bound now by the fpecial coming of the Holy 
Ghoft to keep the Commandments not in the oldnefs of 
the letter, which as it feems was fufficient, whilft the 
Heir was but a Child and in minority 5 but in the new- 
ntfs of the Spirit 5 for the Spirit it is which gives life and 
vigour unto the Commandments , as being the very 
ftrength and power of all lively performance. And there- 
fore our Saviour though he came with Gofpel in his 
mouth, yea was the Gofpel himfelf, yet thinly not, faith 
he, that I came to dijjolve the law : I came not to dif 
folve, but to fulfil it. And that we may know, the true 
fulfilling* of it, if we think to enter into life, belongs to 
us, as well as the entire and perpetual unto himfelf, after 
he had vindicated the Text of the Law from the corrupt 
glofles of the Scribes and Pharifees, and fet it forth in the 
higheft perfeftion , if not added perfections above the 


j 2 A Sermon of the 'Duty of Man 

Law, and beyond that which was faid unto them of old*, 
Matt.7.24. he clofeth up all at laft with this conclufion, He that 
heareth thefe fayings of mine, and doth them^ I will 
liken him unto a wife man. What then, though being 
dead under the law, we become through the favour of 
the Gofpel to be dead alfo even unto the law, yet it is 
Jbut to the condemning power, the killing letter of the 
law, that fo we might be married unto Chrift our life, 
lince the end of this marriage is but to bring forth fruit 
unto God, as St. Paul in that place, and that in the new- 
*tefs of the fpirit, which is not fure to break but to keep 
with more exa&nels the Commandments of God. This 
therefore a duty (till, the duty of Jew and Gentile and 
Chriftian too, univerfally of all mankind. For this is 
the whole duty of man ^ &c. 

But though a duty, not only in Solomons time, but 
^ven now under the Gofpel, yet for all that, it may be 
but a voluntary duty, a freewill offering indeed of thank- 
fulnefs and gratitude, or fo, but not a neceffary duty, 
neceffary unto life : Our life in this World is our jufti- 
fication in Chrift, and Chrift and juftification too we 
have them both by faith, and by faith alone without the 
Rom. 4. works of the Law : So St. Paul allures us. But however 
a duty it is and a neceffary duty, neceffary even to life, 
unlefs no duty be neceffary, or Solomon here be deceiv- 
ed, For this is the whole duty of man. Juftification in- 
deed is that aft of God , which by remiffion of Sins 
through Chrift puts men into theftate of Life here, and 
gives them right and title unto Life eternal hereafter. 
And though therefore an eftate attainable by the Gofpel 
only not by the Law, which all have tranfgreffed, yet is 
it moft true, that fo long as any (hall continue wittingly 
and deliberately to tranfgrefs the Law, they are not ca- 
pable of this or any other benefit of the Gofpel : The 
Golpel it felf and whole Scriptures are clear in the point 5 


ZJpon Eccles. xii. verfi i 5. 73 

Now then, faith even St. Paulson whom they rely,fpeaking 
of the time of theGofpel, now then there is no condem- 
nation, and no condemnation is foil juftification, but to 
whom ? to them that are in Chrift Jefus, but who are 
they that follow? which walk^not after theflejh but af- 
ter the fpirit 5 If any man walk otherwife, he hath no- 
thing to do with Chrift: if we fay we have Communion 
with him, and walk^in darkle fi 9 we lye, &\th St. John, 
and do not the truth, 1 John i. 6. He that loveth not 
his Br other \ that is one of thofe, that according to him 
walks in darknefs 5 and as he wants light, fo life too, he 
hath no life abiding in him, yea manet in morte, he re- 
mains in death, 1 Joh.'\\\. 14. And what is (aid of one Sinner, 
is true of all, for be not deceived, neither Fornicator^ 
Adulterer , unclean perfon, or covetous, or any other the 
like, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of God and of 
Chrift. As little therefore in juftification which is the e- 
ftate of life, and hath right to that inheritance 5 no mar- 
vail therefore, if St. fames be bold to conclude in terms 
clean contrary, Te fee then, that by workj a man isju- 
ftified, and not by faith only, James ii. 24. Indeed much 
ftir hath been about the feeming differences between 
thefe Apoftles : He faid not amils, Meum & Tuum are 
the common Barrators of the world , and Faith and 
Works (eem no lefs to have broken the peace in the 
Church. The points have been beaten fo long, as fome 
think it time now they were beaten even out of all diP- 
courfe ; But the truth is,they are fome of the nobleft that 
our Faith doth yield, and unto the Chriftian Religion 
of all other molt efiential though moft abufcd, as dis- 
covering the neceffity of the Gofpel and invalidity of 
the Law. with the main differences and union too of both 
Law and Gofpel ^ And peradventure are not driven fo 
home as they might be unlefs by very few, unto their 
juft and right iilue even unto this day. If any thing lead 

L the 

74 ^ Sermon of the Duty of Man 

the way unto that, it muft be the perfeft reconciliation 
of thefetwo, which by divers ways ad diftin&ions hath 
been attempted on either fide, but not I fuppofe with Co 
good fuccefs as may fully fatisfy 5 for in this, I take it, lliacos, 
intra muros peccatur & extra. To diftinguifh of the 
Law Ceremonial and Moral, as fome do, fuppofing that 
St. Paul excludes the works of the Ceremonial Law, and 
St. J antes requires thofe only of the Moral, is to no pur- 
pofe 5 for clear it is, as the Sun, that St. Paul excludes 
both, for he difputes againft Jew and Gentile, but efpe- 
cially the works of the Moral Law, as that which is bro- 
ken by all,and therefore cannot juftify any. Neither will 
it be more available to diftinguifh with others of works 
preceeding faith , works of Nature, and fuch as follow, 
and are effefts of faith, works of Renovation and grace : 
for St. Paul utterly rejefts from the ability of juftifying,all 
works what(bever,whether before faith or after it, becaufe 
the Law being once broken, no after-obfervance can fo 
fatisfy for the breach, but that it will ftill condemn all 
thofe that (hall ftand at that Tribunal. The diftin&ion 
then of works not prevailing, others fall to diftinguifh 
of juftification, and indeed that is the right way, if it be 
lightly done : The Romanifis according to the Council 
of Trent make it twofold, a firft, and a fecond juftifica- 
tion : From the firft St. Paul removes works, and St 
James they fuppofe, requires them only to the fecond : 
But they are fruftrate in both diftin&ion and application 
too$ for fince their fecond Juftification is but the increafe 
and augmentation of that ELighteoufnefs which is infufed 
in the firft, they cannot be two juftifications, fince more 
or lefs will not afford a fpecifick difference, or numerical 
either : And were they two,yet the works which St.James 
requires, he requires for ntceflary unto the firft jufti- 
fication as well as the fecond 3 for he doth inftance in Ra- 
hab not juftilied before, by their own confeffion : And 


ZJpon E c c l e s. xii. verfe 1 3. 75 

the works which St. Paul removes, he removes from the 
fecond juftification as well as thefirft, as firft or laft ne- 
ver to be found in any. And therefore he makes his in- 
ftance in Abraham, that was juftified long before even 
that time of his inftance. The diftinftion of juftification 
in the obtaining, and of juftification already obtained is 
much after the fame manner, and is choked utterly with 
the felf fame anfwer. Others on the other fide diftin- 
guifh Juftus faQus, from Juftus declaratm^ of juftifica- 
tion before God, and juftification in the Eyes of men 5 
St. James's words they refer unto this,and St. Parti's to the 
former, but moft erroneomfly alfo 5 for nothing is plainer 
than that both of them fpeak of juftification in the fight 
of God, St. James as well as St Paul^ for he plainly de- 
nies falvation unto faith, if not accompanied with works, 
with an interrogation, Can thy faith fave thee ? and 
proves too, that it cannot, as being a dead faith, and the 
faith of Devils, and fuch fure can juftify neither with 
God nor man, fooner indeed with men, than with God. 
That way therefore which is moft general and hath been 
thought the beft peradventure, becaufe the fubtleft, is to 
diftinguifh between the aft of juftifying, andtheSubjeft 
or Perfon to be juftified: St. James, as is fuppofed 
requiring only the prefence of works in the Subjeft, 
which St. Paul removes only from the Aft, and is but 
thus, in other terms. Fides fola juftificat, fed fides c]u& 
juftificat, fton eft fola. Thismay have a promifing look.> 
but will notfatisfy neither, but is out too, and that on both 
fides, for St. Paul clearly rtmovesthe works he fpeaks o£ 
from the Perfon to be juftified , as well as from the aft 
that doth juftifie, non operanti to him that worketh not, 
butbclieveth on \\\w\qui juftifie at impium, that juftifieth 
the ungodly: And St. James requires the works he fpeaks 
of, no lefb than faith, unto the Aft, as well as in the Sub- 
jeft. His words are exprefc> ex operibus , by workj a 

L 2 man 

j 6 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

man is juftified^ and not by faith only. Why, but how 
then (hall they be reconciled ? furely no way (b well, as by 
looking unto their different intentions,from whence it will 
appear, that St. Paul removes works, all works from be- 
ing the things that do juftifie} and St. James requires 
them only, as conditions and qualifications upon which 
we are juftified : For the purpofe of St. Paul, is by the 
breach of the Law, to demonftrate the neceffity of the 
Gofpel, that that only is the power of God unto Salvar 
tion 5 for fince all the world (lands culpable before God, 
it follows of neceffity, that either we muft perifh with- 
out remedy, or elie be juftified by a Gofpel of mercy, 
which he well terms the juftification of faith in meerop- 
pofition to works, all works, even faith it fel£ as the 
things which may be thought to juftify. Now St. James 
intent is only to vindicate this wholfom and neceffary 
Doftrine from the abufe of Heretical Spirits, whoie evil 
words had at once corrupted both St. Pauls meaning and 
their own good manners, affirming, that fince works 
could not juftifie, no works were neceffary, and there- 
fore it mattered little to obferve the Law, it was enough 
only to believe the Gofpel. Againft thefe diffolute Epi- 
cures this Apoftle,as St. Augujiin obferves, wholly dire&s 
his difpute, the purpofe whereof is, not to place juftifi- 
cation in the works of the Law (for in many things ,faith 
he, we offend all, and if but in one^yet are we guilty of 
the whole) but only to (hew, that unlefs the works of 
the Law, though formerly broken, do come at length to 
accompany our faith, we can never be juftified by 
any grace of the Gofpel. So then if we divide rightly 
according to thefe intents, we muft diftrnguifh of a two- 
fold juftification, by Innocence, and by Pardon s for it 
rnuft be either by works, or by mercy, a legal juftification 
or an Evangelical : And of two forts of works fubfervi- 
entunto tbefe feveral juftifications, and of two forts of 


ZJpon E c c l e s. xii. verfe 13. 77 

ways by which they do juftify, Works of Perfe&ion and 
perpetual perfection, that inherently juftifie, and hi> 
mally in ftri&nefs of Law, but are excluded by St. Paul as 
no where found in any 5 and works of Renovation after 
the breach of the Law, required by St. James in every 
one, that expeft the juftification of the Gofpel : Thofe 
works perfeftly keep the Law, and never break it 5 Thefe 
keep the Law fincerely,but after it is broken : They juftifie 
therefore in themfelves, and by their own worth 5 Thefe 
not So, but becaufe found in none but finners, prepare 
only and qualifie for the juftification of Chrift : They 
juftifie, thele obtain juftification: That ftriftly the jufti- 
fication of works, this properly the juftification of faith, 
which is their fountain. And faith alone, alone with- 
out thefe may juftifie, yea cannot juftifie with them 5 for 
fuch works evacuate faith, as not needing it, which is 
St. Pauls doftrine. But faith alone without thefe cannot 
juftifie, yea without them is not faith, not a true and a 
living faith, which is St. James his ailertion. And in this 
Reconcilation doth appear the reconciliation and oppo- 
sition too of both Law and Gofpel, Faith and works, 
how they confpire and meet, how they jar and refufe to 
mingle. For the juftification of the Law evacuates 
Chrift, who then died in vair?^ as St. Paul fpeaks. For 
there needs no Saviour where there is no fin \ And the 
juftification of Chrift dilanulls again that of the Law, as 
arguing it to be broken, yea and the condemnation of the 
Law too, notwithstanding the breach : So they contra- 
dift and dillolve one another 5 But what the Gofpel ex- 
cludes by remiilion of fins, it clofeth withal again by 
the manner of remitting : Never pardoning offences, till 
they be firft forfaken, and men return again to the ob- 
lervance of the Law } nor yet continuing that pardon 
longer, than they fhall continue to obferveit, fayingun- 
ia none but the penitent.., Thy fins are forgiven thee 5 


jS A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

nor yet unto them without faying alfo, Sin no more left 
a worfe thing happen unto thee. So the terms ftand thus 5 
No condemnation from the Law though broken, when- 
soever we return to obferve it 5 and until we do obferve 
it, no grace or mercy by the Gofpel : and fo they meet 
and are reconciled 5 For fb far the Gofpel doth eftablifti 
the Law, yea and farther, for it not only requires, but 
gives grace, for the performance of that it doth require, 
even the observance of the Law. And this reconciliation 
St. Paul himfelf, the great urger of the oppofition, eve- 
ry where doth acknowledge, for they are his own words, 
not the hearers but the doers of the lawfoall bejujiified. 
And that the law is done by faith is evident^rpifA workc 
Rom. 8. e ffr by love^and love is the fulfilling of the law. So the A- 
poftles are both met, St. James requiresFaith and Works, 
St. Paul a working Faith, working by love, and that even 
all theCommandmentsofGod,not foasto juftifie in them- 
felves,but only to qualify for the juftification ofChrift.The 
Commandments therefore are no freewill offering at plea- 
sure, no voluntary duty of gratitude only, but a duty 
neceffary unto our juftification here, and eternal well- 
fare, if any be neceffary. For this is the whole duty of 
man. Why, but yet (for there is no end of wrangling, 
though this wrangle (hall end all) though a duty now, 
and a neceffary, yet fince the Gofpel affords a Mediator, 
were it never fo due, the debt we hope may be paid by 
another, that is our Surety, and that furety is Chrift, 
who hath exadly kept the Law, and is made unto us ivif- 
dom^ Juftice, San&ification and Redemption, fo faith 
the Apoftle. But no furety in this kind . That which 
is the duty of Man, is every Mans own duty, and muft 
be performed in his own Perfon. True indeed it is, Chrift 
our Lord fulfilled the Law exaftly, but that we may 
break it in our felves, and yet at the fame time fulfil it in 
him that is our Mediator, this I take it, is not fo true. 


ZJpon Eccles, xii. verfe i 3. 79 

The Apoftle faith indeed, that he accounted all things Phil- 3- 
loft and dung too, that he might be found in Chriji, 
not having his own righteoufnefs, which ts of the Law, 
but the righteoufnefs which is of God by faith. Yea far- 
ther, that God made him to-be fin for us, that knew 
no fin, that we might be made the righteoufnefs of God 
in him 5 but yet this righteoufnefs of God is not to be 
taken for Gods own righteoufnefs, but only as he (aid 
in the former place, for the righteoufnefs which is of God 
by Faith ) which righteoufnefs includes both juftificati- 
on, which is imputative, andfinftification, which is in- 
herent $ but yet neither in St. Paul's fence, is our own, 
becaufe not of the Law, but of grace and mercy by the 
faith of Chrift. Be it then, that Chrift is made unto us Ju- 
ftice and San&ification both, yea Wifdom and Redempti- 
on alfo, yet not all after one and the fame manner : Wif- 
dom he is made, becaufe he hath revealed his Fathers 
will : Redemption,becaufe he hath appointed a day to vin- 
dicate his Children out of the hands of corruption into 
liberty, which is glorious : Juftice, becaufe he hath of- 
fered up himfelf a Sacrifice for fin 5 but San&ification, 
becaufe he hath given us his Spirit. Chrift therefore un- 
to us, is all thefe, but yet not all thefe by imputation^ 
for then his Wifdom fhould be imputed too, yea and e- 
ven the redemption of our bodies from the grave impu- 
tative alfo. Indeed we can dream willingly of nothing 
but imputation. All feems nothing worth unlefs Chrift 
did fo do all for us, as we may not have any thing to do 
for our fclves. I doubt we may come in time to con- 
ceive, that he did believe and repent for us too, for thefe 
are his Commandments, and fo believe only this, that 
neither Faith nor Repentance are in our perfons necefla- 
ry. For if Chrift as a furcty hath abfolutely undertaken 
any thing for us ; we like the (cape-Goat muft go free up • 

Oil I 

80 A Sermon of the Duty of Man 

on his performance } The fame debt may not with ju- 
•ftice be required of the furety and principal too 3 iffo, 
then do what we lift, all things are done to our hands 
already 5 O this were to be a gracious Saviour to pur- 
pofe, if we might take our pleafure, ryot in Intempe- 
rance and Luxury, and withal have his Abftinence and 
Moderation imputed to us, be beheld of God at the time, 
as no lefs Temperate and Chafte than Chrift himfelf. Were 
it not glad tidings, a Gofpel indeed, that we might be 
Feafting, Caroufing, Swearing, Drinking, and yet under 
the eye of God at the fame inftant, asif we were Watch- 
ing, Falling, Praying, Weeping even with Chrift him- 
felf in the Garden ? As though God beheld Men through 
Chrift, as Men do other things, by a perfpe&ive, which re- 
prefenteth them to the Eye not in their own colours, but 
in the colour of the glafs they pais through. No, God is 
not deceived with fhadows, neither doth Chrift caft any 
fuch : He takes not good for evil, nor yet evil, no not for 
Chrifts fake, ever for good : And let not us be deceived 
with vain (hews neither 5 The truth is, it is well, that up- 
on our Repentance we are juftified by imputation, we 
fhall be too putative, if we conceipt an imputed fanfti- 
fication too : for twofuch imputations will not well agree 
together^ one of them will be needlefs ever or impofli- 
ble for juftification, that is, remiffionof fins is it felffuf- 
ficient without imputation of farther fan&ity, becaufe as 
St. Aufiin hath it, Omnia ut fa&a deputantur^ quatido 
quodjattum non eji ignofcitur 5 And perfed fan&ifica- 
tion imputed on the other fide, will leave no room for 
remiffion or imputative juftification : fo Chrifts death 
might have beenfpared,fince we (hould then befaved by 
his life 5 for what ufe may there be of his blood for Re- 
miffion, fo long as beheld in his righteoufnefs, that ne- 
ver finned > If no finner, he needs no pardon 3 if he need a 


Vpn E c c l e s. xii. verfe 15. 81 

pardon, he mud of neceffity be beheld as a (inner, and 
therefore Remiflion of fins and perfcft Righteoufnefs are 
oppofite forms that cannot at the fame time pofiibly be 
imputed unto the fame perfon, for they expel and fhut 
out one another. Let it fuffice then, that our bleffed Lord 
vouchfafed to died his blood for our (ins, let us not there- 
fore fuppofe that we are not bound to forfake them our 
felves , that were to (hed his blood afreth and crucifie 
him again, as the Apoftle fpeaks. But as he did that for us, 
which if we negleft it not, will prove our justification 5 
fo we through his affiftance muft do this for our felves, 
otherwife we fhall want our fanftification, and wanting 
it, want the other alfo : That indeed is the meer a& of 
God, but on thofe that are qualified for it : This pro- 
ceeds from God and his grace, but is the true duty of 
man, and which gives him his qualification, and in man 
therefore it muft inhere 5 for the righteoufnefs of juftifi- 
cation is perfeft, but not inherent, but the righteoufnefi 
of fan&ification now inherent but not perfect, hereafter 
in that glory, whither it leads us, it will be both perfeft 
and inherent, yea inherent, perfeft and perpetual alfo. 
Rightly therefore to conclude all this righteoufnefsof the 
Commandments, the duty of man ftill, and (ince Faith is 
included in it, as being now commanded, as rightly the 
whole duty of man: That duty which doth accomplifh 
his eleftion ^ for if any man purge himfelf from thefe 
things, he foall be a vejjelunto honour 5 fulfils the end 
of his Creation, created unto good works, that we 
might vcaik^ therein \ makes effectual the Divine Voca- 
tion, for we are called unto holinefi^ is it (elf our fan- 
dtification, fox the Commandment is holy and jttfi and 
good 5 procures our juftification, they wrought righte- 
oufnefs and gained the promifes ; and laftly leads into 
Glory, for they that have their fruit in holinefs^ have 

M their 

82 A Sermon of the Duty of Man, &c. 

their md) everlajling life. That fruit here, this bleffed 
end hereafter, the God of Glory grant unto us all in 
his Kingdom, even for Jefus Chrift his fake the righte- 
ous. To whom with the Father and the holy Spirit, &c» 



O F 


Coming toJUDGMENT. 

Upon Matt. xvi. 27. 

for th Son ofSMan [ball come in the glory of Us Pa- 
tier with his Angels : And then he p?all regard e= 
very man according to his works, 

ILeft untouched in my former Text the fecond rea- 
fon wherewith Solomon ends his Book, and con- 
firms his Conclufion of, Fear God and keep his 
Commandments, which is this, For God Jfjall britig e- 
very » or \into judgment with every fecret thing, whe- 
ther it be good or whether it be evil. And rTow for va- 
riety fake I have chofen to profecute the feme fubje& 5 
not in Solomons words, but in our Saviour's , for thefe 

M 2 are 

84 A Sermon ofCbrifis coming to Judgment 

are infer'd unto the fame end, and much to o after the 
fame manner. 

In the verfes precedent, What fljall it profit a man 
((aith Chrift) to gain the whole world and lofe his own 
foul, or what foall a man give in exchange far his foul ? 
Asifhs hadiaid, Gain any man what he lift or what he 
can, be it never fo much Cfor the world indeed runs all 
after gain and never enough) yet if by this means he come 
at laft to lofe his own Soul, there is no profit in it. He 
will ftill be a lofer by his gain. Or on the other fide, lofe 
in this life whatfoever he hath, or may lofe, Pleasures, 
Profits, Honours or any thing elfe, even Life it felf, yet 
if in the loft of all other things, he may prefer ve and 
gainWs own Soul, he will be a winner eveain his lolings. 
To keep his Soul, he can part with nothing that is too 
dear} or if he would part with his Soul, he can receive 
nothing that is dear enough: for what can either way be 
of fufficient value tomakeajuft exchange for the Soul ? 
But yet fo it is, fmall things are given in exchange for 
great, and according to the momentany works and beha- 
viour of men here, fo (hall their Souls be gained or loft e- 
ternally hereafter. For the fon of man, &c. 

The words deliver up themfelvesunto us in thefe parti- 

1. The perfon,y?/i«j ho-minis^ that here is his appella- 
tion, The Son of man. 

2. The appearance of this Perfon once more unto the 
world, vent nr us eft, he pall come. 

3. The form or manner of his coming, in gldria pa- 
trh in the glory of his Father. 

4. The end or purpofe of his coming, for retribution, 
& tunc reddet, then Jhall he reward. 

5. The impartiality of it, without refpeft of any mans 
perfon, reddet unicuique, he Jfjati reward every man. 

6. And laftly, the juftnefs of his reward, in due pro- 


ZJfon Mat. xvi. verfe 27. 85 

portion to his defert, He flail reward every man, fe- 
cuxdum opera fua, according to his workj. 

The points lie in the fame order, as the words do in 
the Text, and therefore 1 (hall handle them without any 
material tranfpofuion, beginning firft with the Perfon, 
that here fpeaks this of himfelf, and his appellation, filins 
hominis, The fon of man. 

He that was both God and Man, may ftile himfelf as 
he pleafe by either } but yet our bleffcd Lord (whether 
to intimate his love unto our whole kind, or to inftruft 
us in the imitation of his humility) ufually makes choice 
of the meaneft of his Titles, and though the Son of God, 
yet fcldom or never fpeaks of himfelf, but in the Stile 
and Title F/lii hominis, of the Son of Man. 

But yet as he affumes it, it is no vulgar or common ftile 
neither: for he affumes it with a difference and diftin&i- 
on from all other the Sons of men whatfoever : for it is 
o ws t£ aVGpwVu, The or That fon of Man 5 the fon of 
Man after fuch a fpecial and eminent manner, as will 
make it a peculiar title, an Attribute proper only unto 
himfelf and applyable unto no other. As for our felvesj 
we are all Filii hominnm, Sons of Men indeed, in the 
plural, he only in the fingular, and therefore he only 
Angularly, Filins hominis, the Son of man. Homo hath 
both genders, and here in the right fence it is only fe- 
minine, and Filins hominis, no more than ftmen Muli- 
erfr, the Son of man, than the feed of the Woman the 
Son of the (he-man 5 for Son of man but in this regard he 
was not, as being that mighty ftone in Daniel^ cut out 
of the mountain without hands, and flos campi^ the flow- 
er not of the Garden but of the field, growing up with- 
out letting: for he, who as the Son of God, had a Fa- 
ther, but no Mother f, as the Son of man, had a Mother, 
but without any Father, and therefore by the Mothers 
fide only Filins hominis^ the Son of Man, There wag 


86 A Sermon ofCbrifls coming to judgment 

indeed a woman once, that wasfilia hominis 5 Eve taken 
out of Adam, without the help of woman 5 as Chrift 
our Lord filins hontinis, taken out of woman without 
the affiftance of man. And as Eve the daughter of man, 
was both daughter and wife unto her own Father : So 
Chrift the Son of Man, was both (on and husband unto his 
own mother : And being Son unto that Mother, in Her he 
was the Son of her Anceftors, of David and Abraham 
and others, but not otherwife, for no defcendant from 
them, or any other was ever or might be his natural and 
immediate Father. Of neceffity, therefore, the Son of 
Man can be no more, than the Son of the bleffed Virgin, 
that is, the fbn of a woman : And however in relation 
unto God, Chrift though both God and man, may not 
have two fon-(hips, the one as man the other as God, as 
God, the natural, and as man, the adopted, becaufe the 
Relation of a Son adheres not to the Nature, but to the 
Perfon, and fo having but one Perfon cannot have two 
filiations : yet nothing doth hinder but that in reference 
unto fome other, this whole Perfon, though the Son of 
God, may rightly be termed the Son of Man alfo. For when 
the Son of God vouchfafed not to abhor the Virgins womb, 
he then received a new Relation,and being brought forth 
into the world, though otherwife the Son of God, he 
now became really the fon of a woman , and (he that 
brought him forth as truly Deipara, the very Mother of 
Cod. In regard whereof St. Peter being demanded by 
our Saviour, who do men fay, that I the Son of man \ 
<*z*,Anfwers, Th esfilius dei viventis^ Thou the Son of 
m-an art the Son of the ever-living God 5 Two Son- 
fhips and but one Perfon, but in regard of two feveral 
relations, and that unto two (everal Perfons : The prime 
Article This of our Faith,and foundation of that Church, 
againft which the gates of Hell (hall never prevail.TheSon 
of God then, and the Son of Man too : The Son of Man 


Vpon Matth. xvi. verfe 2 7. 87 

he was here, before he went hence, and as the Son of Man 
he (hall return again. For fo it follows in the fecond place, 
Filius hominis venture eft, The Son ofManfiallcome. 

And come indeed he (hall, nothing more fure :, but 
the when, the Time of his Coming, than that nothing 
more uncertain. And therefore without all limitation is 
doubthilly delivered here, and indefinitely, only with a 
vent urns eft. He (hall come, and no more. 

Our Saviour would have all men ftand upon their 
guard, be vigilant and watchful for that hour, have their 
Loyns ever girt and their Oyle always ready in their 
Lamps $ for that cry at midnight may come at unaware^ 
and for this reafon he would have men aware of it. 
That it cannot be long hence indeed, he hath given fufc 
ficient warning, (hewn it clear unto all. For a thoufand 
years it is and fix hundred (ince it was faid, Thefe are the 
laft times, yea Hora novijfiMj, the laft hour, and Judex 
fr&foribns, the Judge is at the doors $ and that Judge him- 
felf in the laft of the Revelation, Ecce venio cito, behold 
1 come quickly^ and my reward *f with we: but how 
much time this Quickly hath in it, how near or far off 
it may be, this he hath not (hovvn unto any, yea hath re- 
futed to (hew unto his own, though defired by his own 
Apoftles : But keeps it as a fecret, reierved unto himfel£ 
and to be referved for ever in his own bofom : The Angels 
in Heaven underftand it not, yea the Son of man himfelfj 
that is to come as the Son of man only, that is in his hu- 
mane nature, he doth not, he cannot difcovdr the time of 
his coming. How vain then are the endeavours and en- 
quiries of all other impotent and ignorant men ? And yet 
mans bufy head muft needs be workings nothing can re- 
(train his curiofity from prying at leaft, and though he 
cannot poffibly affirm any thing for certain , yet he will 
be bold to deliver his coRjefturc, And conjeftures indeed 
there have been many 3 but all no le(s team han 

88 A Sermon of Chrifts -coming to Judgment 

vain. The Aftrologian, and the Philofopher will needs 
have it fall out juft in the fatal period of the great Pla- 
tonickyear j when all the Sphearsand Stars fixt and wan- 
dering (hall return again unto their firft points and pofiti- 
ons, wherewith they were originally afpe&ed : But a 
Platonick year ( were any fuch poflible) would fooner be 
fpent, I fuppofe, than thefe wife men agree among them- 
felves, when and what time this great Revolution will be 
fini(hed : This attempt therefore as rafh and vain, fo ri- 
diculous alfo. The Modern Jews and Talmudifts feem 
to go upon better grounds,and with them fomeof the Fa- 
thers, as LaUantim and others, thefe all refolve the for- 
mer for certain, the latter in a ftrong opinion upon fix 
thoufand years for the worlds continuance, two thoufand 
under the Law of Nature, two thoufand under that of 
Mofes , and two thoufand under the Gofpel of Grace: 
And that thefe once expired, the fon of man then comes 
without fail in the glory of the Father. And the truth is, 
they have fome (hews of reafbn and pretty congruities to 
countenance their divinations : Some of the Rabbies by 
their Cabal learning have found this out even in the firft 
verfe of Genejis , where Alpha^ the firft of the Hebrew 
Alphabet, and the Numerical letter that denotes the num- 
ber of thoufand, is juft (as they obferve) fix times written: 
That fo the worldsAge and diffolution might bemyfteriouf- 
iy read in the very front and forehead of the worlds Crea- 
tion: which in the Creation it felf,and the manner of it, is, 
they fuppofemuch more legible, as farther typed out,and 
more fully djfcovered. For in fix days, it pleafed God to 
create the Heaven and the Earth and all that is therein,and 
on the feventh day he refted : And to (hew that this con- 
cerned mans continuance of Travel in this world,God after- 
wards commanded him alfo fix days to labour, and to ob- 
ferve the feventh for a Sabbath, the figure of Eternal reft 
in the Heavens: now mi lie anni coram Deo 7 ficut dies 


Vpn Mat. xvi. zierfe 27. 89 

una-) A thousand years with the Lord are but as one day s 
one day therefore in fignification here , as a thoufand 
years 3 And the felf fame, they would have yet farther 
infinuated in the firft Patriots and Progenitors of this 
new-born world, Generis hnmani fat ores , the firft 
ftorers of the Earth with Mankind : fix fucceded one 
another in order, and then died: Adam y Seth, Enos^ 
Cain an, Mahalaleel. and Jared? but Enoch the feventh 
from Adam was translated, taken up to walk with God, 
as the type and figure of all his Children. To thefe, 
others add divers other futable inftances. That the Ark^ Gen. viiL 
of Noah , the Type of the Militant Church, floated fix 4% 
Months on the Waters, and that in the feventh it refted 
on the mountain. That Mofes fix days was in the Cloud, E XO d. 
and in the (eventh was called unto the prefence of the xxm l6 - 
Lord. That Jerico, the figure of this world, as being 
oppofed unto Jerufalem , the type of that to come, be- \f?' vl 
ing fix days compaffedby the command of God, in the 
feventh fell utterly , and ruined , which happened too, 
juft as the Ifraelites were going off the Wildernefs to 
poflefs their promifed Land. Some more yet there are 
to this purpofe, but of another (train, and fetcht (bme- 
thing farther. There be, that fifh for it out of the fix- 
fcore years given to the old world for amendment, before 
the coming of the Flood , which though in that regard 
literally meant, yet in a myftery thefe, fay they, do de- 
fign as many great years, or years Mofaical, and Jubilar, 
every one whereof contained fifty of the common and or- 
dinary, and then fifty drawn on fix-fcore, every (core pro- 
ducing a thoufand,theproduft that refults from the whole 
mult needs be juft fi\ r thoufand years, the general (pace 
they conceive for the repentance of the whole world, 
before the coming of the fecond deluge, diluvium ig- 
nis, that deluge of Fire. The (ame thefe Men colled 
likewife from the life of Afofes, who lived precifcly a 

N hundred 

90 A Sermon of-Cbrifis coming to Judgment 

hundred and twenty years,forty years in the Courtof ?h&- 
r<*0/6,whichanfwers, asthey would have it, unto two thou- 
fand years under Nature 3 forty years in the Delart with 
Jethra, keeping Sheep on the backfide of Roreb, which 
refponds unto two thoufand under the Law given in that 
Mountain 5 and forty years in the wilderneis governing 
the people of: God, and leading them on unto their Land 
of reft, which defign the other two thoufand under the 
conduit and Kingdom of Chrift our Lord, who, when 
thefe (hall be once elapfed and fpent,will come again and 
deliver up the Kingdom unto his Father. Sofome^ But 
La8antiui and others otherwife, That he (hall come in- 
deed at the end of fix thoufand years, but the end for all 
that,is not yet : For he (hall fpend,they fuppofe, a thoufand 
L years in a kingdom of Rjghteoufnefs upon Earth, as a fpiri- 
tual Sabbath from fin, which firft kept, they (hall then pafs 
into that great and eternal Sabbath of Glory even for ever. 
Thefe may be pretty Speculations (to fay no worie of 
them) but they cannot conclude any thing : They are lit- 
tle better than what that learned man tearms them, Com- 
menta, quibus malignm tile humana detinet ingenia : 
fomething indeed they have of wit, much of curiofity, but 
of certainty nothing at all.For fuppofe the conje&ure true, 
were fix thoufand years as they would have it, the full 
period of the Worlds age, yet what could certainly be 
difcovered from thence, when the different Calculators 
thernfelves are at a fault, or rather an unrecoverable lofs 
concerning the juftage of the world, and how much of 
itisfpent already? But what need fuch computations > 
Excellently-St. Aujiin. Omnium cte hac re calculantium- 

digitos.. 0... & quiefeere jubet, qui ait^ non eji 

veftrum nofcere, &c. He raps all Accountants on the 
fingers and commands them to ceafe, who fays, it is not 
-for you to know the times and the feafons, which the 
Father- hath put in hir own power. What the Son of God 


ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfe 27. 91 

withfuch a check refufed to reveal,why (hould any other 
the fons of men dare prefume to fearch, or think to dis- 
cover } But fuch are the crofs, and prepofterous ways of 
perverfe Mortals, ever attempting to know, where they 
are enjoyned to be ignorant 5 and there for the moft af- 
fecting ignorance, where God moft requires their know- 

Otherwife we might find other computations, much 
fitter to be bufyed in 5 forbear counting of the Times, 
and think rather upon that, Redde rationem Vilicati- 
onk, how we may make up our own Accounts againft 
that day, which when all calculations are ended, will not- 
withftanding fteal upon the world undefcryed, like a 
Thief, faith our Saviour, in the night, when men leaft 
dream of it, overtake even thefe bufie Calculators, as the 
Enemy did Archimedes drawing his Circles for preven- 
tion, in the duft, and not fuffer him to finifh his diagrams, 
nor Thefe peradventure their Computations : For as it was 
in the days of Noah , men eat and drank and married 
fecurely until the Flood came and carried all away : So 
faith he himfelf, will it be at the coming of the Son of 
man, who will come as a fweeping deluge indeed , yea 
much more unrefiftable, For he fo all come in power, and 
Majejiy , and great glory ^ even in gloria Patris. Our 
third Point. 

The Son of man JJjall come in the glory of his F ather. 
For though the time of his coming be concealed, yet 
not fo the manner of it, That indeed is plainly expreft, 
and revealed unto all 5 but in fuch and fo high terms, as 
mortal man can no way worthily fpeak of 5 no nor 
rightly in any degree conceive in his thoughts, until he 
fhall come to fee and behold it with his Eyes. Then 
indeed and then only he (hall know what it is to come in 
gloria Patris^ in the glory of the Father, 

He came once already in the days of his humiliation, 

N 2 and 

9 2 A Sermon ofChrijis coming to Judgment 

and then he came Filius hominis, the Son of Man, em- 
ptying himfelf of his Divine Honour, and vailing it up in 
the cloud of our mortality, when he was content tofuf- 
fer himfelf to be contemned, fcorn'd and derided, reviled, 
Ipit upon and buffeted, fcourged with whips, and crown- 
ed with thorns, until he became a worm, and no Man, 
having neither form nor beauty why we fhould defire 
him, and. lad of all crucified on a Tree : But now the 
fcene comes to be altered , the face of things utterly 
changed .• That was dies hominis, Mans day indeed, and 
the hour of the powers of darknefs .• They did then 
what they lift, and he was pleafed to fufFer whatfoever 
they lift to do. Now comes dies Domini, and the Lord 
(hall have his day too : He will now be aftive, and men 
another while muft be content to fuffcr every one accord- 
ing to his defervings* This poor defpifed filius hominis, 
this worm, without form or beauty to be delired, will 
now appear in the ftrength of his Glory, as the Sun 
breaking out of a Cloud, or the Lightning out of the 
Eaft, ftriking all eyes even with aftonifhment at his beau- 
ty and brightnels, yea and make all faces, all faces of the 
wicked gather blacknefs too to behold it .• For as every 
hand hath wounded him, fo every eye (hall fee him 
whom they have pierced, but not every eye endure the 
fight of fuch overawing and dreadful Majefty, as (hall 
draw them to embrace Rocks, and cry unto deaf Moun- 
tains to cover them from the prefence of the Lamb and 
him that fitteth on the Throne, for he now comes in 
gloria, Patris, 

But why in the Glory of the Father? Indeed at his 
firft appearance it was, Ecce Rex tuns venit mitis^ Be- 
hold thy King comet h unto thee meek^, fitting on an Afs 
and the foal of an Afs. Now it is, Ecce Judex tuus ve- 
nit terribilis •■> Behold thy Judge cometh with terrour 
flying vpon the mings. of the, mind^ . and riding upon 


ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfe 27. 93 

Cherubim, as the Pfalmift fpeaks, yea many Cherubins 
and Scraphins, millions and myriads of holy Angels at- 
tending on his Glorious Ma jefty, when the whole Earth 
and Heavens too (hall be filled with the Majefty of his 
Glory 5 Bccaufe he endured the Crofs and defpifed the 
fhame,valued not his life, but humbled and bowed down 
his Soul even unto death, therefore God now exalts him, 
lets him on high, yea gives him a name above all names, 
whereat the knees, that now are fo ftiff, (hall then, will 
they nill they, bow and bend, and the tongue of eve- 
ry one confeis, lundando, as he fpeaks vcl nlulando, 
that Jefus is the Lord, to the Glory of the Father 5 for he 
now comes in gloria Patris, in the Fathers Glory. He 
comes at this time for Judgment, and that originally be- 
longs unto the Father 5 Vengeance is mine, I will re- 
compence, faith the Lord, But yet the Father judgeth 
no man, faith Chrift, but hath referred all judgment to 
the Son, evtnfilio hominis, to this Son of man, to whom 
as man he hath given all power both in Heaven and 
Earth: The (on indeed himfelf even as the fon of God, 
is a Receiver from the Father, even of the Glory which 
he hath 5 for glory he receives from him, from whom he 
receives his Eflence the fountain of glory, as having his 
very being not of himfelf but of the Father, Fons Dei- 
tat is, the fountain that communicates the Deity imme- 
diately to the other perfons, folely unto the Son, who 
is therefore Dens de Deo, God of Cod and light of light'. 
Yet having received it from eternity, it is his own, even 
his Fathers both eilence and glory, and fo though God 
of God and light of light, yet becaufe the fame both God 
and light, he is in Majefty equal, in Glory coeternal & e* 
qual without robbery, faith the Apoftle, and though not 
without reception, yet without any duty of gratitude 
for the receipt, as receiving it, not by a free and volut> 
tary, but by a generation no left natural .and. (imply ne- 


94 -d Sermon ofChrifls coming to Judgment 


ceffary than abfolutely eternal. For which reafons he is 
elfewhere faid to come, not in gloria, Patris^ but in glo- 
ria fua, even in his own glory : when the Son of Man 

Matt. 25. ^ a ^ come ** T ? ^V a ' UT * m ^ s own glory, as he doth 
here, perd t<£v dyyixwv dvrZ with his own Angels. In 
the glory of the Father and with his Angels. And his 
Angels fure they are whom they are commanded to adore 
and worfhip. Worfoip him all ye Angels of his. All of 
them muft worfhip, and all attend on him now, even 
the whole Quire and Court of Heaven, not an Angel 

Mao. 2$, left behind, for he (hall come with all the Angels. No 
marvel if Daniel faid, thoufand thoufands Jl)all minijier 
unto him^and ten thoufand times ten thoufand fialijiand 
before him in that day : what a preftnce of ftate indeed 
will this be, how full and every way Majeftick ! But 
yet thefe are not only for State and Majefty, at this time, 
but for miniftration alio. Thouland thoufands (hall mi- 
nifter unto him, for the time is now come when that of 
the Apoftle, out of David^ is to be fulfilled, He Jfjal/ 
make his minifiers a flaming fire, at leaftto minifter to 
thofe flames that (hall never be quenched 5 for the great 
Harveft of the world is now come, and their imployment 
in it, is fet down before-hand. The Angels muft be the 
Reapers. Thefe are they that muft feparate the Sheep 
from the Goats, fever the Tares from the Wheat. We 
may be too forward in plucking them up now, indanger 
the good Corn, 'twere beft let this alone for them whofe 
proper office it is, and will do it exaftly, gather the 
Tares in fafiiculos into bundles,asthe Text hath it, bind 
them up too,and caji them into ever lafiing fires .Bind them 
in bundles indeed, to tell us that finners in the fame kind 
fhall be fure to participate in the fame punifhment. The 
profeft and mercilefs Mamonift with all his brokers and 
bribing minifters that affift his inceftuous money to en- 
gender on it felf, in one bundle bound up now, and pre- 


ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfi 27. 95 

fently burning in bands of their own parchments. The 
tatter'd young Prodigal whom they undo, with his Tap- • 
fters and Drawers, and the whole knot of Roarers and 
Ranters about him, taken all as in a net, and bound up 
m another bundle. The Adulterer and his Miftris the A- 
dulterefi with the Chamber Attendant, and all other the 
fordid Faftors, that truck and traffick between them, 
trufs'tuponan inftant in a third fardle, and as nafty asa- 
ny of th^r other. All indeed and many more the like fit 
Faggots and Fuel for thole devouring, but not confum- 
ing Hames. Their time is come, and thither they mutt, 
to receive the juft recompence of their way*, for that is 
the end of Chrifts coming, who now comes for general 
Retribution and due reward unto all. Et tunc reddct 
unicuiq\ &c. And then (hall he reward, Sec. 

The Then here, was omitted in the divifion, but may 
not be fo in our difcourfe 5 for there feems to be an 
Emphafis, aftrong Accent on if, on this particle of time 
ys.\ tots, and then he JIj a U render unto every man ac- 
cording to his works. And fure it is fomething well yet, 
a comfortable hearing to thofe, that have clear bofoms, 
that yet there is a Then in ftore, a time that will come at 
laft, when every one (hall receive a reward according to 
his works. Here on earth (the Babel ofconfufion) where 
all things are mixed and blended together, no mans 
works can well be difcerned or judged of by the reward 
he receiveth. The reward of the righteous fbmetimes 
f^tppens to the wicked, faith Solomon, and the reward of 
the wicked is fbmetimes given to the right eouf. No m in 
can know either good or evil by all that is before him. 
Some rare examples indeed there now and then fall out, 
when evil men are filled with their own devices, and 
made to eat the fruits of their own planting. As I have 
done, faith Aclonibe&ec^ unto others^ fo Gad hath re- 
quited xte 5 and fo he requites many more. Bangs them 

a6 A Sermon of Chrifts coming to Judgment 

up fometimes like Raman on their own Gallows, or bu- 
ries them in the pit which themfelves have digged. This 
God fometimes doth, that we may know his providence 
fleepeth not even for the prefent. Yet this he doth but 
feldom, faith St. Augnjtine, that we may confider there is 
a day of judgement to come, and the nearer that day ap- 
proacheth, the more rare and feldom are exhibited fuch 
remarkable examples. The indignation of the Almigh- 
ty, that was wont in former Ages to follow notorious 
wickednefi at the heels with as notable and exemplary 
revenge, now in thefe latter times, the day of final ac- 
counts draws nigh on,feems to flacken the pace and come 
leifurely after at a diftance, God inhibiting as it were the 
inferiour Courts of his Juftice upon earth againft the ap- 
proach of the great day of his general vifitation in the 
Clouds. In the mean time, becaufe it is mans day , this, he 
permits men for the moft part unto themfelves, fleers 
the line of his providence, fuffers them to run on at plea- 
sure in their own courfes, and men thus permitted to 
themfelves are oftentimes fure but ill Judges and worfe 
rewarders of their brethren. For the malevolent and 
malignant world prone to calumniate the nobleft aftions, 
doth ufually reward men not according to their works, 
but its own malignancy. It is not judgment but fancy and 
faftion , that now adays gives a futable cenfure on all 
mens ways and aftions. But it is little material, for bexe* 
facere &tnale audire Regium eft. That of the Poet is 
moft true, and will be ever, virtutetMpr<efentevt odimur y 
envy never fails to attend on prefent vertue, urit enim 
fttlgcre [ho, and the more eminent it is, the more it pro- 
vokes unto envy 3 but yet that which follows is true al- 
fo, fublatam ex oculis cjutfrimus invidi, future times 
when it is gone, will do it right and reward it with ho- 
nour; But however, if they do not, yet it is but fit, that 
virtue fhould be put to the true Teft, and give proof of 


Vfon M a t. xvi. verfe 27. 97 

her fincerity. Every man can eafily purfue thofe attempts 
that are feconded with vulgar applaufe : but to go on 
with courage, though met in the face, and followed at 
the heels with ftorms of reproaches and unfavory calum- 
niations j in this cafe non fefnbducere nimbo^ not to de- 
cline thofe (bowers, run to every bu(h for (belter, but 
to bear up manfully notwithftanding into the very eye 
of the wind and weather, Hoc demum eft pietas, hoc 
qnoq, fortis amor^ this is virtue indeed, true and appro- 
ved love unto God and goodnefi, removed utterly from 
the danger of thofe by-refpe&s of Pride and vain-glory, 
the cruel Widwifes oiEgypt^ appointed by the infernal 
Pharaoh to ftifle and fmother the Children of the Ifra- 
elitesin the very day of their birth. No matter there- 
fore how it goes here with men, that judge fecundum 
facie m, according to appearance, as St. John fpeaks, or 
rather fometimes without any appearance at all. That 
which is the ftay and folid comfort of every man, is with- 
in him, in his own bofome, where he is aflured his work 
is with his God, that judgeth righteous judgment, and 
will have his time at laft to make all things manifeft, and 
reveal the fecrets of all hearts, when fmother'd righte- 
oufnefi (ball break forth as the light, and juft dealing as 
the noon day. For as Solomon rightly, he that ponders Provxxiv 
the hearty doth conftder it^ and he that ^eepeth thy Soul^ i 2 . 
doth know it, and he it is that (ball reward every man 
according to his works. In the mean time that of the A- 
poftle is feafonable, patientes ejiote fratres ufq'*, in ad- 
ventnm domini, be ye patient until the coming of the 
Lord 5 for when he doth come, then every mans works 
fhall appear, and then indeed he will reward every man 
according to his works. But what ! is not the reward gi- 
ven until then ? not until the coming of the Lord ? A 
reward (ure there is even in the prefent life, but it lies (e- 
cret in the Confcience \ a greater reward unto the fepa- 

O rated 

9 8 A Sermon ofChrifts coming to Judgment 

rated Soul after death 5 yet the fulnefs of reward I con- 
ceive (though I contend with no man) not until the day 
of refurre&ion, In the mean time the departed Soul lives, 
it doth not die to be raifed again, like the body, as the 
Socinian would have it 5 nor yet deep out the time in a 
Trance, as others affirm 5 but this is certain, the Souls of 
the righteous are in the hand of 'God ', fo faith the Wife 
man 3 yea more, they are thus far bleffed that die in 
the Lord, for they reft from their labours, fo faith the 
Spirit 5 nay farther yet, they are in refrigerio, in a joy- 
ful refrefhing with Abraham, fo faith the Parable of La- 
zarus 1 yea in a Paradife of delight, fo faith Chrift unto 
the good Thief upon the Crofs. And therefore where - 
ever they are, be the place what or where it will, Abra- 
hams bofom, or Paradife, or under the Altar, there they 
are undoubtedly where the glory of Chrift (bines unto 
them and on them with full aflurance of the like glory 
fhortly to be revealed, and wherewith themfelves (hall 
be indefeffibly inverted. In the prefentation and contem- 
plation whereof mirabili quadamvoluptate afficiuntur 
& exultant^ Their affe&ions, faith Gregory Nazian- 
zen^ even exult with marvellous delight, which can be 
no lefs than a Paradife of pleafure unto them : But yet, 
that they now are already in that happy place, or in the 
aftual fruition of that full happinefi and glory, which 
fhall hereafter give them the fulnefs of their reward, this 
the Scriptures do not feem to teach, nor the Fathers to 
affirm, but a great confent of both may be rather found 
to the contrary. Of thofe that departed this life before 
the coming of Chrift our Lord in the flefh, or his going 
away again, and attending into the higheft Heavens 5 
via in fan&um fanUorum nondum propalata, as the A- 
eeb.ix. 8. poftle fpeaks unto the Hebrew /, that of the fame Apoftle 
may not be denied, All thefe died and received not the 
promifes, bnt beheld them a far off. And that very be- 

ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfe 27. 99 

holding was their refrefhing it fcems, in that place of reft 
where they lay after death, as it were at anchor, in a 
calm and quiet Harbour, free from thole winds and tern- 
pefts wherewith they were beaten, whilft they flood off 
at Sea, in the painful Navigation of this life, for fo the 
word^Axoi in the Greek, and finus in the Latine may 
import, and fo iheophylaU doth expound Abrahams 
Bay, as well as Abrahams Bofome. But yet though at 
reft, they as yet, faith he, received not the promifes* 
and he gives his reafon for it too, God having provided 
fome better thing for hs> that they without ns Jhould *' y 
not be made perfcff. Which reafon too will ferve for all 
others that died fince the Afcenfion of our Saviour. For 
as it was not convenient they fhould be made perfect 
without us, fo neither that we our felves fhould be made 
perfed without the reft of our brethren ; If any were 
fo, who fooner than the Souls of thofe Saints and Mar- 
tyrs that refuted not even death for Chrift and his Got 
pel? And yet even thefe are arrayed only in white 
Robes, as Candidati, and ready dreft in their wedding 
apparrel for the marriage of the Lamb, but are willed 
withal to reft a while, nntiltheir fellow frvants and the, 
reft of their brethren to be /lain li fa wife fhould be ful- 
filled alfo. That fo all might be perfected together, and 
by three degrees according to the three eftates, of life, 
death and judgment, draw on unto the fulnefs of that 
perfe&ion, as having a good hope in life, infallible at 
furance in death, and plenary polleffion at the refurre&i- 
on. In life here we walk by Faith, we fee not God : In 
the eftate after death we fee him, but afar off, as the 
Apoftlefpeaks^ but at the Refurre&ion face to face. Here 
in this world we lie as cripples in Solomons Porch, but 
cured by the name of Jefus, death carrieth us into the 
body of the Temple where we are leaping for joy, exult- 
ing and praifing God 5 but the day of Chrift will draw 

O 2 the 

oo A Sermon of Chrifls coming to Judgment 

the Veil, lead us into the Holy of Holies, where God him- 
(elf dwells between the Cherubvns. Laftly, now upon 
earth we are Militant, P^«^^re/,wreftlers and warriours, 
in death we are declared Vidours and Conquerors : but 
in the refurre&ion, triumphant, and crowned even with 
that Crown of Right eoufnef, which the Lord, the j aft 
Judge will give, faith St. Paul, in die iUo, in that day: 
laid up indeed before, as he there fpeaks, but not be- 
fore that day, it feems, to be given, but then it (hall, for 
then he JJ) all reward, &c. > 

The like on the other fide, may well be conceived of 
the wicked 5 their Souls as foon as departed enter into 
fbrrows, and torments 5 the worm that (hall never die, 
begins prefently to feed upon them, but drench'd, it feems, 
as yet they are not in that lake of fire, which fhall never 
be quenched, and will be the fuinefs of their reward. 
The Devils themfelves are not yet there, and therefore 
are bold to fay unto our Saviour, Art thou come to tor- 
went #r, ante tempm, before our time I A fet time fure 
there is appointed for that , In the interim, as the Crown is 
referved for the Righteous, fc thefe and all their Adhe- 
rents, are referved, it feems, unto that day, which fhall 
give them the full accomplithment of their forrows : So 
Vfrfe 6. St. Jude, Referved in chains under darkjtefs unto the 
judgment of the great dap This they all know and can- 
not without horrour think of it 5 They believe therefore^ 
Jam. iii. faith St. James, and tremble. And fo likewife all other 
the Spirits lewd and diabolical people, they underftand 
their final and fearful doom already, on which their con- 
demning thoughts do perpetually feed not without infi- 
nite regret, indignation and fury, and fo though locally 
feated in Hell, yet, as yet fcalding there , and burning 
only in the flames that arife from their own bofoms. But 
when that great day fhall once come, and the Son of Man 
appear in his glory, then (hall that old Dragon, the de- 


Vfon Mat. xvi. verfi 27. 101 

ceiver, with all thofe apoftate people whom he hath de- 
ceived, and are not written in the Book^of the Lawb, Rev. xx 
be thrown into that Lake burning with fire and brim- IO * 
ftone. Yea death and Hell too, lhall be caft into that 
Lake s Hell, to fbew that all they, who are now there in 
cuftody, (hall then be thrown into that Lake, as into the 
Center, tower-ward and Dungeon of that fearful Prifon: 
And death too, to fignify their immortality there in a per- 
petual dying life, and everlafting living death, even for 
ever and ever. And death and Hell were caji into that Rev.xx. 
Lake of fire. For now the time of full Retribution is '4- 
come, this is the great day of reward, and there is no 
other. To that then let us pals with my Text, from 
the time, to the reward, it (elf. Then he flja/J reward \ 

This word of Reward feems to ftick in the Jaws of 
many men, at lead to come forth fumbling between their 
Teeth, as if they did not very well like it. But whe- 
ther they like it or no, fo the Scriptures often fpeak, and 
accordingly we rauft be content to receive them. The 
truth is, there are extreams in this point as in moft others, 
lyable unto difpute and controverfy 5 and Verity, like 
Virtue, lies in the golden mean between both. Forfome 
are wholly and totally all for reward, and no Grace un- 
lets it be a ftock of Grace, whereby they may condignly 
merit the reward. 

Others again can away with no Reward at all. but will 
have all of meer Grace : when the truth confifts in a 
mixture compounded of both, neither totally grace, nor 
meerly reward, but merces gratiofa, a gracious Reward ; 
xAnd that not only in regard of the Grace firft given, but 
of the work too it felf, that is to be rewarded. 

The former take Heaven to be as fully merited by the 
works of the Righteous, as Hell is deierved by the (ins 
of the wicked. 


i o 2 A Sermon ofChrifts coming to Judgment 

The latter fuppofe Heaven to be meerly a free gift, 
and in the confequences of their Pofitions, make Hell as 
free a Collation, as the Kingdom of Heaven. 

Both feem to be equally out, and not much unequally 
to (hare both truth and errour between them. For thus 
much I conceive is clear and certain , and ought to 
be acknowledged by either : That the firft Graces of 
God either confer'd in time upon Earth, or prepared 
eternally by him, who d welleth in the Heavens $ are a free 
collation, and abfolute without any thing of reward: 
otherwife Grace were not grace , as the Apoftle fpeaks. 
Secondly, The laft puniftxments in Hell, a meer reward in 
juftice, without any thing of free and undeferved colla- 
tion } otherwife Puniftiment were not puniftiment. But 
the Kingdom of Heaven, and the joyes of that place come 
to us after a mixed manner, though originally and prin- 
cipally yet not altogether by grace, neither yet altogether 
by merit , not as a gift only, nor yet wholly as a reward : 
but is fo a reward, as it is ftill a gift 5 fo a gift, as it is ftill 
a reward : A reward, becaufe promifed unto works 3 a 
gift, becaufe that promife was of grace, and thefe works 
no way deferve the reward : And therefore the Scriptures 
apply themfelves unto both : terming it fometimes an In- 
heritance by Adoption ; fometimes a Crown of Righte- 
oufnefi : fometimes a gift of Grace : fometimes a Re- 
ward of our Works. But that we miftake not, we are 
moft commonly careful, not to mention the one refpeft, 
without fome intimation of the other 5 In that very 
place where the Apoftle affirms it a Crown of Righteouf- 
nefs, yet that we may receive it as a Crown, rather given 
2 Tim. than deferved , it follows immediately, which the Lord 
the righteous Judge [hall give me in that day. On the 
other fide in thofe places where it is called an Inheritance, 
as it is in many, yet in all we (ball find it to be an Inhe- 
ritance of theSaints,and never conferred but on obedient 


ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfe 27. 105 

Childeren. My sheep, faith our Saviour, hear my voice, 
and follow me where foever I go , & do iftis vitam 
£ternam, and I give them eternal life. There it is a 
gift, but yet to his (heep, that hear and follow him, do- 
nitm datum, n on per fan £ fed vit<e, a gift given, not to 
the perfons of men but to their lives, and that is no other 
than a reward, as St. Jerom rightly. 

In the v. of St. Mai t hew, it is a reward, merces vejlra> 
your reward is great in the Kingdom of Heaven, yet it 
is merces copiofa, a great and plenteous reward, magna 
ft i mis, as God faid unto Abraham, I am thy exceeding 
great reward, a reward with excefs, far exceeding indeed 
all the works and paffions too of men that are to be re- 
warded. So true is that rule of the Rabbins concerning 
the holy Scriptures, In omni loco, in quo invcnis objeSz- 
nem pro hdretico, ibi quoq\ invcnis medicamentum in 
latere ejus, Not a place that feems to favour an here(y 9 
but hath an Antidote or Medicine hanging at the fide of 
it. But on the other fide moft true it is, Hell and eternal 
death are the wages and meer wages of wicked neft. 
That of the Prophet, Vita & mors a domino, life and 
death are both of the Lord, is right, but yet muft be 
rightly underftood 5 not both of him after one and the 
fame manner, but with St. Aujiins difference, Vitafci- 
licet a Donante, mors a Find ic ante, which we may render 
in the words of the Apoftle, Life is the gift of God, 
but death the wages of Sin. To Pnew therefore that 
death is be to attributed not fo properly to the Infiiclour 
as to the deferver, the Wifeman is bold to fay Dew mor- 
tem non fecit, God hath not made death, but men by 
the crrours of their life have fought it out and drawn 
it down upon their own heads. 

Let not any man therefore conceive the evil works of 
wicked men, as effefts of a foredoomed deftruftion. btit 
deftruftion rather wherever it lights, to follow both in 


04 A Sermon of Chrift s coming to Judgment 


defign and execution as a juft meede and recompence of 
evil doings : for the merciful Lord, that preferver of 
Souls, as the fame Author hath it, cannot poffibly hate 
any man, as Davids enemies did him gratis, without 
any caufe, but is ever, as the Scriptures teach, and the 
Fathers proverbially affirm, Primus in amore & ultimus 
in odio^ firft in love, and laft in hatred : And they that 
will needs think otherwife, if they be not reckoned a- 
niong the haters of God, fure I am they will be found 
lyars at the laft 5 for the Lord is a juft God, and fo is 
his reward, that will look precifely on the work with- 
out refpeft unto any mans perfon be he what he will, or 
may be, for fo it follows in the next place, reddet nni- 
cttique, hefoall reward every man, &c. 

Great diverfity there is among the Sons of men, but 
the fummons of this day is univerfal and will reach un- 
to them all: Be they rich or # poor, noble or ignoble 5 
none fo mean, as to efcape unregarded, none fo mighty 
as to decline the Tribunal: we mufi all appear , faith 
the Apoftle 5 we 3 and we all, no remedy, we all muft make 
our appearance before the judgment-feat of Chrift. 
And however here upon earth, there doth indeed belong 
great refpeft and reverence unto the perfons and digni- 
ties of great and honourable men, yet thefe things are 
all now paffedaway, and Chrift the great Judge in this 
terrible day will have no regard unto any mans perfon 
or titles, farther than thefe have had an influence into 
his aftions, and rendred them juftly rewardable with 
greater honour, or elfe with forer punifhment. For the 
Virtue or Vice of fuch Men, dies not at home in their 
own bofoms, but as their perfons are great, fo their works 
and ways in like manner eminent, and every way more 
exemplar. And therefore the Wife man faith but right, 
Potent es pot enter, mighty Men that have done amifs 
{hall be mightily tormented 5 and for the fame reafon 


Vpon Mat. xvi. verfi 27. 105 

thofe that have done well, as mightily rewarded. There 
is nothing mean in them now, nor (hall be hereafter. For 
thefe are they, whom God hath made great upon Earth, 
filled them with fubftance and honour, that pouring 
out of their plenty upon the diftrelled, and relieving the 
oppreffed by their power, they might become even as 
Gods unto their brethren. Thefe he hath placed tan- 
qnam majores ven&, as the greater veins in the body Po- 
litick, to minifter blood and fpirits unto the reft of the 
members } tanquam communes Patri£ parentes^ as the 
common Fathers and Parents of their Country, to whom 
all the weak and injured may fly as unto a refuge and 
(an&uary of prote&ion 5 yea tanquam planets & fiell<e 
majores^ as the greater Stars and Planets in the Firma- 
ment of power, by fweet and propitious influence to 
cherifh the Earth under them, and all good things that 
are in it. Thefe now, if clean contrary (ball abufe this 
wealth and power, pu(h the weaker cattle with them, as 
with horn and (houlder, as the Scripture fpeaketh 5 If the 
higher Potentates and Princes , like io many mighty 
Ntmrods. moleft and vex the world they fhould govern, 
provoke Heaven, and take peace from the earth, embrue 
and embroil all to fatisfy their own impotent and un- 
limited ambitions ; If the greater Peers among the peo- 
ple inftead of being Gods and common Fathers unto 
their Country, prove Wolves unto their brethren, and 
like Pikes grow great and vaft by eating up the Fry that 
is round about them, donee Serpens ferpentem devo- 
ir an s fiat Draco 5 If inftead of benign and benevolent 
Stars, they (hall be of a fowr and Saturnian Afpeft, on- 
ly blafting whatfoever comes within the fphere of their 
aSivity ^ or el(e, but of a Mercnrian concurring influ- 
ence, good with the good, and bad with the bad, not 
as jufticc, but as affedion and faftion (hall lead them : 
then no marvel if mighty men come at length to be 

P mightily 

o<5 A S 'ermon of Chrift scorning to Judgment 

mightily tormented. But if thefe Noble Perfbns (hall be 
truly Noble indeed, and as God hath termed them, Gods 
and Fathers unto their Country i If like J#k> they (hall 
Jobxxix. deliver the poor and fuch as have none to help, from 
thoje that are too mighty for them, hreak^the jawes of 
the wicked, and fluent he fpoil out of their teeth, un« 
til the bleffing of them that are ready to perifh come up- 
on them for it 5 If the Prince, that is fupream, be not a 
difturber like Nimrod, but rather as Solomon, Pritjcept 
pad j, a King of peace, nouriftiing his people, like Da- 
vid, with a perfeftand upright heart, and ruling them 
prudently with all his power} If his moderation he 
known unto all, and his Piety unto God and goodnefi 
no lefs exemplary, than his Virtue : then undoubtedly 
both he and they and all fuch Mighty men in this great 
day, (hall be as mightily honoured 5 when he 1 that hath 
made you Rulers of his people, fet you here in the feats of 
Juftice as on the throne of David, (hall then advance you 
higher, take you up even upon his own throne in the 
Clouds, as being in the number of thofe Saints, that (hall 
be AiTeffors there and with Chrift, as the Apoftle tells us, 
to judge the world 5 whilft thofe mighty and glorious 
Monarchs that once fo much troubled the earth and other 
Princes, Great men, and Favorites of the world, (hall 
now ftand like poor worms, beneath you at the Bar, #«- 
do latere palpitantes, & fententiam <etern<e mortis 
expett antes, naked and quaking, as St. Hierome (peaks, 
under the fentence of eternal death. Where now are all 
their Dignities and Titles, their Pomp and former Splen- 
dor } how is it vanifhed ! Alas all thefe things accom- 
pany none any farther than the grave } but their works, 
thefe follow after unto judgment, where according to 
their works, they (hall be now rewarded, which is our 
laft point. And thin he fl) all reward every man, fecun- 
dum opira fua> according to his works. 

This 3 

ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfe 27. 107 

This, as it is the latter part of my Text, fo is it the 
Hioft fubftantial, but withal the molt troublefome : for 
here we feem to meet with nothing but difficulties. 

There are but three words in it : And whether we 
look on the opera, which is the main 3 or they**, that 
adheres 5 or the fecunditm, that hath reference unto both, 
Obje&ions we (hall find, and fome of them difficult e* 
nough even in all three. 

Set the Accent firft upon the opera (for that as I (aid 
is the main) and we (hall no fooner do it, but the obje- 
ction is inftantly emergent 3 for if Men (hall be now 
judged with precife refpedt unto their works, fince none 
are fo wicked but have fome good deeds 5 nor any fo 
righteous but have many fins } how {hould it come to 
pafs that either any (hould efcape Condemnation, or if 
fome do, why (hould not all efcape it, for all are (inner?. 
But this knot may well be diflblved without any great 
labour. For though works at that day (hall be judged 
of, as good or evil precifely according unto that Law 
which they have tranfgreffed, yet the men whofe they 
are, (hall be fentenced for thefe works, not according to 
the law, but with reference and refpefl: unto the conditi- 
ons ofthe Gofpel $ for God Jfjall then judge the fecrets Rom. 
of all hearts, faith St. ?aul,fecundum evangelium meum^ 
according to my Gofpel And according to the Gofpel 
the fame works are not always of the fame condition 
with reference to reward and pimifhment, but according 
to the repentance ofthe perfon, or his falling from it, 
do receive ever a new qualification. The Schools there- 
fore do accordingly diftinguith of opera ntortna and 
mortifera, viva and mortificata, and rediviva too, of 
dead works and deadly, of living and mortified andrevi- 
vifcent alfo. Works morally good, but not done with any 
Pious or Spiritual intention, they account dead works, as 
lyabie neither to reward nor punifbment : Works mo- 

P 2 rally 

o8 A Sermon ofChrifts coming to Judgment 

rally and mortally evil, thefe are mortifera^ deadly 
Works, that draw death and deftru&iori after them: 
works of Faith and Charity in the converted Soul, thefe 
are opera viva, living works, and fach as have title un- 
to life everlafting 5 but both thefe latter may be morti- 
fied, and both after mortification revive again , when 
the finner repents him of his Sins, all his former wicked- 
nefs is forgotten } and when the penitent man returns a- 
gain to his Sins, none of his former righteoufnefi (hall 
then be remembred. And as men do ebb or flow in their 
true repentance, fo their fins or their good deeds do ei- 
ther revive or mortifie, and the mortification of the one, 
is the reviving ever of the other : And for this reafbn, 
faith our Saviour, in the Revelation, Behold I come 
quickly and my reward is with me, to render unto eve- 
ry man, not as his workj, but in the lingular,, a* his 
vpork^Jhall be } For according unto this one work of re* 
pentance, either his fin or his righteoufne(s hath the pre- 
dominance, and (hall be accordingly rewarded by him, 
who will now reward every man in this fence, according 
to his voorkj. But yet fince this Judgment proceeds in 
mercy, and according to the Gofpel, why are we not 
iaid to be rewarded according to our Faith rather than 
according to our works ? As though works, where 
the Gofpel is revealed, were of any validity without 
Faith, or Faith any way rewardable farther, than it is 
operative and fruitful in works : But befides, this is a day 
of univerfal reckoning, not confined within the precife 
latitude of that revelation 3 every man without excepti- 
on; muft now come to his account, and what every one is 
bound to account for, according to that, and to that on- 
ly he (hall be fentenced. Now the Gofpel of Chrift 
hath not been revealed unto all, but the notions of good 
and evil are implanted in Nature, and men are to be 
judged of, and accepted too, according to what they 

have y 

ZJfon M a t. xvi. verfe 27. 109 

h<ive. not according to they have not, as our Savi- 
our fpeaketh. And therefore the Faith of the Jew was 
not required of the Gentile, neither yet the Faith of the 
Chriftian at the hands of the Jew. The Law of Nature 
indeed binds all, but pofitive Laws thofe only to whom 
they are given : And thus much fcems to be both Law and 
Gofpel, That no man give an account but for the Ta- 
lents that were delivered him 5 For God is no fuch hard 
man, as that lazy fellow in the Gofpel would make him, 
to reap where he did not fow 5 or elfelike Pharaoh, re- 
quiring his Brick where he doth not afford Straw for the 
making. Not therefore according to the Fa\ h, which 
they knew not , but according to the good and evil 
which they knew, fo (hall all be judged by him, who 
now comes to reward every man according to his 

From the opera now, if we come to the fua, remove 
the Accent thither,we (hall but remove from one difficulty 
to another 5 For fome there are, that have no works of 
their own } How many that die, as foon as born, and 
not a few before, and both before they have done either 
good or evil, for which they may be rewarded ? It may 
befaid peradventure, that yet even thefe have one work 
of their own } for being all in Adams loins, when he fin- 
ned, his Sin, by virtue of the firft Covenant becomes 
theirs, and theirs therefore by Si. ?attl it is exprefly 
termed, in quo omnes peccaverunt, in whom all have R 0i r.. 

This is right, and hath nothing but truth in it, if we 
confider only the Nature of the firfl: Covenant, and go 
no farther than fo , But farther I fuppofe we are to go 5 
for fince there is afccond Covenant pafled, zxAthefe- 
cond, as the Apoftle to the Hebrews, and reafon it fe!£ 
will tell us,muft difamtl the (irji 5 A fccond ftrueken even 
with the fame Adam, (and in. him we all were at the 

tran(a<ftic r 

no A SermonofChrifls coming to Judgment 

tranfa&ion of the one as well as of the other, and repu- 
ted in his loyns, when he was reftored, as well as when 
he fell) for that is the perpetual nature of Gods Cove- 
Aftsxi. nants, Vobis & liberis vefiris : Dens turn & feminis 
Gen. xvii. '**"• And fure if we make our ftay in the old Teftament, 
the Father muft have come in his own glory, the Son of 
man could never have come in the glory of the Father 
to render unto every man his own works 5 for had he 
not firft been our Mediatour, he had never been our 
Judge. Now therefore we are to look up unto him, con- 
template the perfon, before whofe feat of Judgment we 
are to appear, even Chrift our blefled Lord, that innocent 
Lamb that was (lain from the beginning that Lamb of God 
which by his blood, being (lain took away rh etficLprictv 
rv TLoo-fjLv, that fin of the world in the Angular, and other 
fuch lingular fin of the world, but there was not any. 
And for this caufe is rightly termed Adam fecundus^ a 
Rom. v. fecond Adam^ a fecond through whom all receive jufti- 
*8. fie at ion unto life that became lyable unto death and con- 
demnation in the firft. This is our Judge, even the Au- 
thor of the fecond Covenant, who therefore will not 
fentence men, as thofe Apoftate Angels, ftri&ly after the 
&om.i. Law of the firft, but as St. Paul fpeaks fecund um Evan- 
gelium meum according to my, or rather his own Gof- 
pel. Before this Judge, when St. Paul cites every man, 
he affures us, no man fhall anfwer but for what himfelf 
hath done, or be rewarded with puni(hment,but as my text 
hath it, fcundum of era fua> according to his own works, 
and thofe his own, not becaufe afted in the loyns of ano- 
ther, but becaufe done in his own body 5 for fo faith St. 
Paul exprefly, and purpofely it feems to prevent the in- 
terpretation, we muft all appear before the judgment feat 
of Chrift^ that every one may receive tcocSW t£ W|U.<xt©*, 
the things done in his body, or rather not or* &*, but mx, 
"Sitx, t£ trwpcLT©*, as fome of the beft Copies read, and 


Vfon M a t. xvi. verfe 27. 112 

ancient Fathers cite, and the vulgar doth render, propria 2 Cor> 
Corporis, the proper things done in the body. This 10. 
therefore will not fatisfy the doubt, and were it admitted, 
would yet fatisfy but on one part, the part that pcrifh 5 
ftill the difficulty would remain, how thofe on the other 
fide, that are laved by Sacrament, fhould be rewarded 
with heaven jecitndttm opera. jna , according to their 
own works. But not to meddle any farther in this mat- 
ter, the truth is, (and it is the fulleft anfvvcr I can give it) 
That we may not mcafure fuch ignorant Innocents ei- 
ther always by the common rules of do&rine, or at any 
time by the general precepts of duty 5 For thofe the 
Scriptures are uliially fpoken of and thefe perpetually di- 
ne&ed unto none, but the full-grown and adult, as they 
that alone are capable of them 5 The not obferving where- 
of, is the chief caufe ( I conceive ) of the great variety 
of opinions and intricate difficulties, which this point of 
Infants hath begotten t, Some excluding them utterly from 
this day and feat of judgment becaule without Works 
either good or bad to be then difcuffed \ Others admit- 
ting of their prefence there,but yet neither among thofe on 
the right hand or yet on the left,and fo not liable to either 
of thefe two grand Sentences which (hall then be pro- 
nounced. A third fort fubjefting them unto a Sentence, 
and of thefe fome unto fuch a Sentence, as (hall carry them 
to beatitude, but in a Paradife apart 5 others conveying 
them thence dfreftly to heaven. A fourth fort even to 
Hell ; and a fifth unto a middle ftate,a condition between 
both. But yet among all thefe varieties this is remark- 
able, not any one of the Antients was ever fo fevere 
unto any of thefe, whether baptized or otherwife, as to 
caft them into that nethermofli Hell, and thofe torments, 
which he fuffers there of whom our Saviour (aid, it had Mat«raiij 
been better for him, if he had never been bom, No not- 
that learned and holy man who was efteemed dttrus In- 


j 1 2 A Sermon ofChrijls coming to Judgment 

fantumVater, of all others a -hard Father unto infants^ 
for even he, though he placed them in a Region of Hell, 
yet in fuch a tolerable condition therein, as it were bet- 
ter for them to be even there, than not to be at all. Aw 
guji. lib. 4. cont. Julian, cap. 8. But for my part I de- 
termine nothing amidft fo many doubts, and diftra&ions* 
'twere beft leave them to (land or fall to their own Ma- 
tter, efpecially fince my Text, which fpeaks of works re- 
wardable like other general Scriptures, doth not, as I 
faid, concern impotent and ignorant Infants, but grown 
Men, knowing and operative 3 for whoever of fuch re- 
ceives the Kingdom of Heaven, muft receive it meerly as 
an Inheritance without any refpeft of works. They are 
exempted from fuch common rules, and fo not included 
in this every man here, that (hall now be rewarded fe- 
enndum Optra jua, according to his own works. 

And now in the laft place, let uscometo this fecunduns> 
the firft of the words, and then fare we (hall find our 
felves in no lefs (heights than any of the former, yea ut 
unda undam^ fo one doubt and difficulty feems here to 
drive on another. 

For firft, fince the good (hall now be rewarded ultra. 
tneritum, beyond their merit j and the evil, citra con* 
dignum^ (hort of their defert, which is a Maxime in Di- 
vinity 3 they may well be rewarded for, but not any of 
them precifely fecundum opera , according to their 

Indeed fome there are that like well enough of the fe- 
cundum^ but can by no means away with the propter in 
this cafe : But yet St. Gregory for this reafon conceives 
otherwife 5 and fince the reward is ever beyond, or on 
this fide the work, takes the propter to be more proper- 
ly fpoken, than the fecundiim opera 5 But the truth is, 
both are true, and the reward {hall be now given both 
for and according to their works 5 not indeed in a ftrift 


ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfe 27. 115 

Arithmetical adequation, but yet in a proportion exact- 
ly Geometrical, for bonis bona retribuet, & ntelioribus 
meliora, God (hall now give good things, as Aquinas 
hath it, unto the good, and though not in precife equa- 
lity unto the goodnefs of their works in themfelves con- 
fidered, yet comparatively in what degree of goodnefs 
they exceed others, the excefs of their reward fhall arife 
ever in the fame proportion : And fo on the other fide, 
malts mala & pejoribus pejora^ in like manner. Nei- 
ther will the Parable of the Labourers and their penny 
any way deftroy this, though we have not leifure at this 
time to confider it, becaufe of another difficulty arifing 
from hence, which as it (hall be the laft, fo it feems to be 
the greateft of all other. For be it that good works are 
rewarded beyond their merit, yet how fhould thofe ihat 
for (hort and momentany pleafures,burn in perpetual and 
everlafting fires, be faid to be punifhed (hort of their de- 
fert, yea how fhould not their defert rather feem much 
(hort of their punilhment? Forthat the Sinsof a Mortal 
Mana&ed in an inftant, and the pleafure thereof perifh- 
ing even with the aft, fhould be rewarded with infinite 
and interminable forrows, is more than earthly mans wit, 
I fuppofc, can eafily reach unto. And therefore is well 
termed by St. Paul, Ira revelata de Ccelo, wrath reveal- 
ed from Heaven, as being without thofe brighter beams 
of Revelation, not fully penetrable by the Star-light of 
reafon. For what reafon may well be rendred, why or 
from whence it (hould be, that limited and finite works 
fhould arife and grow up to an infinite and unlimited 
demerit ? Is it that men are born in an averfion from 
God, and but for God, might they never die, would never 
leave finning, and fo in the proportion well delerve pu- 
nifhment without ceafing ? as St. Gregory would have it, 
voluiffent ntiq\fine fine vivere 9 ut potuijfent fine fine 
peccare. But no man is now judged for what he would 

QL have 

1 1 4 A Sermon ofCbrifts coming to Judgment 

have done upon fuppofitions, but what he really hath 
done, and that in the body : otherwife Tyre and Sidorr 
fhould have been faved, and peradventure even Enoch 
himfelf have perifhed, of whom the Wifeman affirms, 
raptivr e/?, tie malitia mutarct ititelle&um ejus. This 
therefore is but vain, and for this reafon the Learned 
Schoolmen reft not on it, but relie rather on the com- 
mon anfwer, that the foil eftimatc of fin is taken not 
from the perfon that fins, or the time and continuance 
of the fin, but from the objeft, the perfon offended : 
And this perfon being the infinite God, the fin therefore 
deferves an infinite punifhment. But even this way is ly- 
able to many and great difficulties. For though offences 
do otherwife arife in proportion unto the dignity and 
greatneis of the Perfon, that is hurt or wronged by them} 
yet it feems not fo in this cafe, where the party offend- 
ed is infinite. Firft, becaufe fuch a Perfon is clear out of 
the reach of Man, out of danger of any real lefion or 
hurt by him or any of his aftions. Secondly, for that in- 
finity, I conceive, is a proper Attribute of God's, and ab- 
folutely incommunicable to any creature, unlefs it be 
where he communicates his own EfTence and Perfon, as 
in our bleffed Lord by union hypoftatical, though yet 
even then he made not the Humane Nature infinite, or 
yet gave the aftions of that nature an eftimate fo much as 
morally infinite, any other way, but by affuming it in- 
to the unity of his Perfon, which alone could make the 
fufferings of Man the paflions of God alfo, from whence 
only they receive the infinity of merit. But between 
the aft and the objeft there is no fuch union to affeft that 
with a demerit as infinite on the other fide. And laftly, a 
pojieriori) were the aft after that infinite manner affeft- 
ed by the objeft, how then (hould not all fins be equal 
and equally to be punifhed, fincein Infinites there is no 
inequality of magnitude, nor can there be made any aug- 

ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfe 27. 115 

mentation or diminution by any thing we can do or 
imagine unto them ? For to that,which is once conceived 
as fuch, nothing can be added to make it greater, or taken 
away to render it lefler, than before, no not though 
we (hould take away finite parts, or yet add one infinite 
to another. For one infinite divided,will but make two} 
and two, yea two thoufand infinites clapt together 
would run all into one. For as one indivifible point a- 
mounts to as much as a million, foa million of united in- 
finites will arife to no more than one, becaufe all thofe 
have not any,and every of thefe hath all quantity in it. He 
that once (hould conceipt an infinite number of Towers, 
though his imagination {hould furnifh every Tower with 
fix Bells, yet he could not with reafon fay for all that 
there were more Bells than Towers, for more than infi- 
nite may not be imagined. And this is alike true even 
in moral magnitudes, as well as mathematical, whether 
difcrete or continued. And as nothing is to be gained by 
Addition, fo Subftra&ion on the other fide, will lofe as 
little : He muft of neceflity take half, whofoever will 
take any thing from that which is infinite. As the circle 
that hath no bounds, is every where Center, fo an infinite 
line, the Diameter of that Circle, having no extremities 
is therefore all middle, cut it where you lift, you (hall 
ftill divide it into two equal parts, and which is ftranger, 
both parts will be equal to the whole, for either part 
will ftill be infinite in regard of one end, and therefore 
of quantity immenfurable , and that can be no more 
which is infinite on both ends. The Product of this will 
be not only, that all fins are equal becauie infinite, but 
that one fin is equal in demerit unto all, to all that have 
been committed, yea and to infinite fins too, if they 
might be imagined 5 As appears plainly in the fufferings 
of our Saviour, which though of different degrees in re- 
gard of the forrow and torment, yet becaufe infinite 

CL 2 through 

1 1 6 A Sermon ofChrifts coming to Judgment 

through his Peribn, they were all equal in refpedl: of the 
merit Whence it is, that that fatisfiftion which was re- 
quired for any one (in, could even in ftri&ncfs of Juftice 
expiate all, though never fo many, and that which had 
fain (hort of expiating all could never have given fa- 
tkfacTion for any one, even the leaft fin that is mortal. 
Neither will this be avoided by that anfwer of the School- 
men, that (in hath infinity only fecundum quid y that is, 
in regard of the object and that therefore other circum- 
ftances there are, which may add degrees unto it, be- 
caufe not fimply infinite. For even that, which is but 
one way infinite, cannot be enlarged by any finite addi- 
tions the other way : As a line, that fhould run on with- 
out end, though pieced out never fo much at the begin- 
ning, would yet be never a whit the longer. If the world 
be fuppofed eternal, a parte ante, though days and 
months, and years be added, yet it would be no older an 
hundred years hence than it is at this very day: or if ha- 
ving had a beginning, yet conceived to be perpetual, a 
parte poji^ it would then be as near the end this very day 
Arillot. as an hundred years hence, But this peradventure comes 
to pafs, becaufe the addition is ftill made in the fame 
kind, that is, in length and longitude only : Nothing 
hinders for all that, but that two things equally infinite 
in one dimenfion, may yet be unequal in another, and ca- 
pable of augmentation The Maft of a Ship, and the 
Spear of aSouldier, that ftiould (land by it, though both 
allowed to run on in /#/?»// ///»,andfo of one and the fame 
length, yet notwithftanding in bulk and body there 
would be great difference ftill between them, and might 
be greater as we fhould add unto the one, or withdraw 
from the other. And fo in like manner all fins may well 
have a punifhment equal induration, becaufe all offences 
againft.God,. and yet by reafon of other, different circiim* 
Sauces, that give the bulk and magnitude, not all receive 

Vpn Mat. xvi. verfi 27. 1 1 

punifhment equal in degree and intenfion, but feme a 
forer punifhment than others, though not a longer. But 
this though it look well, will not (atisfy 5 for the pu- 
nifhment is one thing, and the fin another: In that in- 
deed we may diftinguifh the duration from the magni- 
tude or intention, but in the fin we cannot fodiftinguifh 5 
This doth not receive longitude in one refpeft, body and 
bulk in another 3 but the tin is infinite in magnitude only, 
not in length , and deferves a punifhment infinite even 
in intenfion 5 that it becomes fo only in duration is ac- 
cidental : for being that a punifhment ititenlively infi- 
nite as the hn deferves, may notpoflibly be actually in- 
flidred, not through any impotence in God, but incapa- 
city in the Creature:, hence in this fuppoiition it comis 
to pafs, that what could not after an infinite manner be 
at once received, {hould yet in a finite manner, as it 
may, be perpetually fuffered. The punifhment therefore 
by fucceilion is only potentially infinite, not in aft, nor 
(hall be ever, but the fin is attually infinite, otherwife 
the punifhment (hould be even aftually finite. The in- 
ftance therefore of the Spear and the Mart, is be fides the 
matter, and yet even in thefr, though this be greater in 
found than that, yet not in matter and iubfhnce 5 For 
ftill not an inch of wood or an ouncfe of weight in the 
one more than in the other. Others therefore pro- 
pound a nurd way, and that is from the infinite re- 
ward that is propofed unto the righteous $ whence they 
conceive it but right, that as infinite a punifhment fhoulci 
be prepared for the wicked: when two infinites are 
laid in the ballance, the fcales cannot but hang the more 
equal : for what injury is there done unto any., if an ^ 
ternal Heaven or an cverlafting Hell be let open unto alT7 
and then every man accordingly rewarded as he (hall free- 
ly through Gods grace, or. his own perverfnefi run. him* 
felf into either? And fore it f.emsbut reafbn and every 

1 8 A Sermon ofChrifls coming to Judgment 

way juft, that they who for temporary and trifling plea- 
fures negledt full and never fading joys, (hould receive 
for their meed, no lefs great and never ending forrows 5 
And indeed we our felves that' by the condition of our 
birth, without any fin of our own, came at firft to be 
plunged into that pit of everlafting milery by the tranf- 
greflion of another, could not (it feems) with Juftice 
have been fo through the meer nature of fin, for then all 
the fins of our intermediate fore-Fathers (hould lie upon 
the Children alfo 5 but only by virtue of a Covenant 
grounded in this very equity, that we who were in his 
loins, (hould not incur more hurt by his fall than receive 
benefit by his (landing s For he was to (land or fall, not 
to himfelf alone but to all his pofterity. This notwith- 
flanding may be fubjeft to fbme obje&ions, though not 
fo unanfwerable, which the time now forbids me to dif 
cu(s. However be it this upon what regard it may be, 
that fo it (hall be is mod certain, and that without inju- 
ry unto any. God is a righteous Judge and will clear 
himfelf, both when he is judged, and when he judgeth 
alfo. For my part I am fatisfied with this lad reafon, and 
were 1 not with it, or any other, yet in a point fo clear- 
ly delivered in the Scripture, my reafon (hould be led 
captive by my Faith. For it abundantly (ufficeth, that it 
is, as I (aid at firft, wrath revealed from Heaven. Andl 
would it were a little better confidered on upon Earth, 
what a miferable ruine and calamity it will then bring 
upon all the Sons of Pride and Children of difobedience, 
forrows no le(s infufiferablc, than interminable, in both, 
by Man in this life, inconceiveable : For who knoweth or 

fn know the power of his wrath ? But this deftru- 
ion is nor near enough to affect us now, though (as 
that learned Man fays) there is only that puff of breath 
which is in our Noftrils, betwixt us and it, and that God 
knows how fuddenly too, may be taken from us. Yet I 


ZJpon Mat. xvi. verfe 27, 1 1 y 

fay, it is not near enough to affect us now 5 but in noviffl- 
mo tntclligetis plane, in the end ye (hall underftand all 
things clearly : In the end indeed, when the Son of Man 
Jhall come in Glory and his reward with him, then they 
ihall underftand and know, when they begin to feel their 
ibrrows, the ftrange folly of their ways, and truly then 
apprehend the vanity of their pride and pleafures here, 
only this one way of value, that once they might have 
been given in exchange for their Souls. In the mean 
time, what a mifery is it, tranjire hmc in Infernum ut 
ibi dijeant, quod kic credere nsluerunt : To pais from 
hence into Hell, there to learn the truth, which here they 
refilled to believe ? How much better were it for us to 
believe, and pra&ife too whilft we may, and whilft it 
may do us good ? Profit in any thing elfe there is not any, 
though a man (hould gain the whole world : For moft 
affuredly whofoeverhath the wealth and honour now, yet 
the Righteous only (hall have the dominion in the mor- 
ning^Tn the morning of this great day,when God (hall (hew 
himfett no lefs terrible unto Sinners, than, as David fpeaks, 
marvellous in hi < Saints 3 Happy men are we, if in that 
manner we (hall compofe our lives, as may enroll us in 
the Communion of that bleffed number. That fo when 
the Son of Man (hall come in the glory of the Father,we 
our felves may be declared among the Sons of God, and 
go with him into the Father's Glory eternal in the Hea- 
vens. Whereunto, &c, 

Lans Deo in xtermtm, 

Amen, Amen* 



The Original of Wars 


O R I G I N A I 



Upon J A M E S IV. I . 

From wfance come Wars, and Fightings among you\ 
Come they not hence, even of your Lufls that loar 
in your ^Members ? 

THIS Epiftle, however received at firft not with- 
out fome fcruple by reafon of thofe heretical 
Libertines {Simon, Nicholas & JintiUs} a- 
ZferifosT gainft whom in the judgment of St. Ayftw^ it 

is efpecially dire&ed, and lately alfo queftioned by fuch 
once more as fetting up a folitary faith, would gladly re- 
turn again unto the old licentioufnefs} yet the long and 
general reception of the univerfal Church hath now ful- 
ly confirmed it unto all her Children for undoutedly Ca- 

ZJpon James iv. verfe i . 121 

nonical. If any thing yet remain doubtful, it concerns ' 
not the doftrine but the Author of it, this indeed is not 

altogether fo certain 5 That it was St. James, all agree, 
but which of the James's, there lies the difficulty 5 Two 
of that name we find among the twelve Apoftles, James 
the Brother of John, and James the Brother of Alp he us, 
Mat, x. 2. but whether James the Brother of our Lord, 
as St. Paul entitles him, furnamed the Lefs by St. Mark., Gal*. 1. 
the Juft by Ecclefiaftical writers, the firft Bifhop of Je- 19- 
rufalem, and by Eufebius (lib. Hift. 2. Cap. 22. J St. M o ark,KV * 
Hierom and others, held for the Writer of this Epiftle $ 4 °' 
whether this James were one of thofe two whom we find 
in the number of the twelve, or a third out of that num- 
ber, is much difputed with great authorities and reafons 
on either fide: & ad hue fub judice lis eft. But whe- 
ther of them foever it were, it is little material, it fuf- 
ficeth that the matter of the Epiftle is Orthodox and 
Canonical : Direfted it is unto the Chriftian Jews, di- 
fperfed (by the perfecution which began with St. Stephen,') 
into divers quarters, but not agreeing there (it feems) 
among themfelves eipecially diflenting in points of Re- 
ligion , every one ftriving who fhould be the greateft 
Rabbi and Mafter among them , which contention St. 
James leeks to diilolve by inquiring into the foul and 
poifoned Fountains from whence it proceeds, From 
whence come, &c But though' direfted principally 
unto the Jew, yet the Epiftle you know hath the Title 
of Catholick : The whole doftrin therefore muft be ge- 
neral, and thefe particular words not bound untoothers, 
but pertinent alfo unto the Wars and fightings of all 
other Chriftians. The enquiry fure will equally concern 
them all, and all be found equally liable unto the reproof. 
For univerfally, whence come Wars, &c. 

In which words we have two queftions propofed, and 
one of them is an Anfwer to the other. Vnde Bella $ 

R whence 

13 2 The Original of Wart, 

whence are Wars, and fightings among you ? This is 
the firft, lnterrogatio difquifitiva, an Interrogation by 
way of inquiry, An non hinc ? Are they not hence,ez/e# 
ofyourLufis i This is the fecond,//* terrogatio Refponftva^ 
an Interrogation by way of refolution \ A Queftion in 
form, an Anfwer in effeft y negatively propofed, Come 
they not from hence f but affirmatively concluding, as 
much as to fay, from hence they come, even from your 
hjis that war in your members. 

It feems to involve Riddles,a queftioning anfwer, and a 
negative affirmation , but fuch is the condition of thefe 
reiponfive Interrogations. 

In the former, The Queftion Inquifitive, three points 
are apparently difcernable. 
^ The fubjeSum circa quod, the fubjeft concerning 

which the Queftion is moved, and that twofold : er&tfjuaij 
Wars publick, and folemn firft - then y&%u, leffer ftrifes 
and fightings. Whence^ &c. 
% The enquiry into the Caufes,intothe Root and Source, 

the Spring and firft Fountain of thefe peftilent evils : 
mfeiv wiMfjioi) whence are Wars ? which is not a bare en- 
quiry, a meer queftion neither, but feems to have fbme- 
g % thing in it of wonder and admiration, if in the laft place 
we add the \v vfjJv inter Vos, the Parties contending, Bre- 
thren by Nature, and adopted unto the fame Inheritance 
by Grace, Chriftians, bis fratrcs, twice bretheren. Vnde 
inter Vos .<? whence among ye ? 

In the fecond Queftion Reponfive, befides the Inter- 
rogation, An non hinc .<? Are they not hence ? we may 
diftinguifh three particulars more, arifing like Rings in 
gradation, i. Lnjlj 2. Lujl Warring 5 2. Warring in 
the members. 

Firft, Lufts in the habit,that unprovoked lie Couchant, 
fkeping., and fo in a manner dead, and Homo mortuvs 
non belligerat, as it is ia the proverb, fo long they fight 


Vfon J a m e s i v. verfe i . 133 

not : Thefe awakened and ftirred up by the flefh or fan- 
cy, or Devil working by both, ]5refently become mili- 
tant adverfus an imam ', for they war, but againji the iPet.2.11, 

Laftly, if the warring Lufts of the members prevail a- 
gainft the Soul, draw it unto Luft, the Lufts of the Soul 
do thenceforth war again in the members, making them 
but injiruments of iniquity unto iniquity, of iniquity in Rom. 6. 
confent unto iniquity in Ad and Execution, as St. Paul 
(peaks, And then if hindred in the execution, Stirs begin 
abroad, Wars and Contentions are inftantly railed. And 
that this is the intent here of St. James his phrafe of 
warring in the members, is evident, for the original 
faith not indeed Lufts but Delights, it is not fffS h4k>(u£$ 
but n?(S xStvuv, not from your lufts, but from your plea- 
fures that war in your members. For when Lufts are 
turned into pleafures and delights, they then become 
Vices, which before were but temptations reigning in the 
Soul, and imploying all the members of both Soul and Bo- 
dy as Inftruments and Weapons too to beat down all op- 
pofition, until they (hall atchieve and fully effeft their 
intentions. But becaufe thefe three are not three feveral 
things but only three degrees of one and the fame luft, 
luft dormant, militant, and vi&orious, for vi&orious it 
muft be in the mind, ere the luft of the mind can become 
militant in the members, the utmoft improvement and 
exaltation of luft, when it lofeth her name by running in- 
to a corrupt affeftion or delight \ Under that Title there- 
fore we (hall (imply confider it in this refponfive que- 
ftion 5 fuch noyfom affeftions at home being indeed the 
ground and foundation, the well-head and Fountain of 
all Wars and Contentions abroad. But we muft firft be- 
gin with the former Queftion, and in it, as Nature re- 
quires, firft enter on the fubjeft concerning which it is 
moved, Tc'Ae^oi 9 f**%ou, Wars and Fightings, from 

R 2 whence, 

124 The Original of Wars, 

whence, &c. ghti in eenere & confuse loquuntur, feip- 
fos decipiunt & alios, ergodijlinguamus, faith Ariftotle. 
And St. James here, that his fpeech be the more didinft, 
follows the Rule, and doth firft fever publick and general 
contentions, from private ftrifes and lefl'er brabbles, ttdAs- 
fj&i £ /xa'^cuc But this difference confiding- in degree ra- 
ther than Nature, doth not hinder, but that we may far- 
ther didinguifti the diverfe kinds of either 5 And two 
forts fure there are apparently,Verbal Wars and Violent : 
fo the Orator doth divide, duo font genera decertandi, 
Tin um per vim, altcrum per difteptationcm. There are 
two forts of war and contention, the one by force, the 
other by difpute, and contedation 3 that proper unto 
Beads, this unto Men 5 yet Men may fly unto that, faith 
he, when this latter may not be ufed, or hath been ufed 
to no purpofe } For in cafe of injuries between States or 
Princes that have no Superiour Judges if rcafbn may not 
prevail for right, or reditution, the Sword of neceflity 
mud difpute the caufe, and be bold to carve out its own 
fatisfaftion. But then what large fatisfa&ion men do ufii- 
ally cut out to themfelves that are their own Carvers 
and Judges in their own caufes, backed with Cxfars 
MaximeofWarin the Poet, Omnia dat, qui jujla negat y 
what bitter revenges they take of their brethren 5 what 
forrows and calamities, what (laughter and effufion of 
blood, and confufion they bring upon the world, until 
the whole earth doth groan and mourn, if not totter and 
reel like a drunkard under the burthen, is an argument 
fitter for tears than difcourfes, for prayers unto God 
than declamations unto Men thatlittle regard them. But 
fuch are the conditions of the former fort, violent and 
bloody. The fecond are of a milder nature 5 difceptive on- 
ly and verbals In which kind I fhall not now meddle with 
the. pleas and pleadings between right and wrong, be Hum 
forenfe, Thefe are but m^ca, private brabbles between 


ZJpon James iv. verfe i. 125 

perfon and perfbn, founded in meum & tuum, frigida 
ilia verba, faith St. Chryjoftome, qu£ innumtra genucre 
bella,&tc. but only with with thofedifceptations and dif- 
putes, which concern verum & falfum, Truth and Er- 
ror, even in Faith and things pertaining unto God, hel- 
ium EccUfififticnm, a war publick too, as that other be- 
tween States and Kingdoms, (b this between Churchmen 
and Churches, as the war moft efpecially intended in the 
Text, and that we be not much offended at it, ever and 
in all ages permitted by the Divine Difpenfation for 
great realon>, more or lefs to exercife the Church of 
God -■> And theli wars, it were yet ibmething well, had 
they contained themfclves within their proper fphere of 
difceptation and difputc, though even thus, fuch con- 
tention it felf, and the bitter fruits which it produceth, 
is caufe (ufficient to bring forrow enough on the heart of 
every true Son of the Church 5 for,whofe heart fmarteth 
not to conGder the divifions, I fay not now of Reuben, 
but of Levi, and their great thoughts of heart to behold 
the parts and parcels, divifions and (ubdivifions, faftions 
and fraftions whereinto they have broken and even crum- 
bled themfelves? To (ee the Coat of Chrift that fhould 
be without feam, not only rent in pieces but torn even 
unto rags, until Religion, Chriftian Religion, (eem to 
fuffer the fame fate with that Lady in Vint arch, quam 
cumprocorum (ingttli pojfidere nequirent integrant^ in 
partes drrcpferunt , & obtinuit nemo omnium. But 
have thefe contentions ftayed here? Have they not 
thrown a(;de the Pen and drawn forth the Sword, left 
chiding and fallen to blows? words have bred exafpe^- 
ration and cxafperation hatred more than Vatiniani 
mortal or rather immortal hatred, not content to fpend 
it felf on the goods, the bodies, the lives of the living, but 
to rage on the Memory, the Bones and the very Afhes 
and Sepulchres of the dead, yea on the very Souls-, as fier 


126 The Original ofWars, 

as they might, of both 5 how many fuch Souls of our late 
Predeceffors (whofe blood in moft Savage manner poured 
forth and fpilt, is yet even almoft warm) are there now 
lying under that Altar in the Revel, and crying unto God 
with an ufquequo, how long Lord, merciful and true £ 
And how well may we cry out and admire too with that 

Tantum Relligiopotuit fttadere malorumZ 

For certainly there is neither of thefe contentions, whe- 
ther by difceptation,or violence, whether they be ^Ag^t 
or ploL%m> publick Wars or private Fightings of either 
fort, but will well deferve an unde of admiration and 
inquifition too 5 but fir ft of admiration in regard of the 
inter vos, the parties contending, which is the fecond 
point, whence, &c. 

And fure were the vos here, only but men, it were 
not without marvel, fince fuch violent and bloody con- 
tention (as the Orator faid well) is proper to Beads, to 
Beafts that are of divers kinds and feveral natures, as full 
of paffion, as void of underftanding, not unto Men that 
are rational, of the fame blood, and defcended from the 
loins of the fame Parent, in whom the lines of their fe- 
veral Pedegrees do all meet and center themfelves in uni- 
ty original, that (b in their running on from thence there 
might be continued a fraternity perpetual. Beafts in- 
deed come forth armed, and in their feveral kinds well 
. appointed for war, into the world 5 but Man is fent out 
without Tooth or Talon, horn or hoof from jhe womb, 
tanquam animal foci ale, c£* ad pacem colendam natum, 
as a civil and fociable creature defigned and born unto 
peace. Is it not ftrange that fuchnotwithftanding (hould 
become belluis ipfis magis belluini, more full of beaftly 
ferity than beafts themfelves? That this fociable Animal 
[hould juftifie the madnefs of the moft Savage and intra- 


ZJpon James iv. verfe i. 127 

ftable creatures, fteel their affections with more cruelty 
and barbarity than Bears and Lions can learn in theWil- 
dernefs ? As if they had fucked Tygers in the defert, ra- 
ther than the Daughters of Men , or were a Cad wean 
generation, born not ot Women, but terr<e filii fprung 
up out of the earth, fown with the teeth of Serpents, for 
juft (b we deftroy one another, & perennt per mutua 
vnlnera fratrex, like the young men that played before 
Joab and Aimer ^ every man thruftinghis Sword in his 2 Sam. 2. 
Brothers fide. This cannot be without marvel J But 
yet this is not it, there is fomething more in the vos 
than this. St. James directs his fpeech not meerly unto 
Men, to animal Men and Infidels, but unto Chriftian 
Men, to Men whofe Badge and Cognizance, yea whofe 
very form and ellence, is mutual Love and Charity 5 un- 
cle inter vos ? It is but a juft admiration, this, whence 
are warsamongft fuch? That divers and feveral Religi- 
ons (hould ftriveeven unto death 5 that the Jew and the 
Chriftian contending, the Gentile (hould fall upon both 
as in the primitive times is no great matter : but that 
one and the fame (hould nourifh inteftine war, that the 
Children of the iame Mother (hould ftruggle and fight, 
like Jacob and Efau, in the very womb that bears them, 
that is it that is marvellous indeed. For we may not 
conceive that Chriftianity infolds within it feveral Reli- 
gions '■> As far as the World is Chriftian, it is but one, in 
which indeed there may be and are Factions and Parts, 
fome Schifms and rents, which notwithftanding are not 
fo torn in fonder, or fo utterly divided, but that they 
hang together, though at fbme diftance by many threads. 
As long as there is no new foundation laid, the building 
of Hay and Stubble upon the old, may well be termed 
Errour, and error fometimes peradventure Heretical, a 
new Religion it may not, cannot be: That then this one 
(hould fo vary and multiply it felf into fo many feveral 


128 The Original of Wars , 

forms and (hapes, every man admiring and contending 
for the beauty and proportions of that which his own 
fancy beholds , if not frames, and that with fuch en- 
mity and bitternefs } this cannot be but very ftrange in- 
dered, and we are now to inquire into the caufes, that it 
may be ftrange no longer. For this Vnde of St.jf*/»e/,ftays 
not in the admiration, but tends efpecially unto Inquifi- 
tion, thelaft point, whence are Wars and Fightings $ 

And he doth well to inquire into the Caufes of fuch 
deadly evils, as being the beft and readied means to re- 
move not only the admiration but the Evils themfelves. 
For Wars in the world, are but as ficknefs in the Body, 
both diftempers and tumults bred by corrupt humours, 
the one in natural bodies, the other in politick and reli- 
gious : Every Empirick may palliate the malignity of a 
difeafe by outward and local Medicines, but a skilful Phy- 
fician deals upon the root and fountain, that he may make 
a cure of it $ And fb doth St. James here, though his 
difcourfe be of War,yet his whole intent is for Peace, the 
health of a Church and State, yea and the wealth too 3 
The blejfing of Peace^ faith the Pfaltnifi, as if all other 
bleffings were, as indeed they are, without it unblefled 
unto us. But this peace however otherwife pieced and 
palliated, yet he well knew could not be firmly knit and 
eftablifhed, without removing the caufes of War 5 nei- 
ther thefe caufes that feed and foment War, removed, 
unlefs firft fhewn and difcovered 3 And therefore the 
enquiry is no (boner made by one Interrogation, Vnde 
Bella ? but the difcovery follows in the neck of it, by 
another, Annon hinc $ Are they not henc^ 

And that we may proceed unto this fecond general, 
we will now follow him accordingly in both 5 firft make 
the Enquiry and that diftinftly with refpeft unto the fe- 
veral forts of Wars and fightings before mentioned, and 
then confider the truth of his return unto it, whether he 


Vfon James iv. verfe i . 129 

hath not opened the right fountain, juftly laid the blame, 
where it fhould lie,upon warring lufts. And laftly, take a 
more particular view, what Lufts they are, that warring 
in the members at home, do caufe all other ftrifes and 
contentions in the World abroad, whence are Wars .<? 
Are they not hence £ 

But firft by the way it will not be amifs to prevent a mi- 
ftake,left fome Anabaptiftical Spirit perad venture may con- 
ceive it St. Jameshis meaning here,becaufe he derives them 
from luft,to condemn all violentWars for utterly unlawful; 
True it is,thatWar cannot be juft on any fidc,unlefs worldly 
lufts have caufed injuftice on one fide, though it be pol- 
fible in cafe of ignorance through inextricable difficulty 
of title, that a War which can be juft but on one part, 
may yet not be unjuft on any : But in cafe of apparent in- 
juftice, vim vi repel/ere, is the unrepeatable Law of Na- 
ture, even for private men, how much more for fuch as 
are fupereminent, andpublick? For Kings and Kingdoms 
that are bound more ftrongly to preferve themfelves, than 
any particulars elfe, are therefore leaft bound of all others 
to fuffcr injuries, especially fuch as are deftru&ive, or but 
look towards it : A juft War here is ever to be prefer- 
red before a ruining and difhonourable Peace: Though 
yet this indeed, is or ought to be the laft remedy, not wil- 
lingly to be ufed, unlets injuries with peace may not 
otherwife be repaired: He faid wc\\ y Malis fcclicitas^bonis 
necejfitas : To lay hold of any occaiion tofubdue Nati- 
ons, and enlarge Dominions by Conqueft and bloodfhed, 
wicked and Tyrannous Princes may efteem great glorv 
and felicity, but by good and Chriftian Kings War is ne- 
ver fought, but enforced, and is therefore rightly termed 
malum necejjarinm , though indeed it be never evil 
morally , but when it is unncceflary. And therefore 
Cnncta prim tentanda^ all good means are firft to be en- 
deavoured,butthen if it ftill xemm\immedtcabiUvnlntH, 

S an 

i ^ o The Original of Wars, 

an injury otherwife incurable, enfe reddendum, the 
Sword muft cut it off as a Gangrene, left it creep on to 
ruine and deftru&ion : In this cafe they alone muft de- 
fervedly bear on their own heads, as they may, the 
blame and blood too of the War, whofe warring lufts 
would not permit them to hearken unto the treaties and 
juft conditions of peace. Though therefore the ground 
and occafion of a War be ever fome corrupt lufts on the 
one part, yet the profecution may be but juftice on the 
other 5 And juft Wars are fo far from being evil, as they 
are termed fomewhere, even in the Scriptures, the Lords 
battels. This premifed to remove the Anabaptift that 
ftood in the way, let us now come to the anfwer, firft 
propofing the queftion, and then applying the refponfive 
interrogation in the feveral forts of contention, beginning 
the enquiry as the Text doth with <&$& Was^c^ whence 
are wars, publick Wars and violent amongft you ? 

But the demand here I confefi may well be fpared : 
iuch Wars are neither fo proper to the Text, nor yet 
unto our profeffion,and were they both, yet the inquiry 
into them is impertinent at this (eafon,and to this Aflembly : 
Here is no room for the Queftion, no place for the 
inter Vos : Bleffed be God there are no fuch Wars a- 
inongft us. 

§luicquid tninabitur Eurus 

o pleUunttsr J)lv£. faith the Poet. 

And fo it hath been with us hitherto, and may it be 
fo ftill. The Hail-ftorm that threatens our Cities, may 
it ever fall upon the Foreft,as the Prophet Efay fpeaketh : 
The Lord, it feems, as he (bmetimes faid of his Ifrael, 
hath given Egypt for your ranfom, Ethiopia and sheba 
for you, and the chaftifement of our peace is upon other 
mens fhouldersj we therefore may better put the queftion 
clean contrary, Vjidc non funt bella ? VndeVax inter 

Vos r 

Vpn James iv. verfe i. 151 

Vos ? whence is it, that there are no fuch Wars amongft 
you ? This Vnde and enquiry certainly is not without 
fome admiration neither 5 That the ftreams of your Gof- 
pel (hould run pure and clean, whileft the Rivers abroad 
are turned into blood , that whilft other Nations lie even 
wafte in the defolations of War,imbroyled and imbrewed 
in their own gore, your Country remains unto you in the 
mean while like the Garden of Eden, frefh and flouri- 
(hing, every man fnb umbra pacts delighting and (port- 
ing himfelf in the Bowers of Peace and Plenty too, Vnde 
h£c nobis tanta falicitas ? we may well indeed make 
the demand, whence this is happened unto us above all 
others ? And may we not as jufty anfvver like St. James 
here with another demand, An non hinc .<? Is it not from 
hence t certainly next unto God and his gracious favour, 
from hence it is, that we have a Prince to rule over us 
that is Print eps pads, as theDefendour of the Faith, fo 
a Prince of Peace alfo. A Prince of fueh mild and 
temperate affeftions, as the eye of envy cannot but per- 
ceive his bofom to be free from thofe revengefull or am- 
bitious thoughts, ab immenfa ilia dominandi li bt dine, 
from that immenfe and illimited defire of enlarging do- 
minion, and all other thofe impotent lufts, that reigning 
in the breafts and warring in the members of other Kings, 
have fo much troubled the world, and like that horfe- 
man in the Revel, taken peace from off the earth. Hap- 
py men .ire we, did we underftand our own happinefs, or 
rather are we not miferable the more that underftanding 
our happinefs regard it fo little? That notwithstanding 
this invaluable bfeffiag of peace, able to fwallow up all 
petty pretended grievancesxan yet hardly,and icarce with- 
out murmuring be brought to contribute any thing for the 
preservation of our own felicity,though wrought out with 
the care, and brought home unto us with the trouble and 
travel of another ? An ingratitude able to deprive us of 

S a our 

L£2 The Original of Wars, 

our bleffing, and indeed nothing but deprivation, can 
teach us rightly how to value it. But then let it come 
unto this, fet once an inter vos upon it, make it your 
own cafe, though but by imagination : Let your fields 
be fpoiled and your labours wafted, let your eyes behold 
the rifling of your houfes, the direption and Packing of 
your Cities : Let your Sons be numbred unto the Sword, 
and your Daughters to reproach and violation $ lye but 
a while under thefe, and the like calamities of War, that 
ufually attend on the vi&ories of proud and infulting 
Conquerours , and then confider and fay whether any 
thing be too dear to redeem that bleffing, which you now 
have, and think every thing too much, though never fo 
little, that fhould be expended for the continuance of it. 
May fuchunthankfulnefs never bring it to a real cafe among 
us: but fure this and our other iniquities are like enough 
to do fo. I am neither Prophet nor Son of a Prophet, 
only this I fay, and a reverend Prelate hath taught it me, 
That Mercy and Juftice are two Sifters,and as the one hath 
had her day, fo the other in time may come to have hers 
alfo. For God hath two Arms, two Cups, two Recom- 
pences: Eerily there is a reward for the Righteous, and 
doubtlefs too there is a Judgment in (lore for unthank- 
ful, murmuring and obftinate finners. But, 'tis well, as yet 
we are free, and bleffed ever be God we are fo, that we 
have now nothing to do with -ttdA^o/, but have we not 
with ^cL^cti neither ? we cannot put the queftion here, 
unde bella} but may we not, unde pugn<s> ? whence are 
fightings .<? I would we might not. Would to God there 
were no room for inter vos here neither 3 But however 
the tartnefs of the humour be fomething allai'd (and you 
know ftill through whole care ) yet room there is, and 
too much room, if pleafe God, left for making the en- 
quiry, unde fint .<? whence they are ? and for juftifying 
the too, even from hence, from the htjis that 


ZJfon J a m e s i v. verfe i . 155 

zvar in your Members. And it was but time for the Lords 
Anointed to fet to his helping hand, we were even grown 
wanton in deftroying the life of. one another. Awry 
countenance, a miftakcn word, any thing was caufe e- 
nough, non in commodum, fed occidendi caufa occi* 
dunt, Men kill, as he (aid, for no other reafon. but on- 
ly to kill, not for profit, but for praife, and fince they 
conceive there is honour in it, take a plealure in killing} 
As if no matter were fit to build up the aiery Caftles of 
honour, but fuch as is tempered with blood 5 And yet 
fee the reward, when the Devil by the Laws of 
God furrounds and feifeth on the conquered, dying in 
malice, and the Hangman by the Laws of the King, gives 
the Garland of Honour to the Conquerour : A wor- 
thy reward , if any reward may be worthy of fuch 
impiety ! How may we fay with old Jacob unto his 
fighting children, curfing their wrath, for it was cruel, 
O my Soul come not into tfuir fcret, O mine honour 
be thou not joyned unto their AJjembly : For indeed it 
neither is, nor can be cfteemed honour with any but the 
Afl'embly of Ruffians and Rodomantado's, Brethren of 
the Sword that read Tavern Lectures, and have made 
an Art and Philofophy of quarrel!, unlets it be honour 
to Live and Die in the difobedience of God, the King, 
and the Church, and to fuffer thebafenefs of thofe bitter 
revenges of all three} for as you have feen them, the 
execrations of God and the King, fo are the Anathema's 
of the Church too, excommunicated ipfo fa&o, and net 
permitted in other places Chriftian burial, but caft or.: 
into the common Field, among thofe bcafts they imi- 
tate } and pity it is not fo in our own Church. For tic 
that dies like a Lion, or rather like a Maftiff, juftly d<> 
Serves, as that Prophet fpeaketb, the burial of an jifr% 
But though this be the chief yet is it not the affe&ation 
of thisfalfe honour alone which is the only warring hift* 


134 The Original of Wars, 

that inforceth thefe Combatants to the Field. They can 
fight fometimes for their money, the Gamefters quarrel-: 
fometimes for their Conforts in the work of darkneft, the 
Adulterers quarrel : and fometimes even for pure re- 
venge, the malicious Mans quarrel 5 wheni%hey mifcar- 
ry and perifh in the Conflict, The firft dies the Worlds, 
the fecond, the Flefhes , the third the Devils Martyr: 
And honour ftill there is no doubt in all three. Are thefe 
Men Chriftians, trow ye ? Certainly I begin almoft to 
doubt, whether they are within the Verge of this, inter 
vos, here or no. Sure I am they cannot refblve to fight 
thefe Battels, but they muft at the fame time refolve to 
renounce Chriftianity : yea and fo themfelves profefs 
(and peradventure there is honour in that too) that they 
may not, they cannot do it as Chriftians, only they are 
bound to maintain their reputation as Gentlemen. But 
what, are the Noble and Ignoble become feveral fpecies 
of Chriftians or are there feveral Gofpels, one for the 
Peafant, another for the Gentleman to be faved by ? I 
have read that the great Bifhop of Cullcn could plunder 
a Country with his Army, but as a Duke, not as a Bi- 
(hop 5 but he was well derided for it by the Countryman 
with that farcaftical demand, that when the Duke (hould 
be burning in Hell for fuch outrages, what would be- 
come of the Bifhop ? And furely when the Gentleman 
falling in a Duel (hall be damned, we may as juftly de- 
mand with the like derifion,what will become of the Chri- 
ftian ? will God and the Devil divide the fpoil, come to 
the old compofition,tfec mi hi nee ti biffed dividatnr? or 
will Chrift deliver the evil Chriftian to Satan, and take 
the priviledgcd Gentleman to himfelf? But not to be 
over pleafant in a matter that is ferious, I only fay thus 
much, If the Chriftian be a Noble Gentleman, let the 
Gentleman too be a Noble Chriftian 5 Such brute and 
barbarous Kites may well be wild branches of Gentilifm, 


Vpn J a m e s i v. verfe i . 155 

but will no way accord with Chriftianity, or true Gene- 
rality cither 5 yea the Gentiles themfelves, thofe great 
Maftersof bonour,the old Rom an /, that fo eagerly fought 
for it, and won it too in juft and lawful wars, yet o- 
therwife cfteemcd it the greateft both Honour and Va- 
lour too, privatas injuria magno & excelfo animo pr<e- 
terirc, wirh an high and a Noble Mind to pafs by and 
contemn private offences. And therefore he is a Noble 
neither Gentile Gentleman, nor Chriftian that cannot 
do the like, but a fordid Vallal unto thofe bafe and un- 
worthy litjis that war in his members : God and his 
Scripture can afford him no other Honour, and with it 
I leave him, and pafs unto thofe other fightings and con- 
tentions difceptive, the wars Ecclefiaftical, into the bit- 
ter root and original whereof, we are now to enquire 
and confider, An non hinc ? whether thefe alio ifluenot 
from the fame Spring and Well-head, (till the head of all 
evil, Inft warring in the members. Are they not 
hence i 

Not that thefe wars neither are on all parts unlawful, 
like thofe latter, becaufe derived from luft : unlawful in- 
deed they are on that Cidc^ where luft raifeth errours 5 
but neccftary on the other, where truth fecks to diflolve 
them. Thefe are not as Duels, and private Fightings, 
but rather as thofe former folemn and publick Wars 5 and 
as there Luft begets Injury, and Juftice repells it 5 fo here 
Luft ingenders error, and it is but fidelity to oppofe it 5 
But then we muft be fure the error be clear, and of mo- 
ment too. otherwife we may be too forward to make a 
war about it. And indeed it will behoove us not to make 
or nourifh more quarrels here, than needs we muft, e- 
fpecially not to profecute them over-eagerly 5 conten- 
tion in the Church, is as a wound in the Soul, or a breach 
of the Sea, it may have fmall beginnings, but nothing 
«l well make it up again, It fqmetimes fares with the 

Watch, ^ 

136 The Original ofWars^ 

Watchmen of ifrael, that have the charge of the Churches 
peace, as it did with Elijahs fervant upon Mount Carmel^ 
At the firft looking out, peradventure they fee nothing 5 
they look out a fecond time, and behold a cloud arifing 
out of the Sea no bigger than a Mans hand } ^but ere they 
can well look about them the third time, the Heaven is 
inftantly overcaft, and down comes a dafhing fhower, 
if not a Tempeft upon the Church : if the wood be dry, 
a fmall thing will ferve turn to kindle a flame, which 
greater pains will not fo eafily again extinguifh. It will 
therefore concern us highly to take heed how we ftrike 
fire upon Tinder, or blow that which isftrucken: how 
we either begin or foment the leaft iparks of contention, 
where the matter round about us is fo combuftible, and 
ready to take fire, as are the affe&ions and fancies of gid- 
dy people, prone of themfelves to nothing more than 
novelty and difobedience. And fince it is our office not 
to feed fuch flames, but to quench them, we are to do it 
accordingly, as the points (hall require. If material and 
of moment, by carting on of water even by oppofition^ 
but if other wife, by withdrawing the Fuel, agreeing or 
notfurioufly ftrivingin unneceffary and difficult difputes. 
It is therefore but the idle jealoufy of bufie Zealots, when 
they fee any out of this defire of the Churches peace 
and union too, as far as may be, not willing to raife or 
nourifh more controverfies than are needful, (where God 
knows there are too many already) prefently to con- 
ceive them for underminers of Religion, betrayers of the 
Truth, that deliver it up once more, if not to Pilate 
yet to Caiaphas^ to be Crucified, either out of fraud, or 
I know not what fear, ne Komani vent ant & tollant 
gent em : True, there is no counfel againft the Almighty, 
and he that (hall feek to fave any thing by deferting his 
truth, doth but take the readied way to lofe it. The 
Lord hath faid it, and (in fuch fubtleties as the Wife man 


ZJpon James iv. verfe i. 137 

faith, are fine but unrighteous} ever takes it his honour 
to do as he fays, Perdam fapientiam fapientum, I will 
deftroy the wifdom of the wife, and take them in the 
craftinefs of their own imaginations. Alas ! who knows 
not this as well as themfel ves^d who fees not,that in fuch 
points as are apparently noxious and hurtful, for Sions 
fake we do not, we may not hold our peace, but where 
we cannot otherwife joyn, we are ready to joyn battle > 
They are the Lords battles, thefe of all others and fince 
the wall of partition is eretted on their ground, and the 
errors that occafion the War, founded in the lufts that 
war in their members, we fpare not here, as occafion 
ferves, to lift up our voices, like Trumpets, and ftand 
prepafed to jeopard our lives even unto death in the 
high places of the Field, left the curfe of Aleroz, over- 
take us, that bitter Curfe by the voice of an Angel, for judg.v.23< 
not coming forth unto the help of the Lord : But yet 
even in thefe contentions that are moft neceflary, fbund- 
nefs and moderation too, would do well 3 for violence 
or bitternefs againft Mens Perfons may confirm them in 
their errors, but is no way able to convert any Man to 
the truth. We our felves will not be fo converted, 
though I doubt not but in cafe, where fenfiial Lufts and 
defires have ftupified the fenfe, and made Men wilfully 
deaf unto milder admonitions, fuch may fbmetimes be 
rub'd up a little the more roundly. But whether fuch 
terrene afFe&ions be the true caufes, as of other Wars, fb 
of thefe contentions alfo, we are now to fee and in- 

St. James here affirms they are, but by a negative de- 
mand. Are they not hence i And he feems to do it 
purpofely in that form, to fee if any Man can except a- 
gainft it, or find out any other original. For fome have 
imployed thcmfelves in the difcovery of other Fountains, 
and would willingly caft the blame, as well, if not rather 

T upon 

1 58 The Original of Wars, 

upon the ignorance of Men and the difficulty of the 
Scriptures $ and indeed in the Scriptures, there are fome 
things difficult enough, and among Men many ignorant 
more than too much 5 but ignorance in difficulties ne- 
ver comes to error and contention, if Men can be con- 
tent to be ignorant in what they cannot well underftand, 
this is, pia & do&a ignorant 74, as St. Aufiin hath it,. a 
pious and a learned ignorance : indeed not fo much an 
ignorance, as a willing and voluntary neceffity, which of 
all things elfe in matters that are thorny and perplexed, 
is the beft preferver of peace. There may be, no doubt, 
abftrufe queftions enough, propofed by Churchmen and 
handled too, but they never come to ftirs and ftrifes in 
the Church until they that are ignorant and blin4, like 
thofe Pharifees, out of pride or fome other Luf£ will 
needs (ay and believe too, that they fee 5 And then fuch 
guides and their blinder followers , how fuddenly are 
they both in the ditch plunged over head and ears in er- 
rour, ere they are aware ? Ignorance therefore never 
caufeth errour and diflention, unlets one Luft or other 
doth firft caufe the ignorance : foSt. Peter tells us, fome- 
things are hard to be underjiood in St. Pauls Epiftles, 
which yet hurts none but unlearned and unji able Men 5 
Men carried about,it feems, with diverfe Lufts,like empty 
Clouds withfeveral winds,who therefore pervert fuch dif- 
ficult places to their own deftruftion 5 and let it ever be 
their own blame, not the Scriptures, which are mod un« 
willingly wrefted to the adulterating of that very truth 
which themfelves do deliver. But the holy Scripture is 
not compofedonly of difficulties, it hath (hallows in it, 
and Fords where the Lamb may wade, as well as Pools 
and Pits, where the Elephant may fwim, yea and drown 
too. As there are exquilite rarities to depel fatiety, fo is 
there folid food enough too, to fatisfy hunger 5 And in 
thefe that are univerfally neceflary unto life, the Scrip- 

Vpon James iv. verfe i. 139 

tures are io clear and free from difficulty, as there is no 
room for ignorance, did not Men look on them through 
the falfe Speftacles of their deceitful affe&ions 3 For if 
the Cofpel be hid, it is hid unto thofe that perift^ to 
thole, vvhofe Eyes the God of this world hath blinded, 
faith St. Paul plainly s neither doth the God of this world 
otherwife blind them, but by exhaling the vapours of 
worldly Lufts, that darken and pervert the judgment* 
Whether therefore we recur either to the difficulty of 
the Scripture, or ignorance of Men 5 we are (till brought 
back in conclufion, according to St. James here, to the 
lufts of their members, as the true and proper caufes from 
whence fuch bitter contentions in the Church have been 
raifed, nourifhed, and with fuch violence profecuted, 
for are they not hence £ 

And hence indeed they are, fo much the very demand 
doth import 5 but 'tis not enough to fay fo, we muft 
(hew it too, as well as fay it. And that may not well be 
done, unlefs we condefcend unto fome particulars, take 
a fhort view of thefe feveral Lufts, and fee a little what 
feveral errours they have begotten, and with them what 
contentions in the Church. Love and Hatred, if mifap- 
plied,are the two radical Lufts that both found and fofter 
all others. Thofe that proceed from Love, the concu- 
pifcible part of the Soul, are either from the immode- 
rate Love of Pleafure, or of Profit or Honour, which the 
beloved Difciple term?, the lujis of the flefi, the lufts 
of the Eye, and the pride of Life, and thefe are all either 
worldly or fenfual : But thofe that iilue from Hatred, the 
irafcible part, whether from the hatred of peace; or of 
truth , are more dire&Iy Devilifh \ And therefore our 
St. James a little before reductth them all unto three 
heads. But if there be bitter emulation andjirife among James it 
you, this wifdom defcendeth not from above, but k earth- *S« 
hi ftnfitah anc ^ devilifi. 

T2 To 

t 40 The Original of Wars, 

To begin the inftance with that terrene and worldly 
affe&ion of Pride and Vain-glory (though this hath fome- 
thing of Devil in it too) what a fruitful Mother hath it 
ever been of diffentions in Religion? and how many 
ways hath (be hatched and brought forth her deformed 
ifliie ? Sometimes by an itching defire of knowing all 
things, which boldly fearching into hidden fecrets leaves 
nothing unranfacked , whereby it may appear more 
learned : And then what fuch men conceive their pro- 
found (peculations with much travel have drawn up out 
of the depth of night and darknefs, left they fhould lofe 
the price of their labour, they obtrude upon others as 
neceffary to be believed. It was mod rightly (aid, Ne~ 
• ver Heretick yet, that racked the bowels of the Churchy 
but his pretence was for truth «, and Men do ufaally fall 
fo deeply in love with the conceited truth of their own 
invention, as all their pains feems to be loft, unlets they 
may prefs it too upon the Confcience of every Man elfe. 
And then when probable conceipts come to be publiftied 
for neceffary truths, and fpeculations of fancy are once 
turned into Articles of Faith (as we fee it hath fallen 
out, as in many others, fo in the new Platform of Pre£ 
byterial Purity^ at firft conceived but for a convenient 
Regiment, yet afterwards men becoming more enamourd 
with their own conceptions, came to be urged at length 
for the neceffary difcipline of Chrift, clearly commanded 
in Scripture, as the Scepter upon Earth and very King- 
dom of our Saviour,) no marvel then I fay, if contentions 
be not only raifed, but eagerly and obftinately purfiied 
alfo5 which yet are rendred the more violent by afe- 
cond elation of mind that can well away with no fupe- 
riority : Andthofe, that by other mundane defire?, are 
driven to endure it, yet how Heavenly do they do it? 
How do they mumur againft the power of their Super- 
intendents, like Corak> Dathan? and Abirtwi, Te take 


ZJfon James iv. verfe i. 141 

too much upon you, ye Sons of Aaron, and much ado they 
have, not to fay (b of Mofes too. Doubtlefs the cry in 
their hearts, is but that Confpiracy in the Pfalmiji, Let 
us break, their bonds afunder , and cajl their cords 
from ns. Sometimes again by an higher degree of am- 
bition that will admit of no equality, that as the former 
would be fubjeft unto none, (b this would have all fub- 
jeft unto himfelf 

— ■ — — Nee firre poteji C<efarve prior em, 
Vompeiufve parem. 

The one like C<efar , the other like Pompey, That can 
endure no Superiour, nor This brook any Equal : And 
on this ground it was, that the Greeks Church firft brake 
with the Roman, whofe Bifhop againft right and reafbn, 
the rule of Chrift, and decree of the Fathers, as fhe juft- 
ly taxed him, did arrogate unto himfelf a plenitude of 
power. And from the lame fountain have iffued thofe 
Waters of ftrife which do at this day overflow, and al- 
moft drown all Chriftendom. Laftly, by an ambitious 
defire of Secular Rule and Empire 5 For there are not 
wanting examples in ftory facred and prophane of fuch 
as have brought in new Religions, or fitted the old unto 
the Palate of the People , by this means to retain their 
own, or gain unto themfelves the Territories and Do- 
minions of others 5 To this end Jeroboam firft made an. 
alteration in the Church of ifrael, fetting up his Altars 
in Dan and Bethel, left the ten Tribes by going up year- 
ly unto Jerufalem tofacrifice, as they were commanded, 
fhould chance to return in time unto the houfe of Da- 
vid from whence they were rent. And I could wifh fuch 
fscular and politick refpe&s had no power among any of 
our felvcs, I fay not out of any fear left the ten parts 
fhould return again, unto the houfe of Levi, or rather. 


142 The Original of Wars y 

of God, from whence they are rent, ( it were pretty 
well, if they could reft contented there,) but rather 
that fuch regards might not prevail with them, in the 
defire and intention of a farther renting, to animate our 
mutinous contenders and egg on their contentions, that 
look that way 3 I hope there are no (uch crafty Interlo- 
pers as he terms them, that put in their ftock among the 
brawling Bankers, help to trouble the Waters, (uppofing 
in time to make another good filhing for themfelves. 
Though it is to be feared,(bme Conferences there may be 
in the world extenfive enough, and patent to fwallow 
even a Cathedral on the top of an Abby,and never trouble 
the Stomach of it much with the digeftion neither. It 
little matters for Sacriledge, they abhor Idols, and that 
is fufficient. But this appertains not (b properly unto 
Ambition as unto Avarice, the fecond of thefe earthly a£ 
fe&ions, but no le(s contentious and turbulent than the 
former. The Apoftle well terms it radix omnium ma- 
lor urn \ the root of all evil, and efpecially fo it is, by be- 
ing the root of diflention, for where envying andjirife 
Jam. 111. jfjhere is confufion and every evil voorh^ This therefore 
a fecond Parent, and Nurfe too of this viperous brood 
of errour and contention : For what a multitude of erro- 
neous but gainful pardons and difpenfations, purgations 
and expiations of fin, what indulgences to commit, or 
elfe to continue in manifeft wickednefs, what translation 
of other mens merits on thofe that want of their own, 
and the like, hath this affe&ion conceived, and brought 
into the world, and that not for morfels of bread : or hand- 
fuls of barley only, as that Prophet, but all, like Judas, 
for pieces of Silver ? Such Silverlings what are they in- 
deed, but Judas /, quteftui habentes pietatem, faith St. 
Paul to Timothy, that make other mens goodnefs their 
own gain, yea and their wickednefs too ? Both are e- 
qually the Churches Treafure, that may not be difpenfed, 


_ - 1 ^f 

ZJpon James iv. verfe i. 143 

nor thefe purged without money : So that Purgatory is 
but a Subterraneous Vault, digged only to come at a 
Mine, and that ignis fatuus, though it be but fantaftical 
and imaginary, yet it ferves turn to melt Bullion into his 
Holinefles Mint more abundantly, than any Princes fire 
elfe, that is real } And therefore it is not to be wondred 
at, if much ftir be made, and many bellows ever blow- 
ing to keep it from going out On the other fide are there 
not others of whom the Apoftle long fince prophefied, 
that fpeak perverfe things to draw Difciples after them, 
out of whom they fuck no (mall advantage ? fuch as can 
lead filly women Captive laden with fins and divers 
lufts, that like their fore-Fathers, the old Pharifees, can 
creep into Widows houfes, and devour too under pre- 
tence of long Prayers ? that can teach the Son of a profe- 
lyte to (ay unto the Father, or rather the Wife Corban 
unto the Husband , if not a profelyte as themfelves ? 
Nay, until they become fuch, that neither the one, nor 
the other hath any juft title unto his own goods, which 
therefore may be purloyned from them with a good Con- 
fcience,if it be tofupply the necefiity of the Saints,the right 
owners of them. Is not this likewife, as the fame Apoftle, 
Veritatem cauponari, to make merchandife of theGof* 
pel of truth, or rather of their own fancies and falfhood ? 
Againft all which queftuous errours of fuch fheepskin'd 
Wolves on either fide, when the true and faithful (heep- 
heard (hall oppofe himfelf, when thefe Flints and this 
Steel begin to knock and collide together, out fly the 
fparks of diffention, that inflame presently and fet the 
world in combuftion. Hence Luther ftoutly oppofing 
the Marts and Markets of the Roman Indulgencies, and 
whipping thofe buyers and fellers out of the Temple 5 
firft began that battery which fince we fee hath made 
fuch a wide breach in the very Towers of their Babel. 
But thefe wars and conizations are ./•#/#<*/, faith St, 


1 44 The Original of Wars, 

JameS) as well as earthly : and fure pleafure is of little lefs 
power with us, than profit : And whether we take it 
ftriftly for the concupifcence of carnal things, or more 
generally ,for a defire of finning freely and without fling of 
Conference, hath her part in thefe Tragedies, and brings 
not a little oyle unto the flames of contention 5 For this 
afFeftion, finding the doftrine of the Crofs grievous un- 
to it, whofe chief defire it is to injoy the delights of this 
life, and from them to pafs into the joys of a better,hath 
for this purpofe fought out Doftors, fiich as may comply 
with her defires,and it feems hath found them too,and that 
2Tim.1v. by heaps 5 fo faith the Apoftle, they heap up unto them- 
& fefoes Teachers after their own Lufts. I confefs, Ifliould 

iiot a little admire why the Romanift that is fo ftrift in 
difcipline, fhould yet in life be as loofe as any 5 whence it 
(hould be, that preffing the necefSty of good works fo 
vehemently in their Doftrine, few men yet feem to want 
them or commit the contrary with lefs trouble to their 
Confcience 5 did not their enormous difpenfing with Oaths 
of fidelity and horrible Incefts, their fupplying of feme 
mens empty Lamps with other mens Oyl, their enlarging 
of Venal Sins, and their eafinefs of Absolution in fuch as 
are Mortal, and ferving others the like, take off that ad- 
miration : Not that I diflikethe diftinftion of Mortal Sins 
and Venial rightly ftated,or yet the ufeof difpenfation in 
the Church, much lefs ot Abfolution$ but only the abufe 
of thefe things, which yet I think are more abufed by 
particular Perfons, fenfual Priefts, and prefumptuous 
people , than by the general Doftrine of that Church, 
though fo abufed alfo : And I would we had no abufes tend- 
ing that way at home : For feme there are fo ftrift in pro- 
feffion, and yet withal fo diflolute in their Doftrine, 
and the unavoidable inferences of it, as would make a 
man admire on the other fide, why they fhould not ei- 
ther teach, as they profefs, or elfe profefs plainly, as 


Vpn James iv. verfe I. 145 

they teach 5 fuch as can diftinguifh alfo of Venial and 
Mortal Sins, but in another manner, not from the Na- 
ture of the Sin, but the Condition of the Perfon 5 The 
beft works they can do, are deadly unto fome, whilft the 
deadlieft iniquities they commit, (hall be but Venial in 
the mean time unto themfelves, as not making any breach 
between God and their Souls, even then, when they com- 
mit them, yea as pardoned with a non obftante before 
they are committed 5 fuch as having no part of true 
righteoufnefs in themfelves, yet even then by Faith and 
Faith alone may have the Merits imputed, and Righteouf- 
nefs too of another : fuch as can actually commit Mortal 
iniquities, and yet at the fame time remain dill habitually 
Righteous : fuch as can exclude good works from the 
gaining of their juftification, and when they have gain- 
ed it, can lofeit no more by any works that are evil; 
fuch as need not care what fins their flefli committeth, 
folong as they aft them not without (bme relu&ancy 
of the fpirit. For fo fin the godly 5 and fince no Re- 
probates have any commerce with the internal moti- 
ons of the Spirit, as being altogether flefh, they can even 
from the enormity of their fins grieving the Holy 
Ghoft, conclude the very certainty of their Salvation, 
as no way elfe more certain that the Holy Ghoft is 
within them. No marvel fure if thefe and many other 
their fweet and comfortable pofitions have eafily found 
fuch multitudes of Difciples in the world, or that they 
contend fo eagerly and drive for them tanquaw pro ark 
& focis, as for the main points of their Religion and 
Faith, or whatfoever elfe is dear unto them. And lefs 
marvel it is, that thefe Difciples fhould be fo free and o- 
pen-handed unto their Teachers, when their Teachers 
underftanding their defires are fo favourable unto their 
Difciples : For certainly next unto that of the Alcoran^ 
I know not any Do&rine elie In thefe days fo kind and 

V courteous 

1^6 The Original of Wars, 

courteous unto flefli and blood, or in the Genius and juft 
confequences more impure and diffolute, than that of 
thofe who of all others raoft profefs ftri&nefs and purity. 
But fo it is fit fuch corrupt people, and their hired Priefts 
(hould claw one another, but fcratch and lacerate every 
Man elfe. You have feen the earthly and fenlual affefti- 
onsofLove, the love of Honour, Profit and Pleafure, 
blowing the coals of diflention , there is one blafi: of Ha- 
tred behind, and that will (hew it to be Devilifti alfa. 
For there are not wanting inftruments of Satan moftlike 
himfelf, malignant Spirits, that without the help of 
thefe refpefts can find in their hearts meerly out of the 
hatred of Peace and Truth too, fome of them, to raife 
Cavils and Contentions in the World, fuch as thofe of 
whom Saluft fyeaks.ghtibus quiet a movere magna mercer 
videbatur, who take it for a fafficient hire to fet them a 
work, if they may but difturb things quiet and efta- 
bliftied } Eft enim qnoddam hominnm genus, quod fine 
hofte vivere non poteft, for there is, as he well faith, a Na- 
tion of Peoplethat cannot endure to live without an Ene- 
my 5 fuch as Trogtn pronounceth the old Spaniard, adeo 
infenfum concordi£ ut puro illius odio inimicitias 
fufcipiat : Fifties that cannot live but in Flood hatches, 
Salamanders that die, but in the flames of Contention. 
But fome of thefe are of an higher pitch, and have their 
aim even at Truth it felf 3 and though for the moft part 
but Table and Trencher Mates for buffoonery 5 yet be- 
fides their fcurrilous prophanenefs, they can fometimes 
be bold to argue : and«it is marvellous to confider what 
fcruples of difficulty they move, what knots of Sophiftry 
they knit, what accufations on all fides thefe Scepticks 
frame, and this to no other purpofe, but to puzle the 
World in the already difficult fearch of verity 5 hoping 
that others upon defpair of finding out the true Reli- 
gion, may come at length to ccnceipt, as themfelves in 


ZJpon James iv. verfe i. 147 

favour of their Epicurifm do, that there may be no truth 
in any j for this can be no other beaft, than that which 
we term an Atheift, fomething worfe than Devilifh. For 
the Devil doth believe and tremble. And fuch are the 
true caufesofthofe Wars, from whence proceed all the 
wounds and breaches, that are or have been made in the 
Church. Other prejudices and partialities there are ari- 
fing from them, that keep thefe wounds open, and will 
not permit them to clofe again $ but this may fuffice for 
the prefent to verifie the anfwer of St. J awes in this his 
refponfive demand, For are they not hence £ 
" Now the intent of all this fearch into the beginnings 
and firft Fountains of Diffention and War, is but to lead 
us in the end into the way of Reconciliation and Peace. 
This was the purpofe of St. James's enquiry, and it fhould 
be ours. Shall we then for cOnclufion of all change the 
queftion, let go unde bella , and demand now at laft 
clean contrary, unde Pax f From whence comes Peace? 
from whence amidft all thefe ftirs may that be procured ? 
If we do fo, An non hinc, is at hand, comes it not hence, 
even from removing thofe Lufts and corrupt affe&ions, 
that are the caufes of War ? Many good means and me- 
dicines indeed have been fought out and applied to cool 
the burning heat of thefe Feavors of Diffention, and yet 
all but Empirical palliations, for a time peradventure 
affording fome eafe 5 but hope of health or recovery 
there is not any, untill the putrid humours (hall be purg- 
ed out, that caufc and feed the diftemper : All other re- 
medies of dccifion, or ways of pacification, which Men 
can either propofe or pra&ife without this, are too fee- 
ble and weak for the purpofe \ For what, are the Fathers 
they that may give end to thefe differences? There is a 
reverence belonging unto them, and let them have it $ 
but how (hould they finifh the broils of after times, that 
could not pacify the ftirs of their own ? Shall the antece- 

V 2 dene 

148 The Original of War. 

dent Councils give the definitive Sentence ? But what if 
they handle not all the controverfies among themfelves ? 
How if a good Caufe found ill Pleaders, and Co fell, not 
through its own weaknefs, but fearful filence, or unskilful 
defence ? None of thefe are impoffible, yea fome fay, 
that all of them have fallen out. Shall then aprefent 
Council clear all doubts ? There is little hopes of any 
fuch, that (hall be Oecumenical 5 and were there any 
fuch,lefs hope but that it would be carried by Faftion. Or 
elie is the Bifhop of Rome the Man, on whofe peremp^ 
tory definitions we muft all rely ? But this is one of the 
points of controverfie, the maineft one, and in fuch he 
may not be his own Judge. It is not any of thefe, nor 
indeed any thing elie, that may reftore us our peace: 
Not that device of an implicite and infolded Faith, for 
thefe Controverfies are between great Clerks, that be- 
longs only to the ignorant and fimpl^ * Not that Law of 
the Muscovite, which forbids all deputes in point of 
Religion (though in impertinent curiofities of excellent 
ufe, and whilft Spirits are inraged in others too, that are 
material) for fo every Man may teach dogmatically what 
he lift, and be fureto be controled by no Man 5 Not that 
pofition of the Alcoran, that every one may be faved in 
his own Religion =, for it isimpious,though peradventure 
true enough, if his own be the Chriftian Religion, yet 
not of force enough to allay Contentions, for we are to 
confider what is likely, as well as what is poffible, and 
Errours that are dangerous muft be oppugned as well as 
fuch as are abfolutely deadly. No not the decifion by 
Miracles , for we are forewarned againft them : Anti- 
chrift muft come with all falfe figns and lying wonders,abIe 
to (educe if it were poffible the very Eleft of God. Nor 
yet that brief and compendious way of ending contro- 
verfies by killing thole that /linfay them, a Remedy as 
vain .as. wicked : For the tru Church like the lept Tree, 


ZJpon James iv. verfe i . 1 49 

Per damna, per crfdes, ab ipfo 
Due it opes anrmumq^ ferro, 

hath ever thrived under the Axe, and gained by the 
lopping. But peradventure what the Hangman cannot 
do, nor any thing elfe, the Devil may 5 for fome have 
been fo (hamclefs to repair even thither for the ending 
of controverfies, adjuring and conjuring by Spells and 
Exorcifms Satan himflf to give anfvver out of podeffed 
bodies, as out of his Prophetick Charms, unto the truth 
of his difputcd Articles : Aftrange remedy and defperate 
as their caufe, that would cftablifh truth in Religion by 
the Spirit of Errour, and Father of Lies. Neither thefe, 
nor any thing elfe can prevail. Authority may reftrain, 
wife Men may mollifie and perfwade, but neither the 
power of the Magistrate, nor skill of the Learned are 
both able to effeft it 5 whatfoever remedies the Wit and 
Confidence of either dare, or any Catholick Moderator 
elfe, yea of the great Caffander himfelf may invent or 
propound, until every Manfeekto remedy one, will be 
found too weak for the purpofe^ they are all either 
dangerous, or not fully profitable Plaifters, if not malig- 
nant and hurtful, yet at beft too narrow for the Sore, and 
Unable to pierce unto the root of the Malady 3 It is only 
the removing of thofe inordinate Lufts,the caufes of War, 
that is able to give us a true and durable Peace ; For the 
bittemefcof the ftrcams mud be cured at the Fountain, 
and the fire quenched by fubduftion of the fuel, othei- 
wife cifefts will ever illue from their caufes \ And there- 
fore the mfdbm which is from above, faith my St. Jam 
is firji pure, then peaceable } And our Saviour obferve? 
the fame method in hisbenedifttons : firft, ifcjfed are the Matt. 
pure in heart, and then immediately* blejjed are the 
Peace-maters $ for until the heart which is the Fountain 


1 50 The Original of War ^ &c. 

be purged, there is no expectation of Peace. We may 
therefore caft up our Eyes towards Heaven, and profefs 
outwardly as much purity as we pleafe, but fo long as 
we are contentious, and at oppofition ftill with the 
Church and her peace, it is a manifeft fign our Wifdom is 
not from above, nor yet our felves fo pure in Heart,as we 
fhould be 3 For were the Heart once well purged and 
purified from thefe earthly and feqfaal defires, that di- 
fturb the Soul, and darken the mind, what peaceable and 
peace-making affe&ions would (ucceed, what calmnefs 
and ferenity, able to clear the eye of the Soul in difcern- 
ing evident truth, and to temper the paffions of the Soul 
in fuch truths, as are not eafily difcernable ? And fo end 
mod controverfies and at leaft moderate all, teaching us, 
as St. P*/*/fpeaks, fapere ad fobrietatem^ to be wife, but 
unto fobriety* or as St. James^ tofhew forth our v>orkj 
in the meeknefs of wifdom } For foberneft, meeknels, 
patience, gentlenefs,brotherly-kindnefs, love and thelike, 
thefe are the high and proper effe&s of the Wifdom,which 
is defuper from above, but may not defcend into a Soul 
filled already with thofe Lufts, that are defubter from 
fle(h and earthly things beneath. Virtues and endow- 
ments thefe, that feem to reftore the Soul to her native 
beauty, render it fweet and amiable, and of all other 
makes her molt like unto her Saviour : Vertues therefore 
fo peculiar unto his Gofpel, as it breaths almoft no other 
language 5 And were that Gofpel a while obeyed rather 
than difputed, obeyed in neceffary duties, rather than 
difputed in fpeculative difficulties, it would foon be un- 
to us, what it is in it felf, Evangelium facts a Gofpel of 
Peace, which the God of Peace vouchfafe unto us all to 
ftudy, even through ]efus Chrift our Peace-maker, to 
whom with the Holy Ghoft, three perfons, &c. Amen. 
Laus Deo in xttrnum. 




, OF 





Upon H o s e a xiii. 9. 

Oh Ifrael thou haft deftroyed thy ftf, but in 
SMe is thine help. 

AS there is nothing more neceflary, fo is there not 
any thing of greater difficulty^than to draw man 
unto a true thankfulnefs for Gods Mercies, or a 
juft acknowledgment of his own Errours. It 
will not be eafie for his Miniftersto prevail in that here, 
which could not be done in Paradife, no not by God 
himfelf, where although it were not the firft Sin (fork 
doth of neccffity fuppofe a former ) yet it was the ftcond 

152 A difcourfe ofEle&ion and Reprobation, 

in time, and I think in greatnefs before the firft. The 
Woman the transfers the fauk on the Serpent, and Adam 
on the Woman which thou gaveji me JIk delivered me 
12. of the fruit and I did eat. 

And fuch as was then, fuch or worfe is ftill the corrupt 
and ftubborn difpofition of a Sinner, who, though his 
own guilty Confidence make him hide his head in a bufh 
for fhame, yet thinks any Fig-leaves of excufe will ferve 
turn to cover his nakednefs from thofe Eyes, unto which 
all things are tranfparent 3 A crime we have received from 
our fore-Fathers, that firft ufed it 3 the Teats of Eve gave 
no other milk, than this perverfnefs unto all her Children. 
In good and laudable a&ions every man can readily teach 
his mouth to kifs his hand , as Job fpeaks, to commend 
and applaud the work, and be content to receive the ho- 
nour unto himfelf: But if the queftion be of our Errours 
and mifdeeds, how do we labour and fweat to convey 
the burthen from our own (boulders ! How ingenious 
prefently is the froward nature of moft men to knit the 
Stoical Chain of deftiny, and ( be the aftion never fo 
deteftable and vile ) to faften the firft Link not to the 
foot of J up iters Chair, the Stars and Conftellations of 
Heaven, but, which is a degree beyond the Stoicks,to the 
very arm of the Almighty ! In this cafe we are all grown 
acute Philofophers, and can climb the phyfical Scale 
of Caufes, as if it were Jacobs Ladder, until by it we 
afcend into Heaven, yea into the very clofet of God, 
where they will fearch the Book of hidden Counfels and 
eternal Decrees, and from thence draw dark and blind 
confequences of inevitable and fatal neceffity, rather than 
fiefh and blood fhould want wherewith to plead with its 
Maker 3 That as the men of the Man of fin have devifed 
a compendious way by one pofition to anfwer all objecti- 
ons againft their Doftrin, namely That their Church can- 
not err : So thefe men have found out as brief a Tenent 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 153 

to ftop the mouth of all reproof in the Errours and He- 
refies of their life, to wit, that they cannot chufe but err 5 
As if they had no means to decline the punilhment, un- 
lets they drew in God to be a Party in the offence. But 
it were good that Man would plead with Man, that the 
Pot/heard would contend with the Potftjeards of the 
Earth, as lfaiah (peaks, and not with his Creator 5 whofe 
Scepter is a rod of Iron, wherewith he can at his plea- 
fure bruife the veffel of the Potter, for he hath power 0- 
ver his clay : A power, notwithftanding which how un- 
willing he is to ufe, and how juftly at length he doth 
u(e,and how mercifully he forbears to ufe, we are in thefe 
few words by God himfelf given to underftand, that fo 
we might ceafe to wrangle with the Divine Juftice, that 
is fo loth to ftrike. O ljrael I words of great compaffi- 
on, and learn to condemn our (elves and our own fins in 
the evil we fuffer, when it doth ftrike. Thou haft deftroy- 
ed thy ft If And to blefsand adore God for all the good 
we either do or receive when in (pecial mercy it doth 
not ftrike, — but in nte is thy help : O ifrael, thou haft 
deftroyed thy {elf but &c. 

But ifrael is a word that wants not ambiguities, for 
all are not ifrael, that are of ifrael : There are Ifra- 
elites of the feed, and Ifraelites of the Faith of Abraham. 
There are Sons of flefti, and Sons of the promife, and 
ifrael is the Church of God, the womb that conceives 
and bears both. Du£ Gentes in utero : It is Rebel^ahs 
womb, in which Jacob and Efatt, and in them two 
mighty Nations do contend and ftrive 5 It is the Net in 
the Gofpel,that contains things both-good and bad s The 
Fold, that hath Sheep and Goats 5 The Field, that hath 
Tares and Wheat 5 The Barn-floor, that hath and 
Chaff. So then to colleft the fum and fubftance of thofe 
points, which this Scripture doth efpecially prefent un- 
to confideration: 

X Here 

I 54 A difcourfe of Eleffion and Reprobation, 

I. Here are firft, two forts of people, the Good and the 

Bad, Elect and Reprobate, implied in IfraeL 

Secondly, the two feveral Ends of thofe two forts, Life 
and Death, Deftrufltion and Salvation : for the help here 
may be none other than help from deftruction, and that 
can be nothing elfe than Salvation, andfofome Tranila- 
tions render it. 
3. And laftly, the two feveral caufes of thofe ends, God 

and Mans God, of life ) Man, of death 5 God the caufe 
of Salvation unto the Eledt, and the Reprobate the caufe 
of deftrudtion unto themfelves 5 whereby neither thofe 
that are faved, may facrifice unto their own Nets, nor 
they which perifh, lay any blame on his decrees 5 thefe 
being nolefs deprived of aliexcufe, than thofe bereaved 
of all boafting. O ifrael, thou haft, <&c. 

That thefe words may have a true and litteral under- 

ftanding of Calamities and Deliverances incident unto 

this prefent life, that which immediately goes before in 

the precedent verfe, / will meet them as a Bear bereaved 

of her whelps, &c. will not fuffer any Man to doubt : 

But that they are only and principally meant of fuch, 

and not of eternal deftruftion, and Salvation in them, 

verfe 14. that which follows, will permit no man to believe, / 

willranfome them from the power of the grave : I will 

redeem them from death : death, I will be thy plague, 

O grave, I will be thy deftruBion : words that do not 

carry a found of momentany affliction. And therefore 

this illuftrious promife, or Prophecy, or both, by the A- 

1 Cor. xv. poftleto the Corinthians is repeated, and worthily ap- 

*>*>• propriated unto him, who is the Saviour of Body and 

Sou!, and hath redeemed us from firft and fecond, both 

Corporal and Eternal death. The more defer vedly is 

Pi feat or, other wife a Learned and Induftrious Paftor, 

to be blamed, who in a late and negligent trad of Pre- 

deftination, having fo ordered the ftate of Reprobation, 


ZJpon Hosea xiii. verfe 9. 155 

as he faw God thereby muft needs become the firft Au- 
thor and Procurer of his Creatures endlefs deftru&ion, 
left this place here, Oh ifrael thou haft dcjiroycd thy 
[elf, (hould crofs his intent, or hinder his building, re- 
plies that it is meant offuch deftruftion only as pertains 
unto the piefent World} as if there were not one and the 
fame caufe of deftru&ion in both, nay as if it were more 
prejudicial unto God, and his Juftice, to be the abfo- 
lute caufe of flight and (hort troubles here, than of per- 
petual and everlafting forrows in Hell hereafter. It is 
ftrange he (hould rather feek an anfwer, than acknow- 
ledge the truth of fo excellent afcntence: A fentence, 
that is indeed the very line and level, whereby himfelf 
and every one elfe, muft direct and fquare all his propo- 
fitions, that concern thofe eternal appointments and de- 
crees of a juft and merciful God. It is the beft if not the 
only Star and Card and Compafs too, on which the weak 
age of reafon muft continually fix it felf, whilft it Steers 
in this dangerous Navigation, in this immenfe and bot- 
tomlefs Sea of Prede/kination, in which Abyjjus Abyffum 
ifjvocat^ one Deep calls upon another, Deep upon Deep 
and Rock upon Rock, fo thick, that in feeking to avoid 
the one, unlcfs this Golden Rule be our direction, we 
fhall be fure to ftrike and fplit upon the other, as many 
that have failed before us, have done, whofe Bark and 
burthen (hould never have perifhed, had this notable 
Saying fate Pilot at the Helm, by whofe (hipwrack we 
may learn wifdom to beware. For fome of the firft and 
beft Reformers of the Roman Superftition, juftly difplea- 
fed at the Pelagian freedom of the Papift, whereby Man 
is made the firft mover unto his own good, ftriving with 
all their might to bear up from this Ckarybdis^ fell foul 
upon Sylla on the other fide, andinftead of Pelagian 
liberty brought in more than Manichtan- neceffity, 
whereby God is as far entitled unto Mans ill : Both in 

X : extreams, 

5 6 Adifcourfe ofEle&ion and Reprobation, 

extreams and both extreamly to be blamed } the former 
being not able fully to fay, In thee is our Salvation^ 
unto God \ the latter, Thou hafi defiroyed thy felfc un- 
to Man. Arminihs of late, an Acute Dutchman, fteps 
forth to reform thefe Reformers, whole main Errour not- 
withstanding, which he fhould have condemned efpecial- 
]y, he is found efpecially to imitate, fleying where he 
ftould but fheer, and flying from one extream to ano- 
ther, when the truth lies between both. For as they up- 
on a worthy dillike of a conditional Election upon fore- 
feen merits, through heat or ignorance, come to main- 
tain anabfolute Reprobation $ fo he out of his as worthy 
dillike of this Iron and Adamantine decree of abfolute 
Reprobation without demerits, fell back again unto con- 
ditional Eledtion : In both, both of them equally erring, 
the truth lying equally diftant from both, fo as it is not 
eafieto judge, (Eleft ion upon good works being dero- 
gatory to the freenefs of Gods mercy, and Reprobation 
without evil unto the Truth of his Juftice) whether 
contains the greater impiety? The one gives tocr much 
unto Man in the work of Salvation 5 The other too much 
unto God in the means of damnation. My Text con- 
vinced both, the former in the latter part, and the lat- 
ter in the former* lfrael r thou hafi dejiroyed thy J elj ] 
hut in me is thy help. 

And as in Errours, fo are their portions not much un^ 
equal in Truth. For Arminius election upon forefight, 
and hisAdverfaries abfolute reprobation are not more 
falfe, than their abfolute Eledion, and his Reprobation 
upon forefight are , as 1 conceive it, apparently true 5 
which is not the leaft reafon, that they which are bre- 
thren and friends in all other points, fweetly confpiring 
againfi: the common Enemy, fhould with fuch violent af- 
fe&ions enter into this Civil War amongft themfelves \ 
For there isnoftronger nourifhment unto mutual per* 


Vfon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 1 57 

fwafion, than when either fide fhall behold fome demon- 
ftrative truths in his own, and as grofs and palpable er- 
rours in the others opinion : It can hardly chufe but be- 
get prejudice and partiality in either: with which fpe- 
ftacles, that alter the quality, and double the quantity 
of things, if once Men come to read or judge, no mar- 
vel if there follow a ftiffand ftubborn defence, and as ea- 
ger and peremptory profecution on both fides 3 Paries 
jam proximas ardet. Hence it is, that the neighbour 
Countrys are in fo great combuftion, and it may well 
be feared, left fome (parks of their flame, if neglefted, 
fhould kindle a fire of the like contention fomewhere elfe. 
So that, that which judicious Hooker obferved between 
Reverend Beza and his Adverfary in thequeftion of Ex- 
communication, that they had made an even divifion 
of the truth, may well be verified of Arminius and his 
followers, with their oppoiers* the Remonftrants and 
Contra Remonstrants, as they term them(elve3 in Ger- 
many, as they that have no lefs equally fhared both 
Truth and Errour between them. And the reafon here- 
ofis, for that either feeking to reftifie the crooked opi- 
nion of the other, deals with it as he would do with a 
crooked ftick, bending it as far unto the one fide, as he 
found it before inclining unto the other: and indeed it is 
the beft way to bring the ftick to the ftraight line between 
both i But opinions are not like rods, that have ipringsin 
them they draw rather unto the nature of a Lesbian lea- 
den rule, where you bend them, there they ftand. The 
cure by contraries is not always good in the fickneft of 
the Body, feldom or never in Errours^, the Difeafes of 
the mind ^ becaufe Truth for the moft part, like Virtue., 
dwells between two contrary extreams, that are vitious. 
The Perjian Manes, who well defcrved that name from 
the Grecian Mavicc for his unfound Doctrine that carries 
ibmuch raadnefs in it, had net longeftablifhed his He- 


58 A difcourfe of EleBion and Reprobation, 

refie in one extream, by faftning upon Mans will a natu- 
ral neceffity unto evil by creation 5 but our Countryman 
Telagins dire&ly oppofeth and confronts him with his 
Herefiein the other, by giving unto Mans will a natural 
freedom unto good after corruption. The Truth in the 
mean time evenly wades between both, affirming the 
corruption of Nature, but by freedom of will againft 
Manes^ and in this corruption no freedom but by grace 
againft Velagius. In like fort Nejioriut in the Primitive 
Church is fo earneft for the diftin&ion of two Natures 
in Chrift, as he divides his Perfon : and Eutyches on the 
other fide is fo intent unto the unity of Chrifts Perfon, as 
he confounds his Natures: the Catholick verity holds the 
Golden mean, a diftin&ion of two Natures in the unity 
of one Perfon. After the fame manner it fareth here 3 
Arminius is fo violent to remove God from being the 
Author of evil, as he makes Man the firft mover unto 
good 5 His Adverfaries on the other fide are fo defirous 
to intitle God unto our good, as they lay a neceffity up- 
on Man of his evil 5 the one through a refpe&ive Ele&ion, 
and the other by an abfolute Reprobation. The truth, 
as I take it, lies here alfo between thefe two, that are ex- 
treams 5 I am fure the opinion of St. Anfiin doth, be- 
ftowing according to the tenour of my Text, the juft de- 
fert of Mans deftru&ion upon his own voluntary difo- 
bedience by a refpeftive Reprobation againft the one, 
and giving the honour unto the free Grace of God in 
our good and Salvation, by an abfolute Ele&ion againft 
the other. And the Coherence of thefe two, an abfolute 
Eleftion, and a Reprobation upon forefight, if we fup- 
pofe fin to preceed either, as of neceffity we muft, if not 
in a& yet in prefcience, is clear and manifeft 5 For the 
Reprobation is refpe&ivc, where there is a defertof de- 
ftru&ion 5 but the Ele&ion abfolute, when all deferve 
nothing but Reprobation. Thus Veritas inter h<erefes, 


Upon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 1 59 

the truth doth evermore hang crucified between two here- 
fies, like Chrift, (whofe it is,) between two Thieves. 

Of thefe three, The one making both the Decrees ab- 
folute, muft needs withal make God the Author as well of 
evil, as of good 5 The other making both upon forefight, 
muft needs make man the author as well of good 3$ of 
evil 5 Only the mean making one abfolute, and the other 
upon forefight, doth withal make God the author of mans 
good, and yet leaves man to be the procurer of his own 
hurt. It was a witty and a pleafant faying of Maximi- 
lian the Emperour comparing himfelf with the Kings of 
Spain and France together, That there were but three 
Kings in the time wherein he lived, Rex Hominum, Rex 
AfittcrHw, Rex Regum. The Span //ft, a King of men, 
becaufe he ufed them ingenuoufly and liberally, as men : 
The French, of AlTes, for the immoderate exa&ions he 
took of: them : Himfelf a King of Kings, for they would 
do only what themfelves pleafed. What was by him mer- 
rily fpoken of thofe three Kings, may not unfitly be ap- 
plied for fundry refpeds unto thefe three opinions : The 
firft whereof leaves reafonable creatures no more free- 
dom in their aftions than if they were beafts : The fecond 
gives than fo much, as if they were left like Kings to the 
government of their own wills : The third only fquares 
with the liberty of men, to whom it gives Eleftion and 
Choice, whereby they exceed Beafts, but that in their 
Spiritual good fweetly guided an<£ governed by divine 
Grace , whereby 'they fall fhort of abfolute Kings. The 
one makes God a Tyrannical, the other a Titular, the laft 
a real, and a juft Kings A King that will be jnftified 
in his fa)ings y and overcome when he is judged 5 Ne- 
minem indebite damnans^ neminem uebiti liberans, ut 
nee illius jufta querimonia, nee knjHS verax arrogantia^ 
Ji vel ijie dicat mernijfe fe graham, vel iUe ajjerat 
xon meruijfe fc pznam 5 damning no man, fakh Pr offer , 


60 A dijcourfe of EleUion and l^efrobation, 

undefervedly, nor faving any man defervedly $ that to 
neither the ones boafting (hould be true if he fay he hath 
merited grace, nor the others complaint juft, if he fay he 
hath not merited punilhment. And indeed both are ut- 
terly to renounce either,fince both have deferred punifh- 
ment , and both received undeferved grace 3 for either 
part of my Text may have a convenient fenfe appliable 
unto either fort of men : The Eled in fome fort have de- 
ftroyed themfelves, and the Reprobate in fome fort have 
had help FromGod } For as thefe, unlefi they had help, 
could not rightly be faid to have deftroyed themfelves s 
fo neither they, unlefs they had or would have deftroy- 
ed themfelves, could rightly be faid to have had help 
from God. The Reprobate then have had fufficient help, 
and the Eleft have done fufficient to deferve deftru&ion, 
yet fo as we muft ftill remember, that we are efpecially 
to appropriate the firft, that is deftru&ion, to the Repro- 
bate, who only (hall be a&ually deftroyed } and the fe- 
cond, that is help, to the Eleft, who only are effe&ually 
holpen. But howfoever the Reprobate have the firft 
place, and the Eleft the fecond, as they here lie in my 
Text 5 yet fince Eleftion is in order precedent unto Re- 
probation, I hope I may have good leave fo to order it, 
fetting the firft laft, and the laft firft, as in Nature and 
dignity they deferve. And therefore referving the fecond 
place, and ending of this difcourfe unto the deftru&ion 
of the wicked , that (hall never end 5 we will begin, 
through the help of God, with that help and (alvation 
which the Eleft receive of God by a Decree that never 
had beginning, but is as Eternal, as he himfelf, who for 
this refpeft here faies, In tne is thy help. 

At the feet of whofe Divine Majefty I now caft 
my felf, humbly befeeching and imploring his aid and 
affiftance unto my Heart and Tongue in thefe high 
and fecret Myfteries, that I may fpeak nothing but what 


ZJpon Hosea xiii. verfe 9. 161 

is agreeable unto his holy word, and that with fuch reve- 
rence, as becomes his Majefty, and this Sacred Place. 

Since this whole fentence, as I faid , is appliable unto 
either fort of people, it followeth,that before we (peak of 
this fpecial help of the Eleft,we fay fbmething of that de- 
ftruftion whereunto this help doth relate 5 wherein not- 
withftanding we (hall not need to fpend much time > for 
that the Eleft of God have deftroyed themfelves, that is, 
were and are in themfelves worthy of deftruftion, none, 
I think, do either doubt or deny : Only concerning the 
order and precedence, queftion hath been made, fome 
giving the priority untoEleftion, affirming that they were 
firft elefted, who afterwards through fin came to deferve 
deftruftion, as thinking it impoflible that the merit of 
deftruftion, as being a temporal Aft, (hould preceed the 
free mercy of God eftablifhed by an eternal Decree, and 
thereby, (which is the caufe of no few errours) invert- 
ing and perverting both the order of my Text, and the 
nature of the things, ftrangely prefuppoiing help or lal- 
vation, without fuppofing any former deftruftion, which 
fuch relative terms muft ofneceffity refpeft : As ftrange a 
contradiction, as if they (hould fay that punifhing Juftice 
did precede the fault which it doth puni(h,or afts of mercy 
might be extended on thofe that never were in mifery ^ 
For fince the decrees of Eleftion and Reprobation are 
made and ordained by the fame properties in God, where- 
by men are punifhed or faved, it follows, that as Repro- 
bation muft needs be an aft of punifhing Jufticc,fo Elefti- 
on an effeft of contrary Mercy. And herein doth confift 
the fpecial difference between the Predcftination of Men 
and Angels : For their Eleftion was a mercy preserving 
them from falling into the pit of deftruftion : But ours a 
mercy railing us up, and drawing us out of that deftrufti- 
on whereinto we were fain : Theirs may better be ter- 
med Goodnefi, than Mercy , becaufe it is not oppolite 

V unto 

1 61 A difcourfe of ElelUon and Reprobation, 

unto Juftice, as ours is, and therefore is not goodnefs, but 
ftriftly and properly the mercy of God: now Miferi- 
cordis, propria fecles,miferia r/?, the proper (eat orobjeft 
Btf.decon. of Mercy is mifery, (aith St. Bernard. And therefore, 
a cenc. gJuinonpotiitpritnonnftrTam in lap jit hominis^ ponere 
.,,. . ilie mifericordixm in ElecJione non poteti, He that firft 
pr*jat. grants not milery in the rail , can never place mercy in 
Exemtat. the Ekftion ofman, fakl a late wortliy Bifhop : botha- 
&perfivt g re ^ing with that of Efdras after his confdlion unto 
rant. God : But becaufe cf as (inners , thou Jhalt be called 

jxfono merciful To*make this yet more manifeft by the defi- 
cap. 14. nition of Election., It is, faith St. Aufttn^ Pr<eparatio bene- 
Jjciorum Dei , quibus certijfime libcrantur^ quicunq\ 
liberantur , A preparation of thofe benefits of God, 
whereby they are certainly faved whofoever are faved : 
And what are thefe benefits but a new heart and a new 
Spirit, begotten through effectual grace, and a powerful 
vocation unto fincere repentance, and to lively faith in 
the death and blood of the Son of God ? Nov/ what have 
any of thefe to do with Innocency ? To whom elfe may 
they belong, but a finner, but to one fubjefted and de- 
voted unto that deftruftion, from whence he could not 
be delivered but by the mercy of fuch a Redeemer ? 
As for the reafon drawn from the time of fin and the 
Decree of Salvation before all time, the deceit and er- 
rour of that doth apparently confift in a wrong com- 
paring of an external Aft of mans, with an internal Aft 
of Gods 5 when the comparifon fhould have been, if 
rightly made, between two internal afts of God : for mans 
work is here to be confidered, not as it was done by him, 
but as it was forefeen by God 5 and then, if thus taken, 
you (hall eafily find the temporary fin of man to be no 
lefs eternal in Gods prefcience, than the deliverance from 
it, or puniftiment for it could be in his Decree : For as 
Gods Elefting doth in order of neceffity prefuppofe the 


ZJpon Ho s e a xiii. verfe 9. 162 

forefight of their being that are ele&ed, though they be 
ele&ed before they be , quia objeSum priu* eft in f e 
quam objiciatur a3us in ipfum tendenti : So for the 
fame reafon, that it doth prefuppofe this pofitive forefight 
of their being, it muft alfo the permiffive of their being 
miferable, becaufe Eleftion is from mercy, and mercy, 
as is faid, doth always prefuppofe its objeft, which is mi- 
fery. It follows therefore, to conclude this point, that 
the very Eleft of God acknowledge to the praife of the 
riches of his exceeding free companion, that when he in 
his fecret determination fet it down , Thofe fhall live 
and not die, they lay, as ugly fpe&acles before him, as 
Lepers covered with dung and mire, as Ulcers putrified 
in their Fathers Loins, miferable and worthy of nothing, 
but to be had in deteftation. In the proof whereof, I 
have made the longer ftay, partly becaufe it opens a 
paffage for fome things that muft follow anon, but efpe- 
cially that the truth of St. Aufiins opinion might more 
clearly appear, affirming, that in the fearch of Eleftion 
and Reprobation, no mans wit (hould prefume to afcend 
above the miferable mafs of corruption. Mans Nature 
at firft was by Creation Gold, but Sin was the poyfo- 
nous menftruunt^xhc a q n a regis more than Chymical,that 
diffolved it and drew off the purer parts, leaving unto 
us nothing but this earth and thete feces of that Gold. 
Thus was his fall a great fall indeed, from the purity of 
Gold, to the vility of Clay, and this Clay is that im- 
pure lump, meant by St. Auflin, over which he grants 
with the Apoftle, that the Potter hath power thereout to Rom. ix. 
frame Vejjels either to difionour or honour as it plea fet h 
him be ft. The one being their defert, the other his own 
mercy. Huic fit nufcricordia^ tibi n on fit injuria^ 
faith the fame Father. God chufeth one, he refufeth 
another 5 to him he fheweth mercy, to thee he doth no 
injury, fince the one doth receive but what all do deferve. 

Y 2 But 

64 A difcourfe of EleBion and Reprobation, 

But enough of the clefert of deftru&ion : now of the un- 
deferveci help 3 For Man might fall of himfelf, but rife 
igain he could not without the help of another, nor of 
any other but him, who here faith, In me is thy help. 

And that we have help from God, and that we need 
Co to have., there is none, no not Pelagius himfelf, that 
in plain terms ever durft deny. He will, if preffed, 
for (ha me acknowledge and fublcribe unto the neceffity 
of Grace in (hew of words 5 but as the manner of all He- 
reticks is, he doth but equivocate, making terms, in 
thcmfelves plain, by fecret refervation falfe, and frau- 
dulent, that fo he might have a back-door at a time of 
need, whereat to deceive and abufe both himfelf and his 
reader 5 For fecretly within his own mind, he defires 
Grace, by quicquid gratis datur, that by this means 
under the name of Grace, he might hedge in free will 
and abilities of Nature 5 Nay if this fraud be dete&ed, 
he will come yet clofer, for he will not refute to confefi 
a neceffity of true internal Grace, fuch as the Gofpel 
mentions, the Grace of Chriftand of his Holy Spirit, and 
that it is the gift of God, yea a fpecial gift which all 
have not, yet ftill he keeps this fecret in the deep of his 
Heart, that all might have it, and that it is their own 
faults if they have it not, fince as he holds, this Grace is 
given and withheld according to the merits or demerits 
of Men, by a former good or evil ufe of their free will, 
ut gratia fonaret, & merit-urn delitefceret^ that fo grace 
might found in their words, and yet they retain merit 
in their minds. Such fhift doth proud (lime and duft 
make to magnifie the arm of flefh, and fo unwilling is it 
to give the true and whole glory unto God whofe it 

Yet this is not all,Men have more fubtilties to rob God, 
or rather to deceive themfelves. Arminius and his fol- 
lowers, the late Semi-pelagians ftep one Step farther, and 


Vfon Hosea xiii. verfe 9. 165 

with the Catholick truth acknowledge not only a true 
and internal Grace, but a liberal, free and preventing 
Grace, a Grace given, not deierved. But for all this he 
underftands only fuch a. Grace, as is common to both, 
to Eleft and Reprobate, upon the good or evil ufe 
whereof it is, that Men become either. For according to 
thefe, Election doth not provide or prepare according to 
St. Auftin, any lpecial Grace for particular Men, but 
fbcrie particular menarefpecially ele&ed, upon forefight 
of their well-husbanding of that Grace, which is com- 
mon: fo that Man muft (till have thepreheminence. For 
however it be from Gods Grace, that they have ability 
to obtain Salvation $ yet that they are faved, when o- 
thers, who received the fame Grace, are not, this mull: 
needs be, not from his help, but their own will: An old 
rancid opinion long lince broached by Faujlus and Caj- 
fianstfi whofe Books for this were condemned by GeU- 
Jivs and a Council of feventy Bifhops more, for erro- 
neous and Apocryphal, and now lately again revived by 
Arminius^ and others, who are not the Authors and In- 
ventors, but only ftrenuous Advocates, requiring a re- 
lief after Judgment of a dead and rotten, a damned and 
long fince condemned Herefie. So that it is a good judg- 
ment of a Reverend Bifhop, Faufium & Catfianum 
quafi perMetempfychoftn in Arminio & Bertio revrxijfe, 
That the Souls of Fattens and Cajfiantts do as it were 
live again in Arminius and Bertiu*, they do fojuftly 
jump and confpire with their Do&rine of univerfal Grace, 
and Eleftion upon forefight, than which no opinion can 
be more injurious unto God, or more groibly and de- 
monftratively falfe in it felf For however it retains the 
name, it perverts the end and deftroys the very Nature 
of Eleftion, caufing that Predeftination which the Apo- 
ftle unto the Epheftanj tells us ? was ordained in Liudem 
gloria grati£ fu<e, to the praife of the glory of his 


1 66 Adtfcourfe of Ele& ion and Reprobation, 


Grace, to ferve and tend only unto the honour of our 
own propenfion and will, fince he that reigns in Heaven 
hath no more whereof to thank God, than he that lies 
burning in Hell f> becaufe from equal Grace they have 
wrought out thefe their unequal fortunes. And therefore 
fay St. Paul what he will, Salvation is rather of him that 
willeth and runneth, that believeth and worketh, than 
of God that (heweth mercy 5 whereas it is not : neither 
dothitlefs pervert the End than the Nature thereof, con- 
verting the cauie into the effeft, and the efFeft into the 
caufe, making Ele&ion a confequent of Faith and Re- 
pentance, when thefe are the true fruits of Ele&ion, 
which is the well-head of Grace, and all the reft of Gods 
favours, and our good deeds but ftreams iffuing from 
that Fountain , who have all obtained mercy , with 
St. Paul) not becaufe we were, but that we Jfjould be 
faithful Non vos me elegifkis, for you have notchofen 
me, but I have chofenyou, faith our Saviour, and have 
ordained you : for what ? that you (hould go and bring 
fort^ and that your fruit flwuld remain 3 for J have or- 
dained, I that do both begin and perfeS the good deed, 

Pliil.i. 2. that do work-in you both to rcill^ and to do, do work 
in you alfb to do and to perfevere, and that by my free 
Eledion and abfolute decree 5 Ego pofui, for I have or- 

Johnxv. daiUQdjhat yougo, and bring forth fruity and that that 
fruit remain. 

It were an endlefs work and a bootlefs ex pence of 
Travel to heap up places of Scripture for the enforcing of 
this point, they are every where obvious, the Glory of 
Gods grace through a free and undeferved Elefti'on be- 
ing a main branch of the Gofpel , and therefore often 
inferted, but by St. Paul purpofely difputed and 
proved in a fet difcourfe 5 wherein thefe new oppugners 
are fo direftly confuted, as if the Holy Ghoft had efpe- 


1 5. 

ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfi 9. 1 67 

cially looked on them, when he (pake by his mouth, for 
there is no other intent or purpofe, in that place, but to Rom - 
demonftrate, that the Adoption of the Sons of God, doth 
not depend upon the carnai Generation o£ Abraham^ the 
Jews conceived, nor yet upon our own or our Forefathers 
works, but (imply upon the Eudochie, themecr good will 
and pleafure of God. This he makes manifeft in all in a 
Type, under the names of two, Jacvi and £/*//, Bre- 
thren equal in all things, only unequal in the favour of 
God : both begotten by the fame parents, and both born 
at the fame birth, on either fide no advantage by blood, 
and as little in quality, they had done neither good nor 
evil, nor could do at that time, wherein notwithstand- 
ing that the purpofe of God might be known to ftand ac- 
cgrding to Eleftion, it was (aid, I have loved Jicob, and 
hated Epm : No difference in the Perfons, and yet a 
different refpe&ofGod, who is no refpe&er of perfons, 
which moves the Apoftle to a Itrange interrogation, but 
natural unto the place. Nunquid iniquitas ap#d De- 
urn # what then, is there iniquity with God f God for* 
bid\ but how doth he anfwer it? doth he with thefe 
reply, that though they had then dore neither good nor 
evil, yet God elefted the one and rejefted the other up- 
on forefight of the good and evil which they afterwards 
would do ? This had been an acute and brief anfwer, 
§>ttis ijlunt acutiffimum fen fit m slpojiolo defuiffe non 
tnirttur $ Who can chufc but wonder the Apoftle fhould 
not (ee this fubtilty ? faith St. Auftin. For had he known kh r 
it to have been (b, eodem modo finveret ijiam quxjiio- 
nem, he would (oon have anfwered the queftion, itnwo 
nullum quam Jolvi opus ejfet ficeret qudejtionern 5 Nay 
he had then never made any fuch queftion, that fhould 
need an anfwer, For there had not remained fo much as 
any (hew ofinjuftice, where Love or Hatred doth pro- 
ceed according to good or evil deferts} But now that 



68 A difcourfe ofEle&ion and Reprobation, 

there (hould be a different judgment, where there is no 
difference in merit, there cannot but (eem a juft occa- 
sion of making the demand, Nunqnid iniquitas? Where- 
unto leaving this vain glofs, as dire&ly contrary unto his 
purpofe, he reduceth all unto the meer will ot God 3 J 
will have mercy on whom I will have mercy , and I will 
have compajfion on whom I will have compajfion $ An 
anfwer founding to thiseffed:, That fince both were e- 
qually conceived in original fin, deferved his Juftice, his 
Love unto one was an ad of Mercy, and in Mercy there 
is no caufe of his will, but his will, nor of his Mercy, but 
his Mercy, I will have mercy, &c. And then quif nifi 
Aug. En- injipiens Deum iniquum put ef, five judicium potnale in- 
ehirid. ap. g era t digno, five mifericordiam pr<eftet indigno ? Be- 
caufe, as before was noted, though the one obtain free 
favour, yet the other receives no injury s By which an- 
fwer he doth at once free God from all injuftice towards 
the Reprobate, and withal withdraws all merit from the 
Eledt, who have that Name and Grace for no other caufe 
but only becaufe he had a will to (hew Mercy, fpecial 
Mercy unto them, which he did not unto others to whom 
notwithftanding they were of themfelves in all things 
equal, and with whom they were in like fort obnoxious 
unto the revenge and power of Juftice. Falfe therefore and 
vain, and very derogatory unto the goodnefs of that God* 
in whom is our help, are their conceipts that build Electi- 
on upon a forefeen good or evil ufe of a general and fuf- 
ficient Grace, to the prejudice of that which is fpecial 
and particular. For however we deny not, but rather 
pioufly believe, that his Providence doth fufficiently help 
all thofe whom his mercy doth vouchfafe to call, yet 
withal we acknowledge, it to be fuch an help, as where- 
withal God, when he looked down from Heaven, (aw 
there was none did good, no not one. A help therefore, 
which in effeft doth not give Salvation, but takes away 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 1 69 

excufe, and feems not fo much to juftify them, as to make 
their Condemnation more juft, who notwithfhnding 
that they might not all pcrifh, and that he might yet 
fhew his Mercy, of his infinite goodnefs freely elected 
fome to (uch fpecial Grace whereby they (hould not pe- 
ri(h, a Grace effe&ual 3 receiving the reft unto endlefs 
punifhment, for abufing that which was fufficient. So 
that God doth not only give fuch Grace whereby we 
may be able to do, and then eleft us for doing what we 
were able 5 butcontrarily forefeeing that we would not 
do what we were able with that fufficient Grace to do, 
of his abfolute Mercy did decree to give us fuch power- 
ful and efficacious Grace, whereby we certainly fhould 
do, what otherwife without this fpecial help, he knew 
we fhould not : For had not he by this means, as the 
Scripture teftifies, referved unto himfelf a Remnant, not- 
withstanding the former Grace, we had been all as So- 
dom and perifbed as Gomorrha ^ And therefore Reliqui 
wihi, faith God unto Eli as : It is not there are, or there 
remains unto me, but I have referved unto my felf fcven 
thoufand which never bowed the knee unto Baal. And 
from this Reliqui^ they are termed Reliquiae fecunditm 
eleffionem gratia falv£fa&£ funt^ A Remnant only are 
faved according to the Ele&ion of Grace : And if of 
Grace, furely not of forefeen works \ yea fo far is God 
from refpe&ing the will or work of Man in the difpenfa- 
tion of his Grace, as hefometime!: denies that help unto 
thofe that would ufe it well, which notwithftanding he 
offers and exhibits unto others, that he knew before 
would rejeft it. Had thofe great works, faith our Savi- 
our, upbraiding the Jews, been done in Tyre and sidon^ 
they had repented in Sackcloth and Afhes. Lo how God 
ploughs the Sand and tea tters his good feed upon the dry 
and barren hearts of the Jews, fitter for fait > and in the 
mean time withholds it from another foil, that would 

Z have 

jo A difcourfe ofEletfion and l^epobation^ 

have fruftified, and brought forth the fruit of Repen- 
tance unto eternal life. What (hall we fay unto this ) Two 
things occur which I only am willing to anfwer, faith 
Befp. &- St. Anflin in the like cafe, and are very fit for this, nnn- 
' c ' * 4 ' quid tniquitas apud Denm & And, O dltitudo divitid- 
rum ! An Interrogation, and an exclamation, the one 
out of the ninth, and the other out of the eleventh to 
the Ron?. And both joined tend unto this, That being af- 
fured there is no injuftice with God, we (hould not fearch 
the caufe but admire the depth of his Wifdom, whofe 
judgments are unfearchable, and his ways paft finding 
out 3 For he often treads on water, that leaves no path 
or impreffion behind. He walks upon the great deep, 
faith David^ and his footfteps are not kijowts. And 
whom this will not fatisfy, I muft advife with the fame 
Father, §>u£rat do£fiores,fed caveat, ni inveniat pr#- 
fumptiorcs : Let him feck thofethat are more learned, 
but take heed he doth not meet withthofe, that are too 
prefumptuous. Such furely as thefe conditional Ele&i- 
oners are, who, as if they were forerunners or the fecond 
corning of Chrift, endued with the Spirit of ■£//*/, have 
caft down every Hill, and filled up every Valley, made 
whatfbever feemed crooked ftreight, and whatfoever was 
rough fmooth and plain, and by this means they, though 
but lambs,can eafily wade, where thofe Elephants, the Fa- 
thers of the Primitive Church, found fuch Pits and Pools 
as they were glad to fwim. For what is there in their 
Do&rinenot eafie and even obvious and open, if God 
hath diverfly determined of none but (uch as are of di- 
vers and different merits ? what room then is there left 
for altitudo ! Fcr they that give a caufe of Ele&ion 
takeaway all caufe of the Apoftles exclamation, becaufe 
none do admire an effeft bat they that are ignorant of 
the eaufe> as here all muft Reeds be, when of thofethat 
iiave one and fame caufe,. there k not one and the fame 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe g. 171 

regard, but the one is juftly expofed unto hatred, the o- 
ther vouchfafed love without all caufe, at leaft that we 
can fearch out and inquire. The head of Nilus may be 
fooner found, than the Spring and Fountain of Eleftions 
the eye of the Eagle, that looks on the Sun, cannot dif- 
cover it, becaufe it remains in his bofom that dwells in in- 
acceffible light. And yet notwithftanding we do not make 
the will of God olxoyov irrational 5 For though there be 
no abfolute caufe of his will, yet his will is a reasonable 
caufe of all other things,and it were moft unreafonable to 
conceive that he fhould want rtafon for what he doth, 
that doth all things according to the counfel of his own 
will, that is, all outward things j for the internal and e- 
ternal operations of the Divinity are natural and neceffa- 
ry,and offuch there is no counfeU but all histranfient 
and outward works or immanent afts, if they have out- 
ward objefts, (of which fort Ele&ion is one) are free 
and voluntary, and rauft needs have a reafon why they 
are done, becaufe there was no neceffity they fhould 
have been done. All thefe things he doth not only ac- 
cording to his will,but ^ r fiaxluj tw 6eA>7/<£Tos aWS, Ac- 
cording to the Counfel of his Will : And whatfoever is 
done with Counlcl or wife reiblution, hath of neceffity 
fome reafon why it is done. And though this reafon, as 
here it is, be often unknown unto us, who can know no 
more of his Will, than he himfelf fhall pleafe to reveal, 
yet howfoevcr we know not the reafon, yet this we 
know, whatfoever the reafon be, it cannot be drawn from 
our merits. The Eleftion of the blcffed Angels, who re- 
ceived either a more excellent nature, or elfe a greater 
ability of Grace than the reft, as St. Anjiin difputes, was ^ h \ X7 ^ 
therefore free and without merit. Nay the Ele&ion of c^.'c. 
Jefus Chrift the Man to be made the Son of God, was 
of meer grace and goodnefs, as the fame Father doth in 
fundry places affirm. And (hall Man, a Worm and duft 

Z 2 of 

ij7 Adifcourfe of EleB ion and Reprobation, 

of the earth, plead defert, that only of all the reft de- 
ferred nothing but deftru&ion} which though otherwife 
he did not , yet for this very arrogance be worthily 
(hould deferve? How much better were it for them, 
with thofe Saints in the Revelation, to cafi their Crowns 
at the foot of the Throne, and with true humility to 
cry out with David, Non nobis Domine, non nobis r fed 
nomini tuo da gloriam. Not unto us, Lord, not un- 
to us, but unto thy name give the glory, for thy mercy, 
and thy truths fa^e. For we have dejiroyed our felves, 
but thou haji redeemed our life from defiruSion, and 
wilt crown us in mercy and loving kjndnefs. Then our 
mouths (hall be fatisfyed with good things 3 In the mean 
time let them be full of thy praife, for in thee, O Lord, 
is our help, in whom we live, move and have our being, 
for whom, and from whom, and by whom, are all things, 
and to whorube glory for evermore. Amen. 

Vpn Hosea xiii. verfe 9. 173 



O F 




Part II. 


Upon Hosea xiii, <?. 

Jfrael , thou haft defiroyed thy felf, but in 
JMe is thine help. 

Hitherto That help and Salvation is of the Lord, 
Now That the death and deftru&on of man, is 
from man,0 ifrael, thou haft defiroyed thyfelf. 
For however it be true 7 that it is God only who 
properly inflifts deftruction, in regard whereof it is right- 
ly faid 5 Vit* & Mors a. Domino^ life and death is from 


47 A difcourfe ofEle&ion and Reprobation, 

the Lord \ yet becaufe he doth not inflift it but for mans 
wilful offence, it is as true, that he is not fo fpecially the 
author of deftru&ion, the infli&our, as he that deferves it. 
And therefore it is no lefs rightly faid by the Wifeman, 
on the other fide : Deus mortem non fecit ', God hath 
vifd. i. not made death, for he deflreth not the definition 
of the living , but they themfelves by the errours of 
their life and worhj of their hands have fought it 
out) and drawn it down upon their own heads. And 
therefore though life and death be both of God, yet 
after a diSerent manner, Vita fcilicet a donante, mors 
a vindicante : Life is his free gift, faith St. Aufiin^ 
but death the reward and wages, as the Apoftle, of mans 
merit. From whence it is, that God is ever termed Pater 
mifericordiarum, the Father of Mercies, but never of 
Juftice , becaufe no defert of man can make any claim 
unto it. It is born and bred within himfelf, a Thread 
like that of the Spiders, woven and fpun out of his own 
bowels, whofe nature and property it is, to have mercy 
and compaflion. But for his Juftice, it is not fo with it, 
that feems fo far from being natural, whereunto he is, as it 
were, violently drawn againft his nature, ta&us dolore 
cordis intrinfecus, Repenting, and as it w ? ere grieved 
Gen. at the heart, he faid, i" willdeftroy the man which I have 
made. Neither is it more proper than natural, it is opus 
JummAm Aft indeed,but opus alienumfuum.not his proper 
but his ftrange Aft, as it is in ifaiah, becaufe there is fome- 
thing without him which calls for it, and requires it 
uh % : too of him. And therefore excellently St. Aufiin, Bonus 
Ua!e£" e fi Deus,jufius efiDeus ^potefiftne bonis mentis liber are, 
13. quia bonus efi? non pot efi fine malis merit is damn are, 

quiajufius efi : God is good and God is juft,Hemay fave 
without good deferts,becaufe he is good ,but he cannot con- 
demn without evil,becaufe he is juft. Somenotwithftand- 
ing affirm he may, becaufe they imagin the Creatour hath 


ZJfon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 175 

an abfolute power over his Creature 5 but we muft beware, 
how we fet the properties of God at variance among them- 
felvcs,attributingunto him fuch a Power as (hall thwart and 
fhoulder with his Juftice 5 It is no lefs 5 nay it is more true of 
him, than of his Creature, lUndpotcji, quod jure poteft, 
That he only can do,which he lawfully may do ; Not that 
he is bound by any fuperiour Law, but becaufe as the A- 
poftle faid of the Gentile, Sibr ipfi Lex, He is a Law unto 
himfclf, which Law, in thefe kind of aftions,ishis Juftice, 
not his abfolute Will 5 For their Rule is not to be approved, 
that fay, God doth not will a&ions, becaufe they are right 
and good, but all actions are right and good, becaufe he 
wills them. For then he might will any thing without in- 
juftice, fince by willing he makes it juft, even the deftru&i- 
on of the righteous with the wicked, which notwith- 
standing Abraham thought and was bold to affirm unto 
God himfelf (of whom he was not blamed for it neither) 
that even in him it would be unjuft Whereunto that 
round and witty faying of St. Auftin doth alfo fubferibe, Ai&Uh 
Deu* reddit mala pro malis^ quia juftus eft \ bona fro dt0: 
malis, quia bonus eft'^ bona pro bonis, quia bonus & 
juftus eft \ folicm non reddit mala pro bonis, qui a injuftus 
non eft. But this Rule and that power was purpofely in- 
vented to defend the direful decree of abfolute Repro- 
bation, that fo they might eftabliih dominion, and that 
by might, which they faw by equity could not be main- 
tained, as I am now to (hew and prove, being it throws 
the blame of mans deftruction upon God, no otherwife 
than the former Election gives Gods glory unto man. The 
Authors of the one, and the other opinion being deceived 
by one, and the fame reafon, which both imagined was to 
be had ot both thefe oppofite Decrees: And therefore 
as they faw a neceffity of framing the one, fo they or- 
dered the other 5 the one making both upon iorefight, 
the other, both abfolute 5 whereby it is impoffible but 



i j 6 A difcourfe ofEleiUon and Reprobation, 

cither of them muft err in one,fince both cannot be true. 
For if Reprobation upon forefight only leave man to be 
the caufe of his ruine, let Ele&ion be upon forefight too, 
and by the fame reafon it intitles him to his own falva- 
tion : So on the other fide , if an abfolute Ele&ion make 
God the Supream Author of all our Good, how fhould 
as abfolute a Reprobation choofe but fay the fame of him 
in our Evil? For if good works be therefore the effe&s 
of Gods Eleftion, becaufe it is abfolute $ evil works muft 
needs be the efFeftsof abfolute Reprobation for the fame 
reafon 5 what is faid of one cannot be denied of the other, 
efpecially, fince they do fo exaftly fquare and fort one in 
all points anfwerable unto the other 5 Eleftion, that is 
abfolute, intends the end, and then provides the means, 
doth not abfolute Reprobation do the like? wherein they 
fay the firft Aft or Decree of God was, to manifeftliis 
glory by the declaration of his Juftice 5 but becaufe Juftice 
might not be (hewed, but upon finners, he did in the fe- 
cond place Will, Ordain and Decree ( for thefe are the 
words of fome, and it is the meaning of all) the ingref- 
fion of fin by the fall of Adam^ that fo he might make 
a way for the execution of his Juftice according to the 
former Decree 3 and whereby they are of neceffity con- 
ftraincd thereunto. For either God by his fecond De- 
cree muft determine Adams Will unto the committing of 
Sin, or Adam by the freedom of his Will fhould have 
power to fruftrate Gods firft Decree in the Declaration 
of his Juftice. Horribile decretum fateor , an horrible 
Decree I confefi, faith Mr. Calvin^ whom but in this and 
his Platform, I (hall ever honour. A horrible Decree 
indeed and of all pious minds to be abhorred, that firft 
makes God unjuft, that fo he might fhew his Juftice, 
which in regard of the former, is not juft neither : 
AdMoni. Nee enim juftitia dicatnr y for his Juftice (hall not be 
£*' ,,f ' juft, faith Fulgentius , Ji fnniendum reum non inve- 


ZJfon Hosea xiii. verfe 9. 1 77 

ttiffe fed fecijfe dicatur^ if he doth not find but make 
Men worthy of that punifhment which it inflifts. For 
what greater injuftice, faith the fame Father, quam 
lap/a retribwrepcenant, quern ft ant em prdedeftinajje di- 
citur ad ruinaw^ than to punifil him for falling, whom 
he did predeftinate to fall whilft he ftood ? It is report- 
ed of Tiberius C<efar, that he had a great defire to have su-t.c^. 
certain young Maids of Ro me ftrangledto death, not for 5l - 
any offence of theirs, but (uch was the cruelty of his 
dilpofition, only becaufe he had a mind to have it lb 5 
but underftanding that it was not lawful by the cuftom 
of the Countrey to put Virgins to death, he decreed 
and commanded (fb to open a pailage unto his former 
purpofe) that the Hangman (hould firft force and vitiate, 
and afterwards ftrangle them. I forbear to make appli- 
cation, it is too manifeft, and chufe rather to pray and 
make fupplication unto Chrift, that he would be favour- 
able and merciful unto the Doftors and Paftors of his 
Church, if deceived through Errour they are bold to 
teach and fpeak and write according to the example of 
Tiberius. I know it is not their defire or meaning to 
charge God with the Sin and Iniquity of Man, they con- 
ftantly and with great indignation deny him to be the 
Author thereof 5 but like ill Logicians, they deny the 
conclufion, and in the mean time, eftablifh thofe pre- 
miles, from whence though they grow hoarfe yea burft 
with denying, it will of neceffity follow : All thediftin- 
ftions brought for the purpofe fail, and fliould a Man 
rack and ranfack every dufty corner of his brain for 
more, they would ftill be all too few to defend or ex- 
cufeit. That of the aft, and of the vitiofity in the aft, 
with the lame inftance ofan halting Horfe,or an untuned 
Lute is often urged, and may have its ufe, but not here: 
For God, they fay,is the caufe of the aftion,butnot of the 
obliquity in the aftion : As when a good Horfeman rides 

A a a 

78 A difcourfe ofEle&ion and Reprobation , 

a lame Jade, or a skilful Mufician ftrikes a crackt Lute 5 
the one is the caufe of the motion, but not of the lame- 
neft} the other of the found, but not of the harfhneft: 
thefe are defefts wherewith they are not to be blamed, 
becaufe they arife not from their manner of working, 
but from the diftemper of the fubjefts, on which they 
wrought. After Adam indeed had lamed and maimed 
himfelf by a fall, this diftinftion finds room for applica- 
tion $ but what hath it to do with Adam in his Inno- 
cency, free from all lamenefi or taxation in his joints, a 
well-ftrung and a well-tund Inftrument > Nor when the 
queftion is by what means he came to his hurts % let them 
take heed how they make God ride him lame, or ftrike 
himfo, as to ftrike him out of tune: Let him be never 
fo acute, he (hall find it an hard matter to beftow the 
aftion upon one and the obliquity on another. In po* 
fitive and affirmative precepts where a good aftion may 
be ill done, as he that gives Alms to be feen of Men, 'tis 
eafy to diftinguifh the vitiofity from the aft ^ but in ne- 
gative inhibitions, where not the manner of afting, but 
the aft it felf is forbidden, fothat do it after what ibrtfo- 
ever he will,he can never do it well,how wecandifcern 
the one from the other, and how God in this cafe may 
be the caufe of the aft and not of the Sin, which is ne- 
ceffarily annexed to the aft, becaufe the aft is it which 
is implyed r is more than my apprehenfion can reach unto. 
I know there is a difference even here, between the aft 
and the Sin, becaufe the aftv as the aft, is not evil, but 
aiforbidden by the Law. But how God may be an an- 
tecedent caufe that Adam (hould eat, and yet not the 
caufe of his tranfgreffing the Law,when he did eat, is that 
which I fay I cannot, and which I think few elfe can any 
way conceive. For when God by his will leaves a necefli- 
ty of the aft, I pray what will become of Mans poffibi- 
Iky to avoid the fin ? furely there is no plea for it, but 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 1 79 

this, that fince neceffity hath no Law, that which is done 
under it, is no fin, for fin is the tranfgreffion of a Law. 
Many other diftin&ions there are alledged, as that of the 
decree and the execution of the decree, of neceffity and 
coa&ion, a diverfe refpeft of the Divine decree and the 
Nature of Man, of a double will figni & beneplaciti^ 
a fecret and revealed will } and laftly, the label annexed 
unto all, is the addition of the End, that it is willed 
and decreed only for the illuftration of Gods Glory. 
Thefe and more quiddities they have invented, the vanity 
whereof the time will not now permit me in particular 
to difcourfe 5 fure I am, they all fall fhort of effecting 
that, for which they were devifed > they may peradven- 
ture quiet the Authors mind, but (hall never juftify 
thofe impofed and cruel decrees. There is a ftory or a 
Fable "of a filly Man, that lying down to fleep with his 
head againft a brazen Pot, and finding it but an hard 
Pillow, claps a Cufhioninto the mouth of his Pot, and 
lies down again, and then thinking the matter well 
mended and himfelf at eafe, falls into a (bund Nap. Me- 
thinks they that imagine they may reft themfelves upon 
this iron Doftrine having ftuft it with the Feathers of 
thefe diftin&ions, do fitly make up the moral of this Fa- 
ble : for though they lie as hard as they did before, yet 
this they have gained, that though they receive not 
thereby any true eafe in their doubts, yet at leaft by 
thinking fo, they content and pleafe their own conceipts, 
and fo are fallen into a profound fleep, embracing 
dreams for truth, out of which God of his mercy vouch- 
fafe to wake them, that fo feeing and rejeftingthe weak- 
nefs and lewdnefs of thefe trifling fubtleties, they may 
rather abandon, and utterly forfake, than with (uchpoor 
(hifts feek to defend, a Do&rine fo harfh in it fel£ inju- 
rious unto God, and dangerous unto Men, and unto the 
reft of the truth they profefs, fo extream fcandalous. Who 

A a 2 can 

80 Adifcourfe of Elebiion and ^probation, 

can believe them in any thing elfe, faith Bellarntine, that 
(hall fee them only (o grofs and impious in this } And it 
is marvellous to confider how all our Adverfaries do 
generally raife their ftiles and themfelves, how they in- 
fult and triumph when they come unto this point, and 
what infinite abfurdities they empty out, and difgorge 
upon us and our Doftrine, affirming that all thofe odi- 
ous propofitions falQy impofed on St. Anjlirt^ do rightly 
and juftly light upon us, who teach that God did there- 
fore only create, that he might deftroy the greateft part 
of mankind, whereunto they are unavoidably (ubje&ed 
by the unalterable, and energetical decrees of an eternal 
predeftination, more immutable than the Laws of the 
Medes and Perfians, *that alter not 5 and more reluftable, 
than the deftiny of the Stoicks, binding Men with the 
iron chains of immutable neceffity 3 from whence they 
fay, it will follow, as the natural fruit of that Tree 
of Fate, that God is the Author of Sin, that he doth pro- 
perly fin, that he only doth fin, and fo that fin is no fin : 
Pudet k<ec opprobria nobis Et dtei potuiffe, & non po- 
tuijfe re fell L It both (hames and grieves good minds, that 
fuch ignominies fhould be obje&ed, and that they may 
not be refuted 5 furely,at leaft for ought I underftand,by 
the ordinary way, they may not. And therefore the on- 
ly and founded refutation, as I imagine, will confift not 
in labouring to decline and avoid fuch confequences by 
empty diftin&ions, but by an utter deteftation of thofe 
points and pofitions, that is, thofe abfolute ordinations, 
from whence fuch confequences flow and proceed. This 
was St. Anfiins manner of anfwer, and it may well be 
others in the fame cafe 5 he fought out no quirks and 
ftrains of Wit to falve the appearance ofinjuftice, but 
(imply denies, and confelleth the decree that was obje- 
cted. Nihil ergo talium negotiorum Deus pr<gdeji/t?a- 
vitutficret^ &c* Godhath not predeftinated, faith he, 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 181 

anyofthefe things, fpeaking of fins, that they (hould be, 
neither is any Soul that lives wickedly and filthily pre- 
pared or ordained of God fo to live: fed talent JHtu- Lib.adv(rj% 
rum non ignoravit, & de tali fe jttfte jtidi cat hy urn effe } ^' L f lbi 
pr£fcivit ; but he was not ignorant how wicked fuch a a d°art!E 
Soul would be , and knew he could juftly Judge and i°- 
Condemn him for being fo. Sc^that St. Aujhn doth not 
acknowledge any decree unto fin, but only a decree un- 
to punifhment for fin, which he forefaw but decreed 
not. A decree only that can clear all thofe doubts and 
heinous criminations, and is afterwards no lefs clear in it 
felf. For if Election doth prefuppofe fin, as 'tis proved 
in the former part 5 much more muft Reprobation, be- 
caufe it is not precedent but fubfequelk in order to Ele- 
ction. And as Election, becaufe an aft of Mercy, requires 
a fubjed of Mifery : fo Reprobation, becaufe adminiftred 
by Juftice, can have no place, but where there is a pre- 
cedent offence, and that only foreknown not preordain- 
ed > for then it would ceafe to be an offence : And there- 
fore mala iantum prtifcit & non prrfdeftinat Dens : fins 
are only forefeen and not predeftinated, faith the fame 
St. Auflin. So that it was rightly obferved andfaid by a 
worthy Bifhop of our own, even in his preface unto 
that book of Leftures and Sermons penned and publifhed 
againft Arrninius^ That he muft leave behind him the ab- 
fblute decree of Reprobation, whoever he be that comes 
to the ftudying and reading of St. Anflin, which he 
terms a fid and heavy opinion, lately bred and ever to 
be abhorred : fo that though he refute Arrninius con- 
ditional EledYion,yet he will not maintain hisAdverfaries 
abfblute Reprobation, as being an opinion which the 
Church of England, though it fometimes feek to miti- 
gate and excufe, yet it did never receive and embrace : 
and therefore he afterwards adds in the ferae preface, 
That if Arrninius had only inveighed againft that abib- 


82 A difcourfe of Ele&ion and Reprobation, 

lute and truculent decree, contrary both to Scriptures 
and Fathers, and their days, commode adhibuijjet in- 
dufiriam [nam, & Eccleftam no fir am Anglic an am ha* 
buiffet confentientem fecum. As for fome private Men, 
that think and wrijte other wife, they are not the Churches 
but their own private conceits, faith the fame Bifhop in the 
fame place. By whofe authority, though great in it fel£ 
yet I am the eafier led, becaufe I fee that this Church 
though it doth not for fome refpe&s aftually and pub- 
lickly refute, yet it doth purpofely refufe to give grace 
or countenance to any fuch Doftrine whereofit doth in 
this regard forbear to determine. For in the Articles 
of Religion whereunto (he requires fubfcription , the 
Article of Ele&ioi? is propofed and iHuftrated at large 
by many propofitions , but of Reprobation, not an Ar- 
ticle, not a propofition, no word, no mention at all $ by 
which filence in that place the Church (as I conceive) 
feems not to approve the vulgar opinion , at leaft 
to think it a Do&rine dangerous to mention. And 
what it there forbears by writing to confirm, it had for- 
merly by faft difavowed, as appears in the Cafe of Tra- 
vers who was cenfured and filenced by the Authority of 
the Church for oppofing the Doftrine of Learned and 
Judicious Hooker^ whereof this was a branch, that God 
in his counfel and purpofe reje&s none without a fore- 
feen worthinels ofrejeftion, going though not in time, 
yet in order before : This is it, which hath made me 
the more bold to wade fo far in this point, wherein 
though I may offend fome particular Men, yet I fhall 
not our own prefent Church, nor the learned Fathers of 
former, whofe voice unto their diffolute flocks, hath e- 
ver been the fame with this here of God, ifrael thou 
haft dejiroyed thyfelf. 

The inference and iffue of all that which hath been 
already faid in this point doth reach only to this, That 


Vfon H o s e a xiii. verfi 9. 183 

that Deftruction which fell upon the world through the 
fin and fall of the Protoplaft Adam , ought to be af- 
cribed unto his own free and voluntary fault, and not 
unto any irrefiftable appointment usd Decree of God's, 
all whoie Ordinations unto Deftru&ion do not precede, 
but of neceflity fortfee and fuppofe this offence. Not 
that this or any other fin, is the abfblute caufe, why God 
doth, but the defert and merit why he juftly may, rejeft 
and reprobate whom he plcafe It now remains that we 
proceed and ftep one ftep farther, and enquire, whether 
God, as he may,fo he a&ually doth reprobate immediately 
out of the Mafs of corruption, upon the forefight of this, 
and no other fin. Otherwife,I (hall fall (hort of giving full 
fatisfaftion unto my Text,wherein God fecms not fo much 
to relate unto the original mifery,whereinthey were con- 
ceived and born, as unto their particular and actual fin 
and difobedience, refufing his love, and rejecting his mer- 
cy, when he (6 paffionately burfteth out,0 Ijrael ! And 
if this be rightly fpoken in regard of their own Ads and 
Actions, they muft be fuch alfo, as are willingly and wil- 
fully done : For furely they that are deftroyed for fins, 
which by natural Corruption they could not chufe but 
commit they may be pitied, bat cannot be blamed } and 
then it will ftand firm and good, that it is^ not ifrael 
that .have deftroyed themfelves, but their fore-Father 
only, that hath deftroyed ifrael^ fince neceflary crimes 
are not to be imputed to the Doers, but to him that con- 
traded the neceffity. Unto thefe and many more diffi- 
culties, as I conceive unanfwerable, muft they be lyable, 
who make the Decree, and Reprobation peremptorily to 
proceed, immediately upon forefight only of orignal fin, 
without any other refped: of difobedience and contempt 
of the Grace of God, or Gofpel of Chrift, neither of 
which they fay was ever provided for them. For firft, it 
will from hence follow, that though they allow an efpe- 

cial . 

84 A difcourfe ofEle&ion and Reprobation, 

cial favour of God unto fome few particular men, yet 
they bereave him of his philanthropic, his grace and be- 
nevolent affe&ion unto the kind, which the fcripture fre- 
quently mentions, and fo make him toexercife upon the 
far greater part of men meer (everity without all mercy, 
as he did upon the Devils, whereby they clearly remove 
the main difference between the Reprobation of men,and 
of Angels, which the Fathers place in this,that is, afforded 
them means of recovery, but the evil Spirits none,becau(e 
the Devil finned of his own proper motion and inftinft, 
but man at the inftigation of the Devil. Nay farther,that 
God deals in much more feverity with thefe miferable 
men, who only finned in the Loyns of another , than 
with thofe powers of darknefs, that wilfully tran(greffed 5 
for that all their life long he (till prefleth them with im- 
poflible commands for no other end,but to heighten that 
damnation whereunto they were before unavoidably de- 
noted. Surely, a heavy cafe, and I verily believe unbe- 
fitting the great compaffion and mercy of God which 
the Scriptures mention, that he fhould be fo far from 
pitying the Cafe of his own Creature in an involuntary 
mifery, as he (hould lay new loads on their backs, and 
then whip and fcourge them here, and torment them 
in perpetual fire hereafter for finking under thofe bur- 
thens which they weVe no way able to bear. Bsfides, 
how doth this make God feem to flout and delude poor 
Souls in the deep of their diftrefs, calling unto them who 
lie inanguifh, have all their bones and joints bruifed and 
broken with a deadly fall, to rife, and come unto him, 
and he will help them, and in the mean time, affording 
them not one jot of his help to rife who, he knows, not- 
withftanding, are not able to ftretch forth fo much as a 
finger in their own help ? Nay how (hould our blefled 
Saviours words, yea his Tears over Jeryfalew^ feem to 
be falfe and counterfeit, ( Jervfalem, Jervfalem. &c*J 


Vfon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 185 

if at the fame inftant notwithftanding, he had no pur- 
pofe either to die for them, or to give them grace, where- 
by they might believe in him. So that his Commandment 
of Faith in his Blood, (hould want both verity in him, 
becaufe he did not die for fuch \ and poffibility to be per- 
formed by them , for that he gives them no means to 
do it , who have none in themfelves. From All, this 
Conclufion will refult befides, that they either make God 
a hard man, like the lazy fellow in the Gofpel, reading 
where he doth not forv : or a cruel man, with Pharaoh 
withdrawing the Straw, and yet ftill demanding the full 
tale of Brick, requiring works, and withholding the 
Grace whereby they (hould be done.For if without giving 
a Saviour, or providing any Grace, there be a rejeftion 
and reprobation of all mankind immediately out of the 
Mais of Corruption, Who fees not the neceffity of all 
thefe ftrange confequences , fo reproachful unto God, 
and fo full of feverity, if not cruelty unto men, who 
lying under more than fatal Neceffity, being not able to 
go any other way,muft needs run headlong in thofe paths 
that lead into Hell ? A Pofition fo abfurd,as Zeno a Phi- 
lofopher derided, and confuted with blows rather than 
words : His Servant being examined upon an error he 
had committed, acknowledgeth the fault, but lays the 
blame on his Fate, defiring his Mafter to pardon him, be- 
caufe it was his deftiny, and he could not avoid it : Zeno 
falls on his Man, and Cudgels him moft feverely, when 
he had done, tells him he had indeed beaten him fome- 
thing extreamly, but he muft be content, it was his de- 
ftiny fo to beat him, and he could not help it. And this 
by him , was well and wittily done. But had this Philo- 
sopher's Man ferved fome Antient Divine that had been 
of this Modern opinion, his excufe and Plea had been 
good and unreprovable, becaufe according to the Rules 
of his Mafters Doftrine, who therefore could have no 

B b caufe 

86 A difcourfe of Ele ff ion and Reprobation, 

caufe to correft or beat him, unlefs it were for anger 
that he hath nothing elfe to anfwer, as you may fee 
none of them have, if we confiderthe replies which they 
make to the like impious and idle Dilemmas, If I be 
Ele&ed, God will not fail to bring me to his Kingdom 5 if 
Reprobated, there is no means to (hift his decree, and 
therefore what need I take much care of Religion? An 
obje&ion often propofed by themfelves, but which ne- 
ver was, nor poffibly can be by their Dodrine juftly re- 
futed. The anfwer of all that I have ever read or heard 
is but one, and that briefly to this effeft, That Men may 
not imagine they may fit idlely and have the Kingdom of 
Heaven brought home unto them 5 it is not at a lower 
rate than thy daily bread, that it ftiould be purchafed 
without the fweat of thy Brows: for he that will attain 
unto the end, mud labour and ufe the means. Which is 
good Divinity, but gives no fatisfa&ion to the doubt 
for though it be the right anfwer, yet it may not 
be u fed by them 5 for how can they blame others for 
not ufing the means which they themfelves acknow- 
ledge is not in their power to ufe, fince they that arc 
denied Glory, are withall rejected from Grace ? And 
therefore it is eafie for the oppofers to reinforce their 
forked Argument : Iflbeele&ed, I needs muft, if other- 
wife, I cannot poffibly ufe the means, and therefore ftill 
what need I trouble my felf, what is it you blame me 
for? Here they utterly fail, and not well knowing 
what they may fay or do, they firft fall upon the obje- 
&ors,terming them dilTolute people, and this kind of rea~ 
foning as lewd, as they are diflolute : but if they be diffo- 
luteofneceffity, and this kind of rcafoning part of that 
diflblutenefs, how (hould they chufe but reafon fo, that 
cannot chufe but be fo dilTolute? and therefore this may 
not be objefted. This then not prevailing, their fccond 
Effay is (fuch is their perplexity) to reconcile neceffity 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 187 

and freedom, that fo at leaft the works of wickednefs 
might be juftly taxed, becaufe they tranfgrefs, though 
not without neceffity, yet willingly and freely without 
all conftraint. But what freedom is this, to be free from 
coa&ion, if they be withal alfo void of ele&ion? A free- 
dom furely which the Stoicks deny not, yea which the 
Manichees allow their Fate, and the gens tenebrarum of 
thefe,that is, both external neceffity from Stars, and inter- 
nal from a corrupt and depraved Nature, will fuffer a- 
greement and reconciliation with it. A freedom, which 
is not only in wicked Men, but in the blackeft Devils, 
nay in beafts, yea farther, in ftocks and (tones, and indeed 
in whatfoever the world hath, that hath but motion 
and operation : for whatever naturally works or moves, 
muft needs move and work without conftraint : fo that 
as it is truly faid of the fervice of God, that it is per fed 
freedom 3 fo it may be as rightly affirmed of this free- 
dom, that it is a plain and abfolute fervitude, from 
whence you may no more blame Man for fininng, than 
you may accufe fire for burning, being they both work 
with equal liberty : for it is not front e but liber e that is 
the Adverb, it is not the willing, but the freedom of the 
will which affe&s the a&ion, and fubjefts it unto juft cen- 
fiire and punifhment. Well then, this will do no good 
neither, yet they ftay not here, fo ftrenuoufly do they 
labour for neceffity, they have fought and found out a 
third device, that actions of neceffity may worthily be 
blamed, and punifhed now in themfelves, becaufe they 
had and have wilfully loft the freedom of their will in 
Adam. But this is of as little force for diverfe rcfpe&s. 
Firft, for that (as was before noted) it removes the de- 
finition from themfelves, contrary to this accufation of 
God's, and renews the old Plea and Proverb of the Jews 5 
if we pine and languilh under our Sins, what remedy ? 
The fathers have eaten four grapes j and contrary to the 

B b 2 protefta- 

1 8 8 A difcourfe ofEle&ion and R eprobation, 

proteftation, yea and the Oath of the fame God, As I 
live, it foallbe no more a Proverb in ifraeL 

Secondly, becaufe by the (ame reafon God fhould re- 
quire a&ual Faith of Children and Mad-men, Idiots and 
Indians, who either cannot conceive or never heard of 
the Gofpel of Chrift, as well as of thofe to whom it is 
continually preached % becaufe he that wants Legs, is no 
more to be condemned for not walking, than he that 
hath neither Eyes nor Legs: for where impotency can- 
not free, ignorance may not make any excufc, efpecially 
fincc the one as well as the other had, and loft in Adam, 
whatfoever they now want and have not, from whole 
fin both blindnefs and lamenefs, and all other frailties 
and infirmities are equally derived. 

Laftly, it can no whit avail them, becaufe their Do- 
ftrine, as hath been (hewed, makes Adam to fin with no 
left neceffity, than his Children do. And therefore find- 
ing no other help, their utmoft and laft refuge is Cwhich 
is remarkable becaufe it difanuls and deftroys all the 
fhifts they formerly made) that it's certainly juft with 
God fo to do, though how it (hould be fo,Man cannot fee 
7*/2. lib. g. nor conceive : Excufabiles peccando haberi volunt re- 
utfr 2$. probi) quia evadere neqneunt peccandi nccejfitatem^ 
prdfertim turn Dei ordinatione (ibi injiciatur hujuf- 
modi necejjitas : Nos verb inde negamus excufari.quan* 
doquidem Dei ordinationi^ qua fe exitio dejtinat^ con- 
queratur, fua conflet £qnitas> nobis qttidem incognita, 
fed ill i certijjima. 

Wherein befides the plain tergiverfation and down- 
right begging of the point in queftion, it may pleafe you 
to obferve how little injury the Doftrine doth receive 
when it is accufed of Stoicifm,. unlefs it be, that it falls 
Itaort and chargeth it with lefs impiety than it doth de- 
ferve or the Authors of it themfelves confels, acknow- 
ledging in plain terms,. asyou.fec,.a neceility of finning 


ZJfon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 1 89 

unto the wicked^ and Gods decree to be the caufe of this 
neceffuy, for which the Stoicks modeftly never durft af- 
cend farther than the Stars, the loofeft and lewdcft of 
them do but complain of the Planets : Mars committed 
the Murder, and Vtnu* the Adultery : whilft the Do- 
frrineof thefe makes Men bold to lay both upon God, 
unto whole Arm it fattens the firft Link of that fatal 
Chain, which the Stoicks never durft but at the foot of his 
Chair. And yet farther will fome of the Manichees that 
would rather make a coeternal Devil than want a good 
God, of whom it is better not to think, than to think 
what becomes him not 5 it being alefs offence to acknow- 
ledge none,than to account him evil whom they acknow- 
ledge. But howfoever wicked Men may now take ad- 
vantage of the Dofrrinal errours and miftakes of the 
good, laying hold on fuch mifconceived decrees, from 
thence to plead and juftify the caufe of their crying 
crimes} yet the time will come when no fuch excufes 
will be taken, yea when thofe nor any others can be 
made. They may here have tongues, and thefe loud in 
their own defence, whilft they difpute with Men 5 but 
when the Bridegroom (hall once come and queftion 
them for their wedding Garment, the cafe of one will be 
the fame in all, they (hall be fpeechlcfs, not a word, un- 
lefs it be to condemn their own follies, we fools, and 
fb forth, as the Wife man hath it, and to juftify God in 
his fayings, efpecially in this, Ijmel thon haft dejiroy- 
ed thy filf. 

Hitherto of thofe inconveniencies that cleave unto Re- 
probation, if made immediately out of the mafs of cor- 
ruption. But it is not fufficient to convince errour, un- 
less we cftablifh truth, which mud be by (hewing that 
Gods patience and longanimity doth not forfake Men 
for one (in, or utterly rejeft them for the firft fault, with- 
out any farther care of thera, according, to that of Crcr 


ioo A difcourfe ofEle&ionand Reprobation, 

Moral. Ub. gory. N on fin it negleSe perire quod eft, qui hoc etiam 
26.caf.10. q HQ( i xptfi&ti creavit ut ejfet. The manifeftation where- 
of will confift in thefe three points. 

1. 1. That God left not the fick world deftitute of a Savi- 
our, but fent him to die for all. 

2. 2. That to as many as he calls, he gives fufficient grace, 
whereby they may, if they will, lay hold of this Saviour. 

3., 3. That he Reprobates none of them, but after a long 

and often abufing and rejefting of this Grace. All three 
high and noble points, worthily challenging a large 
and full difcuffion, which the ftraitnefs of time will not 
now permit me : I (hall therefore only point at them 
briefly, and fo conclude. 

And firft, for the firft, the extent of the death of our 
Lord and Saviour unto all. I know not how 'tis pofli- 
ble for the wit of Man, to fet it down in plainer, ful- 
ler, and more variety of terms, as if the Holy Ghoft 
did ftrive to free it from all objections. What terms of 
univerfality are there, wherein it doth not feekto exprefs 
this truth? tie died for all, for the worlds for the fins 
of the whole world : and that the Word may not ftill be 
taken only for the Eleft, it is here ufed with oppofitiori 
to them, not for our fins only, but for the fins of the 
whole world, faith St. John, 1 Ep 2. 1. And yet that it 
might not be underftood of the world ofEleft only, that 
were in after ages to fucceed } St. Paul hath the fame An- 
tithefis in other terms that utterly re)efts the cavil : God 
is the Saviour ofallmen,efpecially of the faithful^ l Tim. 
4. 20. Nay yet more direftly, the Saviour of thofe 
thatperifh^ for through thy knowledge fh all thy Brother 
per iff) , faith the fame Author, for whom Chrijl died. 
Yet more pofitively for thofe that are damned. There 
sPet.ii.i. Jljall be falfe teachers among you, who privily fo all bring 
in damnable herefies , even denying the Lord that 
bought them^and bring upon them felves fwift definition. 


Vpon H o s e a xiii. verfi 9. 191 

For All, for the world, the whole world, the wole 
world of faithful, and others, and thofe others, they that 
pcrifh, they that are damned: what can be faid more for 
it, or anfwered unto it, I know not. To fay herein, that 
he died for all fufficiently, if truly meant, is as much as is 
required, as the places enforce : but if their intent be, as 
it is, That the merit of Chrifts Blood and death is, in it 
felf confidered,(ufticient for all, had it been, as it was not, 
intended and laid down for them 5 then to fay that he 
died for all fufficiently, is but to abufe others and contra- 
dict themfelves. For how can it be faid he clied fuffici- 
ently for thofe for whom he did not die ? This is all they 
can anfwer, and the confequence, that if Chrift died for 
all, they cannot fee but how all fhould be faved, is all or 
the chief thing they can objeft, which they would not 
objeft neither if they obferved the difference and diftin- 
ftion between the imputation of Redemption, and the 
application thereof: His life may be laid down for the 
whole world, though his death be aftually imputed and 
applyed to thofe only that are faithful believers: for he 
was as the Brafen Serpent hung up for the good of all, 
but benefits none but thofe that look upon him, that is, 
believe in him. A diftin&ion fweetly infinuated and 
ftrongly confirmed by the Oracle of Learning, the non 
jicut of Divines, in the non Jicut of Sermons, upon the 
non ficut of Chrifts pafiion, whereof to the former pur- 
pofe he thus fpeaks 5 It pertains unto All, but AUftrtain 
not to it : after whofe authority it were but ill manners 
to feek a farther proof. 

To proceed therefore to the fecond point, wherein we 
are to {hew, that this Saviour is wanting unto none with 
fufficient power, whereby they may lay hold on him, and if 
they will, be faved by him 5 to none that are called,that are 
within the pale of the vifible Church, that come to hear 
his Gofpel and profefs his name, according to that of the 


1 9 2 A difcourfe ofEUBion and Reprobation, 

1 1. 

Apoftle, quotquot receperunt eum^ as many as received 
him, dedit iis potejiatem filios Dei fieri , to them gave 
he power to become the Sons of God. And according to 
St. Auftinjwhexe power is given, neceffity is not alfo im- 
pofed, that you may know many might receive this power 
who never become the fonsand fervants of God/or of all 
that are called and comenot,that of the fame Father is true, 
qui velle pr£cepit^ poffe pr<ebuit,& non impune nolle per- 
mifit, He that commands to will gives power to perform, 
and yet juftly permits to negleft : which place he doth 
Mratt* not retradt though he repeat it in his Retractations. Unto 
lib. i. cap. that fupper prepared in the Gofpel, faith he elfe where, 
neither would all come that were called, neither could 
they have come that did come unlefs they had been called, 
Itaq^nec illidebentfibi tribnere qui venerunt^quia vocati 
venerantjteciUi, qui noluerant venire^debent alteri tri- 
bnere, fed tantum fibi^quoniam nt venirent vocati er ant 
in eorum libera voluntate. Lib. Arbit. cap. \6. What 
can be more manifeft? From whence it is, that that 
which from thence he infers,isas juft, That he which de- 
ferved not to be called, begins to defcrve punifhment, 
when he neglefts to come being called, becaufe then it 
firft begins to be in his power : Stent non habuit meri- 
turn pr<emii ut vocaretur^ fie inchoat merit um fnpplicii 
cum vocatus venire neglexerit. lib.^u<efii. 38. qu£fi. 68. 
Many other paffages of this Father might be produced 
unto this purpofe, but I pafs them over now to come to 
the places of Scripture which are infinite,from whence this 
Doftrine may be concluded. I will only point at two : 
in one whereof God makes men themfelves the Judges, 
and in the other the Prophet calls heaven and earth tor 
witneffes of this truth,De»f. 1. 19. / call heaven and earth 
to record this day^ (aith Mofes^ again fi you, that 1 have 
fet before you life and death, curftng and blejfwg, there- 
fore chufe life that both thou and thy feed may live. 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 1 93 

The reafon hereof he had before fet down, becaufe the 
Commandment which I command thee this day is not 
hidden from thee^ neither is it far off, that is, thou art 
neither ignorant of it , neither is it out of thy reach or 
beyond thy power to perform and effeft it. This then 
being fo plain, no marvel that God calls to the Men of 
ifrael themfelves to judge between him and his Vineyard, 
that is, between him and themfelves: judge, I pray you, iui. 
between me and my vineyard : I have not chofen out a- 
ny barren foil, for it is feated pingni dorfo, in a very 
fruitful hill 5 I did not plant it with a wild or degenerate 
or baftard flip, but generofd fiirpe, with the choiceft 
Vine 3 it hath not wanted manuring and culture, fepft 
e^ elapidavi, I enclofed, hedged it in, and threw the 
ftones and weeds out ; after all I built a Tower and a 
Vine-prels therein expe&ing Grapes, & fecit mihi la- 
brufcas, and it brought forth wild grapes 3 now judge 
I pray you, §>uid amplius debut facere vine<e me<e ; 
what I ought more to have done unto my Vine? This was 
enough to convince them 5 but thefe times are more a- 
cute. Had fome Men of our ifrael been made Judges, 
they would quickly have ftopt the mouth of this Plantiff^ 
Why, you have withheld the firft and the latter rain, the 
dew of Grace and the influence of Heaven, no marvel if 
your Plants thrive not : if you would needs plainly know, 
this you ought not to have done , if you would have cx- 
pefted grapes. Give but that bleffing, and your earth 
will bring forth its encreale. As if in the enumeration of 
fome few particulars, thofe that thefe fpeak of, and what- 
foevcr elfe is fimply neccflary for this rational Vine, were 
not virtually included. Surely the Lords Vineyard was not 
planted upon thofe curfcd Mountains ofdlboa, on which 
there fell neither dew nor rain : for certainly the influ- 
ence of Heaven hath not been reftrained, the Sun of 
righteoufnefs hathrifen and fhined upon this Vine, but it 

C c bath 

194 A dtfcourfe of EleB ion and Reprobation, 

hath loved darknefs more than light : the dew of Di- 
vine Grace was not wanting to the branches thereof, but 
they have turned his grace into wantonnefs, quenching 
and grieving his holy Spirit : And therefore a little be- 
fore the utter rooting up and cafting out thefe degene- 
rate Plant9, St. Stephen frames the Inditement unto their 
juft deftruftion : why, ye area ftiff-necked people and a 
jiubborn generation, as your Fathers did, fo do ye, ye 
have always refijied the Holy Ghoji. 

And this leads us unto the third and laft point, That 
God reprobates none,but after the often abufe of his grace: 
for as they were cut and call: ofF,fo are all other alfo reje- 
cted and reprobated, for firft rejecting and refifting the 
fame Holy Ghoft. 

My people would not hearken unto my voice, and Is- 
rael would none of me, faith the Lord, So 1 gave them 
up unto their own hearts lujis, and they walked in their 
own counsels, Pfal. 8 1. 1 1. And this is the firft external 
aft of Reprobation : when God gives Men up unto a Re- 
probate (enfe, withdrawing his abufed Grace,and leaving 
them unto the counfels and lufts of their own hearts. A 
Judgment never denounced in Scripture but for con- 
tempt of Mercy. Now by the external aft, Man muft 
judge of the internal and eternal decree 5 for what God 
in time doth, that before all time he did decree to do : 
for they that imagine that difference between the decree 
and the execution of the decree, that the one hath re- 
fpeft unto Sin, but the other none, muft either make a 
decree that is never executed, or an execution that varies 
from the decree, as if God did ordain one thing, and do 
another 5 And therefore if he doth now give up and re- 
ieft a people for their obftinate fins, for the fame caufe 
in his Eternal Reprobation, he did order fo to rejeft 
them. And as it is in rejeftion from Grace, fo it fares in 
exclufion from Glory, from which no Man is irrecove- 

ZJpon Hosea xiii. verfe g. 195 

rably abdicated but for long and wilful grieving of that 
God who would have brought them to it. Forty yeart 
long was I grieved with this generation, and then / 
[ware they fiotild not enter into my reft. Than which 
I know no fentence that doth fo clearly reprefent and tx- 
prefs the true nature of Reprobation 5 for what is it, but 
Gods eternal oath of rejecting wicked Men from his Glory 
into that deftruftion they have defer ved? And this he doth 
notfuddenly inapaffionof choler, upon every light oc- 
cafion, but in his wrath, his wrath urged and provoked 
by a long Rebellion : even forty years long was he grie- 
ved, and then he fware in his wrath, he refblutely de- 
termined they fhould not enter into his reft. A decree 
that feems not to proceed, but when by extremity of in- 
jury it is, as it were, violently extorted : fb loth and un- 
willing he is to be brought unto it, as he doth not fo much 
as think or fpeak of it without paflionate interje&ions 
offorrow. ifrael, thou haft deftroyed thy felff 

And upon thefe exhibitions of Gods mercies and good- 
nefs unto the Reprobate, depends the verity and truth 
and juftice of this complaint againftthem : for they that 
never received any means of Salvation, can by no means 
ever be termed the authors of their deftru&ion : But now 
fince God and his favours have not been wanting unto 
them, but they unto God } fince they have wilfully fbr- 
faken his mercy, they can rightly blame none but them- 
felvcs for their own mifery 5 for as the antient Father 
Iren£us hath it, Judicium juftum recipient, quoniam 
non funt operati bonum cum pojfent operari illud. The Lib. 4. 
judgment of God is juft, which they (hall receive, be- ca ?- 71- 
caufe they did not do well when they might have done 
it.Whereunto Clemens Alexandrines doth agree : All ira- 
penitents, faith he, (hall be judged, aliqui quidem quod 
cum pojfent, noluerunt Deo credere, alii vero quod cum 
wllent,non elaboravernnt ut fierent fideles : Some be- 

C c 2 caufe, 

y6 A difcourfe ofEle&ion and R e^robation, 

caufe, when they might believe, they would not : others 
becaufe, when they would, yet they did not labour truly 
to become what they defired. And it were eafie, (that 
no man might conceive the Doctrine to be new,) to fhew 
the like out of the Fathers, yea generally out of all, 
both before the Pelagian herefy, and after : but ( left 
the time (hould fail me ) to thofe already mentioned I 
will only addthe Judgment of the third Synod of Arlesjfi- 
fembled for the defining of thefe very questions, wherein, 
what you have now heard, is not only affirmed, but a 
Curfe and an Anathema laid upon thofe that (hall think 
the contrary, Anathema illi qui dixerit quod Chrijius 
non pro omnibus mortuusfit : Curfed be he that (ays that 
Chrift died not for all. And Anathema illi qui dixerit 
illum^ qui periit , non accepijffe ut falvus cjfe poffet, 
Curfed be he that fays, he that perifhed, did not receive 
means whereby he might be faved. 

But unto this and whatfoever elfe in this kind may be 
faid, that in the ix. to the Romans of Jacob and Efau 
(Jbefore ever they had done good or evil, that the pur- 
pofe of God might Jiand according to Ele&ion, it was 
fai d The elder J/j all Jerve the younger, according to that 
of the Prophet, / have loved Jacob but EJju have I 
hated) like Medujas head is ever objefted, though fel- 
dome or never underftood : But that it may be 5 befide3 
theirs of abfolute Pveprobation, I will firft (hew you the 
feveral interpretations of others The ancient Fathers 
both Greek and Latin before St. Aujlin^ yea and St. Ah- 
[tin for a while until the Pelagian herefy arofe, interpret 
thefe words of the Eleftion of fome unto falvation upon 
previfion of their future faith and piety f, and of the re- 
union of others , upon the fore-fight of the evil they 
were afterwards to commit. 

But St. Aufiin rejecting thisopinion,and doubtlefs wor- 
:hily 3 thinks and proves, that the Apoftle fpeakshere of ths 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 197 

Election of fome unto life, and the pretention of others, 
without any regard either of the one,or the others good or 
evil,that (hould be perfonal.Both opinions agree in this,that 
the place concerns the Election and rejection of particular 
perfons. And yet there are not wanting learned men that 
conceive thefe Verfes in a proper and literal fenfe chiefly to 
intend only external and temporary bleffings of this life, 
but typically under them to fhadow the free and unde- 
fended Salvation of the faithful, and the abjection of 
thofe that believe 11015 and that therefore the types are 
not to be extended farther than to (hew that our Juftifi- 
cation is of meer grace and favour, no way defending 
either from carnal generation or legal Juftice. Of this 
threefold interpretation, which is the moft genuine arid 
proper unto the Text, would require a longer difquifition : 
at this time it (hall be fufficient to fhevv that abfolute Re- 
probation doth follow from neither. Of the former and 
the latter there is no doubt, all the difficulty is of St. An- 
ftins opinion between both : from whence notwithftand- 
ing we (hall not be enforced fo to decree an abfolute re- 
probation, if we fo interpret his word?, as we make him 
(peak fomething more indeed than the Antients do, but 
nothing contrarv, that is, if by a conditional (cience we 
reconcile both opinions, and then the mind of the Apoftle 
will be thus, Before any abfolute previfion and without 
any regard of Jucohs merits I loved Juccl^ and decreed 
to confer upon him fuch and fuch a mcalure of grace as 
I faw would certainly bring him to (alvation : And again 
I hated £/?;/, that is, I did not fo particularly love him, 
but decreed to give him only fuch grace as might argue 
a good and fincere inient of his good in me and in it 
(elf fufficient for him, though through his fault I know 
it would be ineffectual : And though I forefuv, that if I 
ihould afford him this mercy he would abufe it,, yet I did 
not deftine unto Lira any other grace,, but for the man:- 

fe Italic 

i<^8 A difcourfe of Election and Reprobation, 

feftationof my Juftice did Decree Eternally to punifhthofe 
evil ways of his which through the former grace he might 
and ought to have avoided. And both thefe without 
any refpeft of merit, for he may difpenfe his free mercy 
as himfelf pleafeth. And according to this laft interpre- 
tation, to hate after the Hebrew manner imports no more 
than not fo fpecially to love, minus amare, or alterl 
pojihabere, to love lefs, or not fo much to efteem and 

So Leah in the xxxix. of Gen. 3 1 . is faid to be hated of 
Jacobs that is, in refpeft to Rachel ( whom he loved more 
dearly,) fomething neglefted : fo our Saviour Chrift faies, 
Luke'w. 26. If any come unto me and hate not his Fa* 
ther and Mother and Children and brethren, yea and 
hh own Soul, he cannot be my Difciple : Not that 
Chrift in the Gofpel doth now command men to hate 
what in the Law yea and in Nature he hath taught them to 
honour and love,but to fhew that when the queftion (hall 
be between thefe and God, thefe and our Religion, we 
are to prefer the laft, to leave all, be they never fo near 
and dear unto us, and follow Chrift : and therefore in- 
ftead of hating, when the fame point is preached in St. 
Matthews Gofpel x. 37. §>ui amaverit patrem ant ma- 
trem plus quam me, ant filium & filiam fuper me, non 
eft me dignus : He that loveth Father or Mother more 
than me, and he that loveth Son or Daughter above me 
is not worthy of me. And that this kind of hatred, as 
it is taken for lefs love doth well agree with St. Aufiint 
Do&rine , appears by that which he elfewhere fpeaks 
of Efau, whom he doth acknowledge God did not fo 
hate but he vouchfafed him means whereby he might have 
been faved. Noluit Ejau & non cucurrit,fedji voluijfet 
& cucurriJfet,Dei adjutorio pervenijfet ; £/*# would not 
andfo he ran not } but if he would and had ran, by the 
help of God he (hould have obtained, jgjri etiam vel/e & 


ZJpon Hosea xiii. verfe 9. 199 

currere vocando pneftaret^ tiifi vocatione contempta^ re- 
pro bus Jieret, who by his vocation would have wrought 
in him, both to will and to run, but that by contemning 
the call he became reprobate. And the whole Church 
of Lyons as well as St. Auftin^ is of the fame judgment, 

affirming in the caufe of defeatists^ the predeftination, 

(whom though (he defend as far as (he well might, and 
as Hinciomarus then thought and others ftill think, in 
fome things farther too,yet in this (he leaves him) affirm- 
ing I (ay, that Gods reprobation, that is, this hatred here 
doth fubjett, fhe fays, not Efau only but no man el(e unto 
any unavoidable neceffity of deft ruftion 5 neither doth 
fhe only fay this, but (he fays 'tis Blafphemy for any elfe to 
fay the contrary. Si quis neget effe apud Deum pr<c- 
fcientiam & pr<edefiinationem, manifefie infidtlis eft. 
Si quis dicit, quod prdfeientia & pradeftinatio ejus 
aliquem compel/at ut mains fit, & alind effe non pojfit, 
horribiliter blafphemat : If any man deny preference and 
Predeftination of God, it is manifeft infidelity. And if 
any affirm that this prefcience or Predeftination of his 
doth enforce or ncceffitate any man (for that fhe fays be- 
fore (he means by enforcing) unto evil, fo that he could 
not be otherwife, it is horrible Blafphemy. No marvel 
therefore that the Valentin Council did deteft it with a 
Curfe, or rather curfed it with all deteftation, as another 
Synod alfo had done before. Aliquos ad malum pr£- 
deflinatos effe, videlicet ut quafi aliud effe non pof 
fent, nonfolum non credimu*, fed ctiam fi fint qui tan- 
turn malum credere velint, cum omni detefiatione, ficut 
Araujica Synodw^ illk Anathema dicimus : v'id. Voff. 
pag. 753. But for my part I (ball be fo far from laying 
this Curfe upon fuch, as I rather defire Cod toblefsthem 
with the knowledge and confeflion of their error. 

And by this time the truth and equity of this Accufi- 
tion or incrcpation of God, I fay not againft Ammon 


bo A difcourfe of Eletfiottand Reprobation, 

and Am ale k^ de extraneis judicabit Deus, for of thofe 
that are without, God will judge,wemaynot 3 but againft 
Jfrael, againft the Church of God, againft thofe that are 
called unto the knowledge and profeffion of the truth, I 
think is evident and clear enough, O ifrael thou haft de- 
flroyed thy felf If it be not, there is yet one frefh argu- 
ment more and ftrong enough, before your eyes, more 
fully to prove it. If any man die, either by hereditary or 
contradted Dtfeafes, that hath a medicine before him, a- 
ble to cure both, he may well praife the good will of his 
Phyfician, but can juftly blame none but his wilful felf, 
if he periQi. It is that Calix faint aris^ Davids Cup of 
Salvation, wherein is a potion mixed and tempered for 
all Complexions , and all Diftempers , (pdpfjyatov >^.6o- 
Twlqv the universal medicine of the World, of power 
and virtue enough to cure ail, ifall drink it, fo they drink 
it not upon full Stomachs, but after a time of fafting and 
abftinence, if not from flefh, yet from thofe flefhly Lufts 
that war againft the Soul. As Naamans fervants faid un- 
to him when Elijfja willed him to repair unto Jordan 
for the cure of his Leprofy, If the Prophet had bid thee 
do feme great thing, wouldji thou not have done it .<? 
hort much rather then, when he faith unto thee only 
Wafb and be clean $ fo may we unto you, if God fhould 
command you, fick unto death and poifoned with a more 
contagious Leprofie than ever Naaman was, to do fome 
great thing for your recovery ,would you not do it ? how 
much rather then, now when he (ays only Drink and be 
whole ? 

It is open and propofed to all, no Man is debarred, no 
Man excepted, yea all are invited, nay all commanded. 
Matcxxiv. Drink^ye all of this, even when Judas himfelf was one 
of them all : yea and there is no doubt but if Judas af- 
terwards with a faithful and penitent heart had drank it, 
he might have been faved by a draught of that blood, 
which himfelf drew out and betrayed. There 

ZJpon Ho s e a xiii. verfe 9. 201 

There can be no ftronger argument for the general in- 
tent of Chrifts death, than this holy Myftery wherein it 
is generally offered. If his purpofe in (bedding be not 
as large as his command for drinking his blood, he muft 
(ay one thing and purpofe another, which is hypocrife 
with Men, and let his portion be with Hypocrites, for 
my part, that (ball think fo of God. Doth he enjoin you 
upon pain of death, thofe many which are called, to re- 
ceive that which he never meant to give, but to thofe 
few only, that are ele&ed > doth he now bind thofe to 
believe in his death to whom he never intended any 
good or benefit when he died? who therefore if they 
fhould believe, muft notwithftanding be damned in their 
belief, or elfe faved for believing a falftiood > Both infi- 
nitely abfurd,and contain, as a Sea of injury againft God, 
fo a fwallowing Gulf of difconfolation and defperation a- 
gainft Men. To avoid which (hall we minifter this blefled 
Sacrament with a tacite and fecret condition,tf thou belong 
unto the Eleft > as Zanchius and feme others otherwife 
learned, driven by the like or rather the (ame abfurdi- 
ties, confefs they baptized Children even the Children of 
the faithful : a dangerous Do&rine and of moft fearful 
confequence, making Chrift himfelf, that is the truth it 
felf, in whofe mouth was never guile found (for in his 
perfon all Minifters that are his in the difpenfation of 
thofe myfteries fpeak) amidft the comfortable and graci- 
ous promifes of Mercy and Salvation, to deceive and de- 
lude poor creatures, like a falfe Jcfuit with mental refer- 
vation. Thus to decline one errour, they fall into ano- 
ther ,and it is hard to judge which is the worft. How much 
better the Valentine Synod, In Ecclefi£ facramentis ni- 
hil caffum^ nihil ludificatorium^ fed pr or fas tot urn ve- 
rum & ipfa Jui veritate ae ftnceritate fahnixunt* In 
the Sacraments of the Church there is nothing empty 
and hollow, nothing ddufory, but all in them altogether 

D d true. 

- - ■>-» : ..~~-~-»~~—. ... — i M ,. i — ■ I, 

20$ A difiourfe ofEle&ion and Reprobation, 

true, as being upheld by no other props but their own 
proper fincerity and truth. And therefore as the judi- 
cious and Learned Hooker hath it, Unlefs we our felves 
hinder, they ever give and exhibite what they promife, 
and are unto us what they fignify. They are the Con-' 
duits of Grace, it is conveyed from the common Foun- 
tain (unlefs we our felves obftruft the Pipes) to every 
Mans private Ciftern 5 the Seals of the promife of life, 
which being given in general in the word, is here by the 
Elements of Bread and Wine, fenfibly applyed in parti- 
cular. Now the promife, faith St. Peter^ in the Atts^ be- 
longs to you and your Children^ even unto as many as 
the Lord our God Jhall cal/, not to thofe only which he 
(hall Eleft, and many are called though few are chofen. 
And then to as many as the promife doth belong to, the 
Seals of the promife, yea zndfanguis teftamentijhe blood 
of the promife both promifed and fealed, muft of necef- 
fity appertain. This being too plain to be denied, they 

Spnt that every Man called by the Gofoel ought to be- 
ieve, that his blood was (hed for himfelf in particular, 
but withal ought to believe alfo that it was not (hed for 
all others that ought to believe it. All may believe of 
themfelves, thatthemfelves may not believe of all, and 
my Faith muft deny me to believe that of them, which I 
muft enjoin them to believe, and fo make one Faith to 
contradift, and like oppofite pellets, to (hoot out one 
another, every Man conceiving, that every other may be 
deceived in his Faith befide himfelf, and fo mutually de- 
ceive both themfelves and each other 5 why, if he died 
for every one in particular, how could he chufebutdie 
for all in general, and if he died not generally for all, 
with what truth may every one believe it in particular > 
But fuch mazes and Labyrinths, errour, once hunted 
out of knowledge, is enforced to tread, and it would 
weary me to follow her. The end of the Chafe I am fure, 


ZJpon H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 203 

is an abrupt and dangerous precipice, for how doth it 
evacuate and fruftrate the general Will and Teftament 
of God, like a quirk or gull in Law,that all may fall to the 
particular Heir ? It cuts the very ftrings and Sinews of 
our general hope, and loofeth the Cable of our Anchor, 
if not clean through, yet more than half way 5 it lops 
and maims the everlafting promifes of blifs, nay it trou- 
bles and (hakes our very Faith, the life of our Souls, 
and renders it both dubious and deceitful. In a word 
it digs fo low and dofe upon the foundation, as I think 
it (taould not be endured. But to fuch inconveniences 
are they driven, who having the perfons of Men in too 
much admiration, think they cannot fufficiently admire 
their Teachers vermes, unlefs withal they maintain their 
errours: But from whence foever the doftrine comes,and 
howfoever it be fo frequently taught in this Kingdom,! am 
fure it is not the Do&rine of this Church who enjoins all 
by fubfcription, that (hall teach in it, fo to preach the 
particularity of predeftination in particular, as they de- 
ftroy not the univerfality of the promife. And yet though 
the promife be univerfal, it doth not follow that all muft 
receive the benefit of it, becaufe though the promife of 
Chrift and his blood be abfolute, yet the application 
of it is upon condition, which when all do not perform, 
all do not receive 3 but it is their own fault, who being 
prevented by Grace may, but negleft to perform it. Let 
U9 therefore fear, faith the author to the Hebrews, left a 
promife being left us ofentring into his reft, any of yon 
fliould feem to come faort of it. For even thofe Jews had 
a promife of Canaan and in it of the eternal reft, whofe 
Carcafles notwithftanding for their difobedience , fell 
(hort of it in the defert ; and God fware in his wrath, 
they J})onld not enter into his refi. 

And therefore though the paffion and death of 
Chrift be abfolute, and in it ielf belonging to all, yet 

Dd ? there 

04 A difcourfe of Election and Reprobation, 

there may be but a few to whom the good and benefit of 
ttfhall redound. For remifiion of fins doth not immedi- 
ntely flow from his blood without intercedent obedience 
in us: the next effect of it, is not pre fently Salvation, but 
a way and means whereby, non objiantejujiitia.wlthowt 
any impeachment to his juftice, we may now attain unto 
Salvation. It doth not inftantly convey us again into Pa- 
radifc, but only gives us the word, whereby we may, if 
we will, fafely and without impeachment pa(s the Angel 
and his flaming Sword, that guards the entrance thither : 
fo that by it, non folvitur omnibus captivitas^ fid foU 
ztitur omnibus captivitati necejfetas, though all be not 
aftually loofed from Captivity, yet all are loofcd from 
the iieceffity of being Captives, as the late and learned 
Writer of the Pelagian Story, j The gates of Brafi and 
bars of Iron are fmitten in funder, and fo a way opened 
unto the Captives, who notwithftanding if they be fo far 
enamoured with their mifery and captivity, may for all 
that, lie ft ill in their Prifon. It is a potion for the good 
©fall that arefick, fed (i non bibitnr non medetur^ if it 
be not faithfully drank it (hall never effectually cure, 
faith Profper. And therefore we need not be anxious or 
doubtful on Gods behalf but only careful and felicitous 
for our felves, what he hath promifed in Baptifm that he 
for his part will not be wanting, fiire he will never break 
in his Supper^ He will not fail to perform his pro- 
mife, if we but ferioufly bewail the breach of ours. It is a 
Spiritual Banquet whereunto there never came any for- 
rowful and hungry Soul that ever departed empty. And 
therefore let us draw near in full affurance of Faith no 
way wavering, for he is faithful that hath promifed, faith 
St. Paul And as he is faithful that hath promifed, yet be- 
caufe he promifeth nothing here, but to the faithful, we 
muft bring this with us, though it be not of us, a living 
Faith that only can work Repentance from dead works 


Vpn H o s e a xiii. verfe 9. 205 

not to be repented of. And this Faith,only once thorough- 
ly rooted, begets that other confidence and fullnefs of 
Faith the Apoftle fpeaks of, which, if it hath any other 
Parent, is illegitimate, ill born and falfly termed Faith , 
when the true Father's name is Prefumption. And for 
this caufe thofe that the Apoftle exhorts to draw near 
with full alfurance of Faith, he thus qualifies, having a 
true heart, an heart fprinkled from an evil Confciencc. 
Then we go on rightly and orderly, when we come not 
to the confident faith but by the penitent } and as we go 
from futh to faith here, fo we (hall appear before the 
God of Gods in sion hereafter : if therefore our heart 
within be true and upright within us, if by a deep and 
entire Repentance it be fprinkled from an evil Conference, 
let us draw near in full affurance of faith, as being moft 
confident > that our* lips do not more truly drink the 
fruit of the Vine, than our Souls do the blood of our 
Saviour, the efFeft and merit of his blood, whereby 
that which before was but fprinkled, (hall now be drench- 
ed and thoroughly cleanfed from allthe ftains and impu- 
rities of Sin. . 

Our heart is ready O God, our heart is ready : only 
come thou and dwell in our hearts, purge them and cleanfe 
them wholly with thy blood, and being cleanfed keep and 
preferve them by thy Spirit fpotlefs and blamelefs,. until 
the day of thy fecond coming in the Clouds with Glory. 
That we who receive thee with fulnels of faith now, 
may ftand before thee with the fame confidence then, and 
be received by thee and with thee into thofe eternal ha- 
bitations, at the right hand of God, where is fulneft of 
joy and pleafurefor evermore. To whom with thee and 
the Holy Ghoft, three Perfons, &c Amen. 

Lans Deo in tfterrtHrx, 


206 T£e #^y to Hafpnefs, 





CMWKaa— — BfcJB*— — — ■»■»■■■— »*— » — — — — — !■ Mi 11 ii — n 1 


Upon Mat. vi. 3$. 

But feek ye firfl the Kingdom of Qod and his %jghte~ 
oufnefs, and all thefe things jhall be added unto you. 

IT is a part of our Saviours Sermon in the Mount* 
and the conclufion of a larger difcourfe in the pre- 
cedent Verfes whereto it refers. And indeed it 
is or fliould be the Conclufion of all our difcourfes. 
For all are little material and to no purpofe, unlefs they 
tend unto this iffue, The Kingdom of God and his righte* 
oufnefs. Let us hear the Conclufion of all^ faith So- 
lomon , of all not only difcourfes 9 but humane endea- 
vours upon Earth,Fe*rGW and keep his Commandments, 
for this is the whole duty of man. The fecond Solomon, 
infinitely wifer than that firft,ftrikes here but on the fame 
ftring, though by his double touch, it receives an air 


Vpn Mat. vi. verfe 33. 207 

and relilheth more evangelical} Unto the Righteoufnefs of 
God adding the reward of it, the Kingdom of God. 
That fo the works which the Law requires, might be 
rightly wrought in the hope and faith of that immorta- 
lity and glory which the Gofpel propofeth. However 
then we bufy our felves about many things, this is that 
nnum necejfarittm, the one thing that is neceffary, able to 
refolve rar men ides his Riddle, Vnum omnia^ one thing 
neceffary wherein all neceffaries are included 5 whatfbever 
is neceflary for the body or the foul, whatfoever con- 
cerns either imployment here or felicity Eternal hereafter, 
the whole perfeftion of man and the whole goodnefs of 
God. If thefe things be all, all thefe are enclofed in this 
one, this one little exhortation, SeeJ( ye firft, &c 

The communication of divine goodnefs, (befides that 
of hypoftatical union particular and fupereminent) hath 
generally but three degrees of participation : Nature, 
Grace and Glory. And here they are all three either in 
their utmoft extent or in their higheft exaltations. 

Firft, all the neceffaries of Nature pertaining to the 
body, but (lightly indeed inferred, as deferving our leaft 
and (lighted care, Thefe things ftjal/ be added unto you : 
but though (lightly yet folly, All thefe things , all that are 
requifite (hall be added. 

Secondly, the utmoft improvement of Grace, that can- 
not farther adorn and beautify the Soul than with the 
righteoufnefs of God, His Righteoufnefs. 

And laftly,the higheft degree of glory, nothing can be 
higher than participation with God in his own Kingdom, 
The Kingdom of God. The lefs marvel therefore that 
our fearch and travel for thefe, thefe latter, yea our 
utmoft induftry and endeavour be fo carefully cal- 
led upon and inculcated, with a gu&rite and a pri- 
mum qu£rite, feek and firft feek, Seet^ye firft the King- 
dom of Ged> &c. Wherein the divilion is as plain, 


2o8 The way to Happinefy, 

as the matter important. The main parts but two : 
A Precept. The Precept, fe ek. 
A Promife. The Promife, All the fe things fh all 
he added unto you. 

A promife, not, as it founds, only of thefe things which 
(hall be added, but of thofe (piritual things alfo we are 
willed to feek for } if thofe be added,it implies thefe (hall 
be given. Thefe given as the Reward of our fearch, 
Thofe added ex Abundanti as an overplus, or furplulage 
out of his Providence : fo the Promife is of all both Ipi- 
ritual things and fecular: of the one fort exprefly, im- 
plicitely of the other: And fo it (hould be, for Right e- 
4wfnefi hath the promife of this life and the life which 
is to come, faith the Apoftle. 

The precept on which the accomplifhment of this pro- 
mife doth depend, and wherein only, I think, I (hall at this 
time proceed, hath thefe particulars. 

i. The Aftion enjoy ned, and the manner and modi- 
fication oi that Adion, Seeh^ and firfi fee \. 

2. The objeft of our fearch propofed : a double ob- 
jeft, prime, and fecondary. 7 he Kingdom of God, and 
the Righteoufnefs of Cod .• for both muft be fought, 
that intentionally as the end of our Travel, this by pro- 
fecution, as the way, the only way that leads unto it, 
See\ ye firft the Kingdom of God and his Rigeteouf 
Kefs, &c. 

But becaufe the objeft (as the Schools fpeak) doth ever 
precede the Aftion that works upon it,not ever indeed as 
really exiftent, but yet always Ideally in the mind and 
contemplation of the worker, whether it be God or man, 
whether aftions tratifient, or immanent, external Crea- 
tion, Decrees, and prefinition internal , Though they fup- 
pofe nothing in being, but their Author, yet they prefup- 
pofe all things as being underftood and apprehended, be- 
fore they can be either wrought or willed. 

3. There- 

ZJpon Mat. vi. verfe 33. 209 

5. Therefore in the third place the right way thither is 
difcovered J K/^A/e(?»/»e//,away as clean as right,untohap- 
pinefs through the paths of holinefs : to the Kingdom of 
God, by the righteoufnefs of God. But Righteoufnefs is 
not fo eafily found, or being found, is not Co eafily kept 
and obferved. And therefore it is not a bare feeking that 
will ferve the turn here, he muft feek and fearch, knock 
and call with his beft might and his utmoft endeavour, 
which will be the fourth and laft point though firft na- 
med. Fir ft fcek. 

So have we all the dire&ion and incitation too, that 
may be defired : The Port and Haven of our reft and 
happinefs everlafting propoled 3 the Kingdom of God, 
Our duty and endeavour urged to weigh Anchor, put to 
Sea for the fearch and difcovery of it 5 Seek. Our courfe 
(hapedand directed, that we wander not in the Ocean 3 
by the Righteoufnefs of God. And laftly, becaule the 
voyage is tedious and difficult unto flefh and blood, and 
no lefs perilous than painful by reafon of many Rocks 
and Shelves, and Quick-fands that lie in the way, at Icaft 
about it, our vigilance is farther admonidied, our beft 
attention and induftry again, and more earneftly called 
upon with a primum qu<erite : fir ft, that is, chiefly and 
above all things raoft carefully fiefa For fo fe.eking we 
(hall befure to find 5 performing our part in the precept, 
God will not fail to perform his part in the promife : give 
both the Kingdom which we fought, and addthofe other 
things which are unworthy of our fearch. But I begin 
with the Precept and in it with that Kingdom thatfhould 
quicken us to the practice of it. The Kingdom of God. 

W hereof yet at this time I (hall (peak but little, be- 
caufe no Man can lay enough, or indeed any thine; to 
purpofe of that, which neither eye hath feen nor" ear 
heard,nor poffiblycan enter into the heart of Man. StPe- 
ter faw but a weak beam of it in the transfiguration of 

c . Chrift. 


The way to Hafpnefs, 

Luk.ix 33. Chrift. and he was fo ravifbed with it as he fpake pre- 

fently he knew not what. St. Paul heard but a little 

found of it with his ear in an ecftafie and rapture into 

Paradife, and he was himfelf he knew not what 5 whether 

.. in the body or out of the body, he could not tell 5 only 

4 . ' he heard words there, which, when he came to himfelf, 
he could not utter neither, apjmm fifj&'m >> ineffable 
words, words impoffible, and were they poffible, not 
lawful to be uttered. The holy Spirit himfelf feeks not 
to exprefs this happinefsin itfelf, but only to intimate it 
by fimilitudes and fuch feeble notions as we are capable 
of and acquainted withal. And of all fuch, this here, 
this of a Kingdom is the beft, Kings and Kingdoms they 
are the moft glorious things that are upon Earth, and 
therefore fitteft to referable the glory of Heaven. And 
yet they are but refemblances neither, indeed fliadows, as 
the Author of the Hebrews, rather than full refemblances 
of this Kingdom, Regnum Dei, the Kingdom of God. 
A Kingdom fully accomplifhed with all Dignities and 
Prerogatives Royal, and that in an eminent and excel- 
lent manner. Tfeey feem principally to be but four. 1 . Do- 
minion. 2. Majefty. 3. Wealth. 4. Pleafiire. Dominion 
and Empire, Majefty and Glory, Wealth and Treafure, 
Pleafure and Delights, thefe are the dazling beams that 
give fuch luftre and brightnefs unto fublunary Monar- 
chies, and thfcy are all here, and all infinitely more illu- 
ftrious in the celeftial, the Kingdom of Heaven. tti 

For Entire and Dominion how full and abfolute, how 
large and fpacious ! extending it fett not only from Sea to 
Sea,from the flood unto the lands end 5 but from Land to 
Sea, from Sea to Air, from Air to Heaven, from thence to 
the Heaven of Heavens,which as they contain not his per- 
fon, fo neither may they limit his Dominion and Power. 
It is called the Kingdom of Heaven, not that it is there 
confined and bounded, for it runs through Heaven and 


ZJpon Mat. vi. verfe 33. 211 

Earth, the heaven *r his throne and the earth is his 
footjiool. That indeed is the City of the great King, the 
Metropolis and principal Province of the Kingdom, the 
Heaven of Heavens. Next unto it is the Ethereal Region, 
wherein are the Celeftial Orbs, the Stars and wandering 
Planets, all of them keeping the due courfe and order 
their King hath appointed them, and not fainting in their 
watches, as the Wife man fpeaketh. From hence it pat 
fethinto the Aereal,wherein are the ftrange and formida- 
ble Meteors, lightning and thunder, fire, hail^fnow, va- 
pours, winds and tempefis, and all of them fulfilling his 
word, as the Pfalmift hath it. After this into the Aque- 
ous, the Region of Waters, the great Sea, and all that 
wal( in the paths of the Sea, all fubje& to his power 
that made them, they and their raging Element. He hath 
given them a law which they may not break, he hathfet 
this hound which it cannot pafs } hitherto Jfjalt thou 
come, and here /halt thou Jtay thy proud waves. The 
earth follows, as the Center and Foundation ofafl, which 
yet hath no foundation it felf but is hung out upon empti* 
nefs, as Job fpeaks. And this though a remote yet a 
principal Region it is of his Empire, and furnifhed with 
the nobleft Inhabitants of all other, not only with Mine- 
rals, Plants and Beafts, but as yet with rational Men 
though mortal, to feme of whom the Lord even in this 
life hath imparted of his own (bveraignty, a LordQiip o- 
ver the earth, yet fo as he retains the Supremacy, and 
will be ftill Lord paramount himfelf, for his is the earth 
And the fulncfs thereof 

And yet it ftayeth not here, but pierceth farther in- 
to the loweft of all, the fubterraneous Region, a Region 
of death and darknefs : Arabia deferta, a defert and 
doleful Region this, that brings forth no good fruits, but 
is appointed only for the habitation of wicked and apo- 
ftate Angels, and fuch of Men as they have feduced td 

E e 2 the 


The way to Haffiinefs, 

the like wickednefs. All thefe Regions and Provinces are 
contained within the circuit of his Dominion and King- 
dom, for omnia ferviunt tibi, all things whatfoever firve 
thee. Pfal. cxix. 

This is Gods Kingdom, and the Kingdom of God it is, t 
that (hall be imparted to the children of Men : His it is,his 
only by natural righteoufnefs : his fervants it (hall be by 
gracious communication. Indeed the communication of 
the Kingdom is firft and principally unto Chrift who is 
litres univer forum, the Heir, the immediate Heir of all 
things, Hel>. i. There is not an Inhabitant of the three 
grand Regions, Heaven, Earth, and under the Earth, but 
they are all put in fubje&ion under his feet, and muft e- 
very one therefore bow the knee at the very name of 
Jelus, asajeverence and homage unto their Lord. But 
yet in and through Chrift, it (hall be communicated alfo 
unto all his, that are truly Chriftians: for thefe arc heirs 
too, h eirs of God) and coheirs with Chriji, Rom. viii. 
As they partake of his name, fo they (hall receive of the 
Royal Un&ion which it fignifies} He only is the anoint- 
ed King, but the oyntment reftethnotonlyonhim, but 
from him, as from the head, runs down into the beard, 
and drops on the very skirts of his Rayment, by which 
they are all intereffed in the fame Kingdom. And there- 
fore, qui vicerit dabo ei federe in throno mzo : to him 
that overcometh will I give to fit with me on my throne, 
even as I overcame, and am fate down on my Fathers 
throne,. Revel, iii. 2 r. 

So Gods throne is over all, Chrift fits on God's, we on 
Chrift's and therefore on God's : and fo have a communi- 
cated power from God, through Chrift, over all that 
God and Chrift have.. He will make him Ruler over all 
his goods, Matth xxiv. 47, 

Juftly then a Kingdom in refpeft of Dominion, and 
no lefi rightly in regard of Ma jefty and Glory, tbefeccnd 


Vpn Mat. vi. verfe 35. 2 13 

Prerogative of Kings and Kingdoms. And fure they are 
no mean rays of Ma jetty, and Majtfty Divine, that above 
all other perfons do defcend and fettle on the heads of 
Princes, crowning them more than that of Gold, with 
Glory and Honour. True it is, every rational Man is en- 
graven more or lefs with the image and fimilitude of 
God, which all other creatures irrational do acknow- 
ledge by their fear : the feax of Man is on them all. But 
Kings bear this fimilitude with a difference of eminence 
and excellency, and are ftamped with a fpecial chara- 
cter of the Divinity, that commands reverence and dread' 
from all their tnferiours, even thofe whom all things 
eMedofear. A great participation ot honour, than which 
there is not a greater, unlefs in this Kingdom, the King- 
dom of Heaven } that indeed infinitely furmounts it : for 
there and there only is the fulnefs of Majefty, Majefty 
Divine, where is the Seat and Scepter, the very Throne 
of the Divinity , at the ere&ion and prefence whereof 
all other Thrones and Scepters, though never fo glorious, 
muft at length tumble to the Earth, as that Image be- 
fore the Ark utterly broken. It was a goodly ftatue that 
NebHchadnezzarbeheld, it had a head of pure Gold, but 
when that mighty ftone cut out of the Mountain with- 
out hands once fell upon it, it ran inftantly into powder f 
fo the fame Prophet Daniel \w a vilion of his own doth 
allure us: I beheld^, faith he, till the thrones were cajl 
dawn, and the Antient of days did fit, who fe garment 
was white as /now, and the hair of his head like pure 
vpocII : his throne was like the fiery fame, and his 
wheels itke burning fire, A fiery jiream came ?jjuing forth 
front before him ; thousand thoufands minijired unto 
him y and ten thoufand. limes ten theufinds flood be- 
fore him : the judgment was fet, and the book* nvrr 
opened, Dan. vii. 9, ic. And this lure is a majeftick' 
Throne, and even on this Throne about which lb- many 


2 14 The way to Happinefs, 

bleffed Angels flood and miniftred,men (which is ftrange) 
holy men and Saints (hall fit as Affeflbrs, judging not on- 
ly the Tribes of ifrael, but the whole world, the world 
of the wicked, both men and Angels, i Cor. vi.2,3. And 
as their majefty is, fuch is their glory , a glorious Ma- 
jefty, and marvellous, For the glory of the Lord JhaH 
fliine ttfon his Servants and he ft all Jhew himfelf war- 
vellous in his Saints : Their very bodies (hall be glo- 
rified and fhine as the Sun in the firmament, but their 
Spirits much more glorious : with them they (hall fee God 
as he /V,that is,in his glory \ and by feeing be transformed 
into his Image, that is, made like unto him in glory, 
2 Cor. iii. nit. And as of Glory, fo I think it will be found 
for Riches and Treafure, the third thing of eminence 
in the Kingdoms of this world, as being the finews of 
their ftrength, the fupport of their ftate, dignity and mag- 

3. But as all power is but impotence, all honour igno- 
miny 5 fo all wealth but poverty refpe&ively unto the 
Riches of this Kingdom : This only hath veins and mines 
of Treafure indeficient, Fountains of wealth inexhaufti- 
ble, when thefe below are quickly drawn dry, and whilft 
they run, cannot quench the thirft of thofe that drink 
them, who therefore have no means to be truly rich by 
adding to their wealth but by withdrawing from their 
defire. But this beggerly Philofophy (the beft yet, that is 
in this Vale of mifery,) is utterly baniftied the confines of 
this Kingdom, whofe Riches are of another nature, and 
powerful not only to provoke, but to fatiatethe appetite. 
We need not make a vertue of neceffity here, be con- 
tent with fuch things as we have becaufe we may not 
have fuch as we would 5 at beft but a rich poverty 5 but 
enlarge your felves to the uttermoft \ open the mouth 
wide and it (hall be filled : and that is true wealth that 
doth fill the mind, not that which doth reftrain it 3 that 


ZJpo?i Mat. vi. verfe 33. 215 

doth not curb the deGres, but feed them till there be no- 
thing more to be defired. And fuch are the riches of this 
Kingdom. For what can hedefire more, that hath God? 
and all that God hath, all that he hath, for omnia ejus 
nojira funt , All that he hath is ours 3 all that he is, is 
ours too. Demerit omnia in omnibus^ God Jljuil be 
all in all, I Cor. xiii. Doubtlefsit could be the intuition 
of no other Riches but thefe that could make King Da- 
vid ( a Prince of fuch mighty wealth as the Treafure he 
left behind can at this day hardly be calculated, yet amidft: 
them all) to cry out, Ego verb pauper & cgenus, but 1 
am poor and needy, but the Lord caret h for me ; See 
where his Riches lay, in that God which may not be en- 
joyed but in this Kingdom. 

4. The laft things of moment attending on the King- 
doms of this world are Pleafures and delights 3 whereof 
indeed they afford great variety, but wherein little fatif- 
fa&ion. For as their Gold hath much drofe, fb their lit- 
tle pleafure is mixed with travel and trouble not a little. 
Only the Kingdom of God, the Paradife of true de- 
light, is it, that hath liquid pleafures and pure from all 
mixtures of forrow. Revel, ii. 3. We that are immerfed 5 
drowned in flefh and blood,can hardly think there are any 
other pleafures but thefe of the body g though our awn 
Reafon, if confulted, cannot but inform us, that this cor- 
ruptible earth is not more inferiour unto the immortal 
Spirit that informs it, than the delights of that Spirit 
are excellent and Divine above all the grofs and brute 
pleafures of the perifhing body : Though here are all,and 
all forts of delights, all that are immixed and pure from 
imperfe&ion both for body and Soul. The fenfes of the 
one, the powers and faculties of the other fhall be all fa- 
tisfied to the full 5 and fatiated with their higheft and di- 
vineft objefts 5 with their ftrifteft and clofeft union with 
them, to the utmoft of their enlarged and glorified capa- 

2 1 6 The way to Happinefi, 

cities. It is the Feaft of the great Ring wherein he means 
to fet forth all his magnificence, like Ahafuerus unto his 
Princes. The marriage- feaft of the Lamb, and write ftkh 
the Angel, Bleffed are they that are invited to the ftp- 
per of the Lambs Marriage , Revel, xix. How bleffed 
then are they that fhall at that time be married themfelves 
unto the Lamb ? The Body indeed is invited to the feaft, 
but the Soul is it that (hall be married unto the great King : 
as it is in the Prophet Hofea, I will marry thee to my felf 
in everlafling kjndnefs. ^uales Thalami illius am- 
plexus .<? Who can poffibly conceive the joys then of the 
Bride-chamber ? or the pleafures of the Bride-grooms 
embracement I when God and the Soul (hall be fo clofely 
knit and clofed together, as they become but one Spirit } 
as by this marriage here, two are made one flefb, i Cor. 
vi. 17. Aftrange and marvellous union, that as the Father 
is in the Son and the Son in the Father : fo all bleffed 
Spirits (hall be in both, and all but one in both as both 
they are but one. A true marriage this and a through on 
all fides: Souls knit unto Souls, and all unto God: A 
union divine like the union of God, the effeft of it there- 
fore a joy divine, no left like the joy of God: So like, 
as in Scripture it is faid to be the feme: Intra in gau- 
dium Domini 1 Enter into the joy of thy Lord, even 
into that joy wherewith the Lord himfelf rejoyceth, 
and is everlaftingly bleffed, who perfectly apprehend- 
ing his own infinite worth and goodnefs doth as per- 
fectly enjoy it in himfelf. And fiich fhall be your joy, 
who (hall not only pierce the inmoft verity of all other 
things , and clearly know the truth of whatfoever is 
doubtfully difputed here, but fhall be enabled to behold 
and contemplate with open face all the excellence and 
beauty of the Divinity it felf, by the underftanding} 
and enjoy it too, by embracing and cleaving unto it 
with the will and affe&ions : though not comprehensibly 


Vpon Mat. vi. verfe 33. 217 

and commenfurably asGoddoth,yetfulIy5 everyone ac- 
cording to his capacity and as a Creature may, Totum. 
Dei, but not totaliter, feeing and enjoying all of God, 
though not in that alfufficient and fupereminent manner 
as God doth 5 This is intrare in gaudium Domini^ to 
enter into the joy of the £0rd,andthatis to befilled.zs the 
Apoftle fpeaks, with all the julnefs of God : which fince 
it is the moft we can,it (hall be the laft we will at this time 
fay of it 5 only adding thus much, that though we may 
put an end to the (peech of it, there (hall be no end of 
the Joy. At his right hand are pleafures for evermore. 
A Kingdom then it is, and in all refpe&s the Kingdom of 
God : In regard of power and Dominion, we (hall fit 
with Chrift on his Throne, and that is the Throne of 
God : In regard of honour and glory, we (hall fee him as 
he is, and fo feeing, be made like unto him, and that is 
participation of the glory of God : In regard of wealth 
and riches 5 we (hall be Rulers over all his goods, and 
that is a full poffeffionof the Treafuresof God: And laftly 
in regard of pleafures and delights, we (hall enter into the 
Lords joy .and that is no other than the joy of God. Joy, 
Wealth, Honour, Dominion, all Divine 5 and a King- 
dom of all 5 and therefore the Kingdom of God, that is 
an everlafting Kingdom : for Regni ejus non er it finis \ 
of his Kingdom there fl) all he no end, Luk. iii. But we 
muft end the point, wherein if I have flayed the longer, 
you may plcafe to remember what St. Peter faid, when he 
faw but a (hadow of it, Bonum eji ejfe hic^ it is good to 
be here: A fubjeft fo plealing, that once entred, a man 
can hardly be drawn off, with that Apoftle,frora building 
Tabernacles there, and dwelling on it for ever. But yet 
we are not fo to contemplate the happinefs of this King- 
dom, as we forget to confider, what we are to do that 
we may attain unto it : for fomething is to be , done, 
though not much j feek it we muft at leaft, if we mean 

F f to 

2 1 8 The way to Happnefs, 

to have it : the fecond Point, Seek the Kingdom of God. 

2. And fure it is little worth, that is not worth the 
feeking 5 not any thing, not fo much as our daily bread 
but muft be fought } and that mfudore vultus^ in the 
fweat of thy brow. And (hall the Kingdom of Heaven fo 
far above all things, be valued at a lower rate than any 
thing elfe ? for there is not anything but mifery on earth, 
and Hell beneath it, the juft reward of (loth, that may 
be purchafed without travel. Thofe idle people in the 
Market-place whom our Saviour queftions in the Parable 
with a quid hie flat is otiofi^ had yet fome rational plea 
for their idlenels* no man hath hired m % we have none 
fuch | fee a Kingdom, even the everlafting Kingdom of 
God is your hire. He that is now idle, is idle without 
pretence, and let himbemiferable without pity. And yet 
two forts of Men there are, that trelpafs in this particu- 
lar. The one feeks, but without all refped of the King- 
dom 3 the other would gladly be inverted in the King- 
dom, but will by no means feek it : he fcorns to work 
for hire 5 this no hire can fet a work : that relies too much 
on divine attraftion \ this aims too much at foppofed 
perfe&ion 5 but feeJ^ the Kingdom of Gtd convinceth 

The firfii Cto touch firft on them) in their refined 
zeal conceive they could ferve God fufficiently, were 
there neither Heaven nor Happinefs to encourage them: 
yea that men ought to ferve him without all confiderati- 
on of either, branding all intuition of reward for felf- 
love* and all fervice founded thereon as meerly mercena- 
ry. But Gods hired fervants, are fervants, and have bread 
enough, faith the Text ^ and will have, while thefe acre- 
al conceits blow up the Soul only with wind, no way 
fill it with folid nourifhment. Indeed were the reward 
mf thing bvit God himfelf, it might well be felf-love and 

ove meerly mercenary to cxpeft only the reward. But 


ZJpon Mat. vi. verfe 33. 219 

when the reward is God himfelf he neither loves God 
nor himfelf, as he (hould, that doth not then fatten his 
eye on the reward $ working in the hope and joy of it 
whatfoever he works. It is moft true, every Man ought 
to love God above all 3 yea all love ought to be fully 
and finally terminated in God. But yet with reference 
unto him, a Man may and {hould love both himfelf and o* 
ther things alfo befides} And therefore every love of 
himfelf, is not prefently felf-love. Indeed he loves himfelf 
leaft, that hath moft of felf love in thefe poor things and 
perifhing, that add nothing to his intrinfick perfe&ion , 
which he is bowid to love : And fince God himfelf and 
God only is the full perfe&ion of a Soul capable of God 5 
it follows, he cannot but love God moft that moft affe&s 
his own perfe&ion, that is, union with God. And thus 
the love of God and felf-love are competible 5 yea are 
and muft be infeparable. Neither is it enough to love 
God only as the Supream and Soveraign good in himfelf, 
unlefs he love him alfo as the (upream and foveraign 
good of the lover of himfelf, that loveth 5 otherwife 
while men feek to clarifie, they will but cool their love 5 
but evacuate utterly their hope 5 That muft henceforth 
be razed out of the number of the Theological virtues, 
yea by this account, muft needs become vitious. But 
there remain thefe three^ faith St. Paul^ Faith, Hope, and 
Love, and let them remain ftill 5 for fure unlefs we love 
in hope, and have hope to cherifh our love, we (hall 
neither love nor hope as we (hould, no nor believe nei- 
ther. But that blefled Apoftle itfeems was not yet arrived 
unto thefe Mens perfe&ion } nay nor he neither, that was 
perfe&ion it felf : He, in whom the fulnefsofthe God- 
head dwelt bodily, was yet incouraged by therecompence 
of the reward, which is fet forth as a reafon, why he en- 
dured the Crofs, defpifed the fiante and run with pa- 
tience the race which was fet before him ■: for he had An 

V f 2 eye 

2 20 The ivay to Hafpnefs, 

eye unto the recompence of reward. And as he had an 
eye unto it himfelf in his own particular, fo he fails not 
to draw all eyes unto it, almoft every where in his dif- 
courfes. This very Sermon (and it is the firft let and ft> 
lemn Sermon that ever he preached) takes beginning 
with this, this propofition of the reward, this very re- 
ward of the Kingdom. Blejjed are the poor i» fpirlt, fir 
their s is the Kingdom of Heaven. Afterwards in the 
whole courfe of his preaching, you (hall find it frequent- 
ly preffed and earneftly : yea after his death and refur- 
re&ion, in thofe laft forty days before he afcendedv ap- 
pearing often unto his Difciples, he difcourfed unto them 
of the Kingdom of God, Att, i. 3. This brings in and 
leads out all his Sermons 5 the beginning, continuance, 
and confummation of them feems to be Regnant Dei y the 
Kingdom of God. And fure were it well known, did we 
clearly apprehend the hope of our callings the riches of 
the inheritance of the Saint /, could we comprehend 
with them all what is the height, and length^and breadth^ 
and depths and know the dimenfions of that love of God 
in Chrift, which pajfeth knowledge: nay were the in- 
eftimable treafures of that Kingdom, which this love hath 
prepared, but truly believed, I think no Man would ac- 
count any labour too great that might bring him thi- 

But to leave thefe, that feek, but not for the Kingdom, 
for they are not fo many 5 The difeafe of thofe other that 
would gladly have the Kingdom, but without feeking, is 
more general. Few Mens thoughts are much troubled 
with this employment. If it concern thefe things indeed, 
the pleafuresor profits of the prefent, how diligently do 
moft Men feek and fearch, rack and ranfack all corners 
and quarters of the world ? That Woman for her loft 
groat, or thefe Gentiles in the verfe here precedent^ not 
half fo painfully* But for that true wealth and honour,and 


Vpn Mat. vi. verfe 33. 221 

thofe immortal pleafures of the Kingdom which is to 
come, as if they would come of themfelves, though we 
would gladly enjoy them when we can no longer hold 
thefe, other yet travel or trouble for them in the mean 
time, we would not willingly fufFer any. As if we thought 
to light on this Kingdom of God, as Saul did on his, 
whilft we feek Cattle in the defert. Here we can be con- 
tent to look on the Lilies of the Field (as our Saviour a 
little before wills) but with a contrary intention, and 
would willingly be cloathed with Immortality and Glory, 
but on their condition, neq'^ Uborant neq? nent r fo 
we might neither labour nor (pin for it. No voice fo wel- 
come to our ears as that of Mofes at the red Sea, Stand 
fiill and fee the.falvation of God : or that of St. Paul 
to the Romans^ He was found of thofe that fought him 
not. It is ftrange we can trull: God for nothing, that con- 
cerns this life and the good things of it, without out ut- 
moft induftry and endeavour : and yet can be confident 
in him for the bleffings of the future, though we ftir nei- 
ther foot nor finger in the profecution of them. As if 
my Text were to be inverted, and firft (eeking thefe 
things, wefoppofed the Kingdom of God were to be ad- 
ded out of his providence and without our care. All 
care and thought of our own feeking, feems to be drown- 
ed in the conceit of his drawing. That of our Saviour 
is fo much in our eye as we can hardly fee any thing 
elfe. Nemovenit nifi Pater traxerit. And it is moft true, 
unlefs God prevent us with his Grace and draw us unto 
hirafel^ we of our felves fhall never, can never come un- 
to God. But do we utterly want that attractive Grace, 
or rather do we not draw back, and turn the Grace of 
God into wantonnefs,asthe Apoftlefpeaks? For how doth 
God draw, or whom ? though he draw, yet he doth not 
drag : he draws Men and not blocks, fo draws one \v. 
as. yet refra&ory difpotitions may and too often do ano- 


h i ' " ' ' ' ' ii ■ i n 

222 The way to Hafpnefs, 

ther : if any man Jhall draw back^ my foul fh all hate him^ 
Heb. x. There are but two ways to work upon the heart 
of Man, Power or Perfwafion : That is poffible only to 
the omnipotence of God , this proper to the rational na- 
ture of Man. And itpleafeth God ufually to deal with 
Men according to their nature, §>uos fc tnovet^ nt mo- 
tut fuos agerejinat, whom he fo moves (faith St Aufiin 
lib. 7. de civit. Dei cap. 30J as he yet permits to be 
their own movers 3 yea when he moves moft effe&ually, 
yet he moves not but congruouQy alfb. So faith the Wife 
man of him and his providence, pertingit hfine ufo ad 
finem fortiter, & difponit omnia fuaviter : power- 
fully firft yet fweetly alfo, that is,aptly and futaby to their 
nature and difpofition 5 He draws them indeed, yet not 
by the heels, but by the ear, qui andivit & didicit, 
he that hath heard and learned of my Father cometh. 
The very next verfe unto that former in the 6. of St John 
gives the way of drawing, by inftru&ion not by impul- 
sion. Rational Men therefore muftexped rational means, 
direction and inftru&ion. / trill inform thee in the way 
wherein thou Jfjalt walk^, I will guide thee with mine 
eye. Bitt and bridle that hold in by force, as it follows, 
are for horfe and mule^ that have no understanding. 
Not a word of his mouth, not a motion of his Ipirit, not 
a benefit of his grace and favour, but are as fo many 
cords to draw us unto himfelf, and fo himfelf teftifies in 
the Prophet Hofea, I tookjhe yoke from their neck,, and 
I laid meat before them^ In funibus Adami^ & loris a* 
matoriis attraxi eos> I drew them with the cords of a 
manjppith the bonds of love. The love indeed and good- 
nefs of the Lord laying meat before them, as the Keeper 
draws his Call, propofing a Kingdom as in this place (and 
what may draw if fuch a Kingdom cannot?) efpecially 
when the gracious motions of his Spirit unto yours are 
not wanting, and the like. Thefe are the cords and 


Vpn Mat. vi. verfe 33. 223 

bands, wherewith he drew them $ and with which intel- 
ligent Men fhould be drawn, and well therefore ftiled 
funiculi ho minis, the cords of a Man : All other Physi- 
cal traftion being the cords of Carts and Carriages, of 
beafts and blocks rather than Men. And when God 
thus draws and allures, it will concern Man highly to o- 
bey and follow the attraction. We may not think to 
ftand idly under the influence of Grace, like Fruit-trees 
under the beams of the Sun} much lefs hang under the at- 
traction like dead and inanimate trunks \ leaftofall hale 
another way 5 but being prevented by Divine Grace (for 
you art not under the Law, but under Grace, faith St. 
Paul) it will behove us to cooperate 5 having received a 
Talent, to negotiate 5 a gift, to ftir up the gift of God 
that is in us, as thefame Apoftle unto Timothy, ne quit 
dtfit gratis Dei, left wanting not grace in himfelf he 
himfelf chance to be wanting unto his grace, Heb. xii. 15. 
Rightly therefore the Spoufe in the Canticles, traheme 
poji te, & curremus, draw me after thee, and we will 
run, Cant. i. 4. And it (hould be the refolution of every 
one elfe, for that of St. Aufiin ismoft true, Qui fecit te 
fine te, non falv^bit te fine te: he that made thee with- 
out thy fel£ will not five thee without thy pains .• fecit 
nefcientem, non jujiificat nifi volentem, he made you 
without your knowledge, he will not juftify you with- 
out your will and endeavour, much lefs glorify. Nemo- 
coron.itur vifc certaverit , no Man fhall receive the 
Crown unlcfs he ftrive for it ^ or be conveyed into this 
Kingdom like Philip to Azot us, unlefs he feekit, and 
feck it in the right way, as he is here directed, by Righ- 
teoufnefs even the Poghteoufnefsof God, feel^the king- 
dom of God and his right eoufnefs. 

As no man finds unlefs he feeks : So every one that 
fceks doth net prefently find, unlefs he feek in the right 
way. If he err in this, the mere eagerly he feeks, the 



24 The way to Happinefs, 

more he errs, it is but Curfus cehrrimns prtter viam^ 
and then the ferther he runs,the farther ftill from his home. 
Above all things therefore it concerns us to be fure of 
the right way before we run on too furioufly. And fure 
the way were not hard to be difcovered, but that it is 
now almoft overgrown like the reft of the field, for want 
of paffengers. It is indeed unto humane corruption fome- 
thing tedious and troublefome, rough and rocky } which 
is the reafon men have diverted into fo many by-paths 
of their own, hoping to find out fome (horter cut or at 
leaft a more pleafant paffage into the Kingdom.In this kind 
certainly, we have had feeking enough yea and too much : 
every one almoft bending his wits how he may beft fhape 
the courfe of Religion futable unto his own fancy and af- 
feftions : Setting up his own Ladder, as St. Auftin faid of 
that Heretick, that fo he may climbe to Heaven alone by 
a way which none ever went before him } but wherein 
he fuppofeth every man thenceforth is bound to follow 
him. Yea by this means fo many Paths and feveral Alleys 
have been beaten out, as a Maze may fooner be trodden 
than fuch intricate labyrinths : and (which is more) eve- 
ry man contending fo earneftly for his own track, as he 
condemns and even damns all others that tread never fo 
little befides his footfteps. Not confidering that men 
may come to the fame place by feveral trafts, if they run 
on in the fame road. So long as they agree in neceffary 
truths and fundamentals, which is via regia, the Kings 
high way, or rather the high way unto the Kingdom, 
they may differ in fuch as are difputable and doubtful 5 
and yet both come fafe enough thither. And yet we 
may not much complain 3 fo it hath ever fared and will 
fare with the Church of Chrift. Errours if not herefies 
muft needs be, that they who love the Truth may be the 
better approved. But what then is to be done in this 
cafe ? Amidft thefe doubts and difputes where (hall we 


ZJpon Mat. vi. verfe 33. 225 

faften for that approbation ? fure no way in the world fo 
fafe and fecureasthis (the foundation we hold in common, 
(landing unfhaken) to let go difputes, and fall unto pra- 
ctice 5 leave the unhappy fatal tree of Knowledge, and 
betake us to the tree of Life : that fince we cannot other- 
wife find truth, or elfe agree in it 5 we may at leaft feek 
righteoufneft by which we (hall certainly find both agree- 
ment and truth a great deal the fooner. For feeking truth 
too earneftly, unneceffary truth, we may eafily lofe righte- 
oufhefs and truth too. Vertue and Vice (as he faid t 
well) being commonly at truce, whilft truth and error are 
at wars 5 but feeking righteoufnefsin peace we (hall hard- 
ly fail of truth, Stand up from the dead, faith the A- 
poftle, and Chrift fhall give thee light, Eph. v. And blefc 
fed therefore ever be the Counfels of his Royal breaft, 
whole high prudence by damming up thefe waters of 
Marah in their Fountain and chafing away bitter dif- 
putes, that began to overflow this, as they have drow- 
ned almoft other Countries, hath both refervediruth to 
more deliberate and appeafed cogitations hereafter, and 
given peace unto the Church for the prefent : That fo 
the clafhing of Truth and Errour (indeed truth and 
truth, errour and errour ) being filenced, Rightcoufnefs 
and peace may meet, and kite each other the more freely. 
And that fure will be found the right and beft way too 
at the laft. For moft afluredly when all conteftations are 
terminated 3 when all thefe Sophifmes and fubtikies of the r 
Schools, Subtilitates ultramundane & plnjquam Chry- 
Jippes, Subtilties, as he faid, beyond the Moon, and (uCu 
as Chryfippus never dreamt on, (hall vanifh into air, leave 
and forfake us utterly, it will be rightcoufnefs only that fhall 
do us good in the end 5 this rightcoufnefs of God and 
our faithful endeavour in it, that fhall be able to give 
peace and comfort to the Soul in death, and through death 
lead and light it into immortality and life. No way in 

G g the 

226 Tbe may to Hafpnefs, 

the world, no Kighteoufnefs thither, but this only the 
good way, the way which the Prophet Samuel long fince 
difcovered, J will fiew yon the good and the right way, 
fear the Lord and ferve him in truths and consider how 
great things he hath done for you. A good and a right, 
and therefore a right good way. Not that every way 
which is good, is prefently right, ( feme may have the 
zeal of God but not according to knowledge) but that 
undoubtedly it cannot be right, unlefs it be good. What- 
foever way it be, if it crofs or part with goodnefs, it will 
in the fame place certainly part with verity : where it 
leaves rightoufne(s, we may be fure it leaves truth i the 
true Do&rine being always, as the Apoftle teftifies of it, 
DoUvina fecundum pietatem^ a do&rine according unto 
piety^ I Tim. So Re&um eft index fui & obliqui^ That 
which is right, doth both difcover it felt and other things 
that are crooked. But be thedo&rine never fo right and 
righteous, yet if the man be not fo,to what purpofe is it? 
Had he all truth and were endued with the knowledge 
of all myfteries 5 yet if he detain that truth in unrighte- 
oufnels, it (hould profit him nothing , but to augment 
that wrath of God, which, faith the Apoftle, is already 
revealed from Heaven againft him. When on the other 
fide, did he know nothing elfe, nothing but Chrift and 
him crucified , ( as St. Paul defired to know no more ) 
yet walking faithfully in that path of Righteoufnefs, 
which he hath taught and trodden out before him 5 his 
ignorance of other controvertible truths, or fufpenfion 
gfcher, I think would hurt him but little. For Righteouf- 
nefs naturally doth lead into truth, and unlefs men did 
fii ft forfake it, they could hardly run into dangerous er- 
rour. For were not the Soul depraved with unrighteous 
iufts and the judgment of the mind perverted by corrupt 
affections, it could not eafily refift apparent truth, or not 
difcern manifeft fallhood, But when the will gives it felf 


ZJpon Mat. vi. verfi 53. 227 

over to be ruled by the appetite, no marvel if the in- 
tellect (naturally fubjeft unto the will.) be as eafily wrapt 
in errour. Ambition and Avarice, and defire of finning, 
with fting of Confcience, having once feized upon the 
Scribes and Pharifees, of old, what ftrange leaven were 
they foon brought to mingle with the bread of life ? And 
how mightily have the fame affe&ions fince wrought in 
many more? Hence, as from the Trojan Horfe, fo many 
impious, but profitable deceits and devices have iffued 
forth upon ignorant people: on the one fide, difpenfing 
with them for their own fins, and difpenfing to them o- 
ther mens merits, the imaginary treafure of the Church* 
that the Church might be filled with real. Hence what 
ftrange pofitions, and unto Piety moft dangerous have 
been formed,on the other fide ? eftablifhing juftification e- 
ven in the lofs of (an&ification $ prefumptuoufly cloathing 
themfelves and their difciples with the righteoufnefs of a- 
nother even then when they are wilfully unrighteous in 
themfelves. And fo, not content upon repentance to be 
juftified by imputation, but have found out, even then 
whilft they fin, an imputative (indeed a mcer putative) 
fan&ification 5 that by this means amidft the works of 
darknefs, in the paradife of conceit, they may ftill remain 
Children of light. But be not deceived, faith St. John, he 
that doth righteoufnefi, is righteous. All which, though 
fpiffe and palpable hallucinations on both parts 5 yet fo 
long as the eye is not fingle, as our Saviour fpeaks, but 
blear'd with mifts of profits and pleafu res, they may not 
eafily be deceived, lets eafily redrefled in either. They 
may term themfelves as they pleafe^ but fo long as impure 
defires are feated in the Soul , nothing (hall be able to 
tie them to the purity of that truth which oppofeth , or 
withhold them from contending for luch falfhoodsas lute 
with thofe defires. Itching ears and lufts in the fpirita, 
neither will nor can endure found Do&rine> faith the A- 

G g 2 poftle. 

2 8 The way to Happnefy, 

poftle. But rather than fail, will raife up unto therafelves 
Teachers after their own lufts, and at their own charge 
raife preferments for them too, that (b their hired tongues 
may tickle their ears when they itch, fmooth or fmother 
their fins 5 In this cafe who (hall prevail, or what (hall 
give Men light, if in favour of their evil ways, they love 
darknefs more than light ? It is only the fearch and ftudy 
of Righteoufnefs that can bring us into the way of truth, 
and diffolve errours, and their controverfies, by taking 
away their caufes : by removing thole grofs and earthly 
afFeftions that like Foggs at noon darken and benight the 
judgment. The pure and cleanfed heart fljall fee God, 
iaith our Saviour 5 fee him perfectly hereafter 5 fee of him 
and his truth more clearly in the prefent 5 as he dothelfe- 
where affure us. If any wan dcth the will of my Father, 
heftall know of my do&rine. But befides the nature of 
Righteoufnefs, leading into truth, the prote&ionand pro- 
vidence divine feems fpecially to affift and direft it. The 
very fecrets of the Lord, faith King David, are upon 
them that fear him 5 who himfelf having refpeft unto the 
Commandment, became wifer than his Teachers. But 
however fecrets, yet light enough fure (hall ever fpring- 
\xp unto the righteous, who have undoubted intereft in 
the promife of thatComforter,which unto the worlds end, 
fliall lead into all truths all that is neceffary for the lead- 
ing of them, when this world ends, into the glory of a 
better : yea and teach them mildnefs in truths of lefs con- 
fequence for the prefent. For did we follow rig-hteouf- 
nefs and not pride and paffion, we (hould eafily learn tor 
enter on myfteries warily, and to maintain our opinions 
loberly. And when the ftrife is peradventure, but about 
a crackt pane in the Window 5 or a loofe tyle in the Roof, 
as he faid well 5 not to raife fuch ftirs and outcryes as if 
the Foundation were prefently endangered. It is only 
tfce judgment; which Righteoufnefs- hath< cleared from 


Vfon Mat. vi. verfe 33. 229 

perturbations, that can difcern the neceffity of points, and 
direft our profecution accordingly 5 inftrufting us not to 
call every problematical queftion by the name of necefla* 
ry and infallible truth 5 but agreeing in fundamentals, ei- 
ther to leave fuperedifications to the try al of that fire, 
which will prove whether they are Gold or Stubble 5 or 
elfe difpute themib calmly, as neither, peace be difturbed, 
nor charity deftroyed } according, ftnon fententiis,fal- 
tern animis, if not in opinion, yet in love and affefti- 

And for thefe regards and many more (indeed any but 
that of imputation) is jufkly termed his Righteoufncfs, the 
Righteoufnefs of God. It is that Image of the Father, 
the chief lineaments of that fimilitude of God, wherein we 
were at the firft formed, and wheretmto we are ftill crea- 
ted; Created unto good work* that we might walJ^ in 
them, Eph. ii. 10. It is the end and purpofe of the Sons 
Redemption, That we being delivered from the hands 
of our enemies, might ferve him in holinefs a>nd right l e- 
oufnefs, before him all the days of our lives- The intent 
and effeft of the Spirits vocation, for we are called not 
to uncleannefs, but to holineft, and that not outwardly 
only by the word, but inwardly by the power of the 
Holy Ghoft 5 cleanfing from all filthinefs of Flefh and Spi- 
rit, that he may purge unto himfelf a peculiar people ^ 
zealous of good works 5 yea it is, I fay, not the form that 
doth juftiry in it felf \ bat the quality that only can qua- 
lifie for justification and entitle unto it, as it is taken for 
remiffion of (ins in Chrift. Blejfed are they t\hit do his 
Commandments, that they may have right unto thg 
tree of life, Revel, xxii. That tree of life is Chrift^ in 
whom without Righteoufnefs, no Man liath any right: 
who came by water and blood, iaith the fame St. John 
elfcwhere : firft cleanfing and then pardoning. For as he 
doth fanftifie as well ss jufufie; lb I take it he doth £ 


■2 %o The way to Happnefs, 

fan&ifie before he juftifie, and no longer juftifie than he 
doth fan&ifie. Laftly, it is the diredt and unavoidable 
means, though not merit of glorification : without holi- 
nefs no man fh all fee God, nor any enter into the King- 
dom of God. 

So many ways is it the Righteoufnefs of God 5 and fo 
many ways no lefs neceffary for Man, as being indeed 
All in All 5 thefolnefs of the Law, the full effeft of the 
Gofpel, the fubftance of Gods revealed will in both, This 
is the will of God even your fan&ification. But what 
then becomes of Faith? for this feems to be altogether 
work ? Is that nothing unto the way that leads unto the 
Kingdome ? Surely yes, much every way, but yet with- 
out Righteoufnefs not any thing : For Faith is not op- 
pofite to Righteoufnefs, but a part of it 3 the very foun- 
tain or root from whence it is immediately derived. 
For true Faith is ever that of the Heart not of the Brain, 
and with the heart man believeth unto righteoufnefs. It 
is neither Faith nor Works apart and fevered, that can do 
us good, but Fides operans a working faith , faith work- 
ing by love, and love is the fulfilling of the law, faith the 
Apoftle. This is that a&ive Faith fo much magnified in 
the xi. to the Hebrews , by the power whereof thole 
Worthies there, of whom the world was not worthy, be- 
fides many other great things, efpecially wrought righte- 
oufnefs : and gained the promifes, v. 33. And to thefe 
and the like Worthies it is that that Angel points in the 
Revel. Hi funt, Thefe are they that keep the Command- 
ments of God and the faith of Jefus. To (hew that none 
keep his faith as they (hould, that do not keep his Com- 
mandments, Revel, xiv. 12. Indeed it is the keeping not 
the believing of the Faith that is available. J have kspt 
the faith, faith St. Paul, henceforth is laid up for me Co- 
rona Jujlititf, a Crown of righteoufnefs. Faith kept 
is Righteoufnefs 5 and fuch faithful righteoufnefs only it 


ZJpon Mat. vi. verfe 53. 231 

is, that (hall be crowned at laft. Rjghteoufnefs therefore 
the only way unto the Kingdom : and fo by all thofe that 
would come thither, of all things elfe and in all regards 
moft efpecially to be fought for, with their beft ftrength 
and utmoft endeavour. For it is not qn£ritc, but pri- 
mum qutirite, not feek only, but feel^ ye fir ft. The laft 
point, but muft be briefly handled, though indeed it hath 
two points. 

As Fir ft hath a double fignification : for it either re- 
fpe&s time, or earneftnefs of intention. And in both re- 
gards for time, and intention of travel we are to feck, 
and firft to feek, the righteoufnefs of God 5 if we defire 
to enter the Kingdom of God. 

The actions of Piety and Righteoufnefs are the high- 
eft and nobleft operations of the Soul, and therefore of 
more worthy They runcrofs and counter to the bent of 
our corrupt affe&ions \ and foot more difficulty ,than may 
be lightly and eafily atchieved. Indeed facilis defccn- 
fus avtmi^ it is a detent down the hill, the fwing of 
our own corruptions can carry us headlong thither * but 
the way of lift is on high, faid King Solomon, Virtue 
muft upwards and hale the heavy body after it 5 climb 
Hills, and craggy Mountains: hie labor hoc opus, this is 
not without fweat and difficulty. But notwithstanding 
all difficulties, virtus ant inveniet antfaciet viam* The 
fpirit of God by the 'power of that almighty faith, to 
which all things are poiLble, will and muft break through 
them all. To do good and fuffer evil, to deny our felves 
and take up the Crols, to fubdue lufts and root out af- 
fections, and the like, till it come to that point, thefe are 
juftitiA culmina the heights and fteps of righteoufneis, 
and up we muft, though like Jonathan, and his Armo> 
bearer, we creep on ail four, hands and knees for it, on the 
knees of humble and fervent prayer ^ but ufing the hfl 
too,faithful and diligent endeavounAnd thcivfoie it is not 


a 3 2 77?£ wy to Happinefs, 

every cold and carelefs feeking that will be fufficient. The 
way is narrow and the gate ftrait : contendite intrare, 
ftrive, faith our Saviour, for many Jfj all fee ^ (leek negli- 
gently) and fljall not be able to enter. Nay more than 
ftrive, and ftruggle too. / prefs ha-rd, faith the Apoftle, 
for the price of the high calling which is in Chriji Jefus. 
He well knew that though no Man be Crowned unlejfs 
he ftrive for it 5 yet that every ftriving doth not prefent- 
ly gain the Crown, nift legitime certaverit, unlefs he 
ftrive as he ought. And therefore he fought not as thole 
that beat the air, but as he that means to conquer : for e- 
ven this Kingdom is not gained, but by conqueft. The 
Kingdom of heaven fuffers violence^and the violent take 
it by force. In this point we need not fear offending in 
excefs. Modus amandi Deum, eft fine modo amare, the 
meafure of loving God is to love him without meafure. 
In opinions indeed and difputes that have their extreams, 
moderation may be good and commendable, (difputants in 
heat and paffion, fuppofing they are never far enough a- 
funder till both be equally fundred from the truth, and 
then in this cafe to halt, as they fay, between two opini- 
ons, may be to walk moft uprightly) but no fuch here 5 
to halt between two Matters, between God and Mam- 
mon, God and Belial,Cod and Baal'xs moft infufferable, 
yea more than the clear rejeftion of him. Vtinan cali- 
dus ejjes ant frigidus, I would you were hot or cold, 
faith the Lord to feme in the Revelations. As if fince 
they were not throughly hot, he had rather by much 
they v/ere utterly cold, than in that faint temper between 
both : fit for nought but evomition,as is there threatned 5 
for the indignation of God rifeth at nothing fo much, as 
when Men neither fo cold as to contemn Religion , nor 
yet fo hot as to forfake their fins, prefent him with a 
cooler mixture of both. Better therefore be a pure Gen- 
tile, or a gracelefs (inner 5 than a compounded and per- 


ZJpon Mat. vi. verfe 33. 233 

fun&ory Chriftian 3 worfe than either, and harder to be 
cured 5 his mediocrity being grown venerable unto the 
world and himfelf, under the (hew and title of calmnefi, 
and moderation. For which caufe, that may be verified 
of thefe our Saviour faid of others, Publicans and har- 
lots ft all fo oner enter the kingdom of heaven. If we 
mean to find entrance there, it may not be by the formal 
and falfehearted feeking , feek the Lord and you (hall find 
him, but if you feek him with all your heart and with 
all your foul : otherwife inftead of finding a Kingdom 
we may chance to fall upon a curfe. Cur fed be he that 
doth the worJ^of the Lord negligently. Seek ye there- 
fore firft with all Indujiry and with all Jpeed too: 
that it may be the firft thing you feek, every way firft, 
in time as well as in intention. Death is uncertain and 
delays are dangerous 5 whilft we take farther day unto 
our felves, enlarging our time, as the rich Fool did his 
Barns, God oftentimes derides us as he did him. Stulte 
hac noffe, Thou Fool this night JJj all thy foul betaken 
from thee. And who in his own particular knows the 
length and date of this his day ? who can tell how many 
hours there are in it, or how many of them are fpent al- 
ready ? How (bon that now, that henceforth of obftru- 
ftion and blindnefs may come upon him, and refufing to 
clcanfe his Soul whilft the Spirit, like that Angel in the 
Pool of Bethefda, is moving the waters $ how fuddenly 
he may fill under that fearful Sentence of the fame Spi- 
rit in the Revelation^ He that is filthy, let him be filthy 
Jlill. If that Fig-tree were curfed even before the time 
of fruit in comparifon was come, before the Gofpel was 
throughly publifhed} may not thole that have lived long 
under the bright beams and Sun- (Line of it, and ftill bring 
forth nought but leaves, of fbew and formality, havejuft 
caufe to fear every moment the approach and probation of 
that final and fatal doom.lV ever fruit grow on thee more ? 

H h Whilft 

234 The way to Haffiinefs, 

Whilft Men in their preemption are fporting themfelves 
and grieving God with their fins, God in his wrath, in the 
mean while,may be fwearing they (hall never enter into his 
reft. Undoubtedly did the rays of true wifdom and di- 
vine pierce into the Soul 5 had the heart any true impref- 
(ton of future things or of the vanity of the prefent 5 did 
Men tafteand relifh the good gift of God and the powers 
of the world to come 5 they would not permit any quiet 
to their Spirits or peace unto their Souls, till their Souls 
had made and gained peace with their God, and freed 
themfelves from fuch uncertainties. This is the Haven of 
our Reft, and Heaven upon Earth, and we that fee it may 
well fay unto our Souls, better than he did fay, but faw 
it U0t,6) quid agis attimj mea d fortiter ccckpaportttm .•■ 
what doft thou O my Soul ? the Port is before thee 5 
fteer away before Sea and Wind manfully 5 foul weather 
is behind thee, make hafte to efcape the ftormy Wind 
and Tempeft. And however there (hould chance not to 
be any, for there may be room for mifertcorciia Domi- 
ni inter font em & font em, He hath not (but up life nor 
the gate of his mercy upon any: yet it will concern wife 
men to fear the worft, that is more likely, and prevent 
it,, whilft they have time y to work the work of the Lord 
whilft it is yet high day, before that dreadful and terri- 
ble night approach wherein no man can work. To de- 
fer it to the eleventh hour, to the evening and twilight, 
were a preemption too full of boldnefs 3 efpecially fince 
our Sun may fetat noon and our light go out in themidft 
of our life. For we are but duft as our Fathers were 5 
and the Spirit of the Lord will not always ftrive with us* 
Let us therefore laying afide all delays be refolute and vi- 
gilant^ attending (peedily to open when it pleafeth him 
to knock 5 when he calls, inftantly to anfwer, Lolcome, 
when he (ays, feek ye my face, to echo immediately , 
iby face Lord> will I fiei^ So feeking his face in holi- 


ZJpon Mat. vi. verfe 95. 235 

nefs here, you may be fare to fee it in glory hereafter. 
In the mean time, that God who hath added all things 
el(e plentifully unto you all, abundantly unto one, con- 
tinue and multiply his favours unto all, but principally 
and above all unto that one. For fince it is one of the 
laft fervices your Majefty, before your journey, is to re- 
ceive from this place, I would not willingly leave it, with- 
out one word of apprecation. For though I may not 
blefs, yet 1 may pray : God almighty whom you feek and 
ferve, hath blefled you ever hitherto * and may his faith- 
fulnefs and truth be your (Held and prote&ion ever here- 
after. He that went with Abraham in his Journey, be 
with you in yours: Let him lead you forth in peace, and 
to the joy of all hearts, return you again in fafety. May 
he carry you from Crown unto Crown, from one King- 
dome to another upon earth 5 and having miniftred all 
things elfe unto you according to your hearts defire here, 
may he at laft, (and let that be late) minifter an entrance 
unto you alfo abundantly into his own Kingdom , this 
Kingdom of God. Whcreunto the fame God of his in- 
finite mercy vouchfafe to bring us all for and in the me- 
ritorious blood of his dearly beloved Son and our moft 
bleffed Saviour Jefus Chrift. Amen. 

Lata Deo in sternum. 

H h 

1^6 A Preparation for the Holy Communion, 






Upon iCoRi xi. 28. ; 

Outlet a man examine hhnfelf, and fo let him eat of 
that Bread and drink of that Cup. 

TH E holy but fearful Sacrament of the body and 
blood of our Lord as it is the higheft and no- 
bleft Inftitution the Chriftian Religion hath: 
fo is it to be approached unto*with thegreateft 
reverence and regard. For as it affords ineftimable com- 
fort to the worthy participant : fo not lefs danger and ter- 
rour to the unworthy Receiver. He that takes it muft 
know he takes a powerful medicine, that will work one 
way or other 5 either cure or kill, prove wholfom Phy-, 
fick, or deadly poyfon. As the patient is prepared, fo it 
works this way or that 3 even either life or death. For the 
blood w hich is received, if it do not wafh and cleanfe,it will 
certainly ftain and dy the Soul of the Receiver : which 


ZJpon i Co r. xi. verfe 28. 237 

muft be made partaker, or (hall be made guilty : cither 
partaker of the vertue, or guilty of the (bedding thereof 
to his endlefs deftruftion that receives it unworthily. 
The guilt you have in the precedent Verfe, He jhall be 
guilty of the body and blood of the hard- The deftru- 
ftion in the fubfequent, he eateth and drinksth damna- 
tion to himfelj not dijcerning the Lords body. The ex- 
hortation in my Text lies between both,that it might be the 
more vehemently enforced, and every man might know 
how much it behoveth him diligently to examine himfclf 
before he eat of that bread and drink of that Cup, But 
let a man examine, &c. Wherein you fee there are two 
general parts: firft a preparation, then an admiffion un- 
to the blefled Sacrament of the body and blood of our 
Saviour. The Admijfion in the latter part, Let him 
eat 5 andthe preparation in the former, but firft let a man 
examine, &c Of the holy Sacrament it felf and an ad- 
miffion unto thereafter v^t this time only of the prepa- 
ration that fhould go before it. Wherein you may con- 
fidcr, 1. The Ad wherein it confifts, Examination 3 and 
then the objeft of that Aft, himfclf Let a man, &c. 
But we (hall run both together , and out of both draw 
thefe points , which we will commend to your obfer- 1 

1. Becaufe the end of examination is to prepare cur 
(elves, we will fhew the neceffity of this preparation. 

2. That we may know wherein to examine our felves,' 
we will confider the quality and extent of that prepa- 
ration which is neceflary, for the making and couftituting 
of a worthy Receiver. 

3. We will (hew that the beft means to attain unto this 
preparation or qualification, is the ftudy and know- 
ledge of our felves and our own ways. 

4. Becaufe the heart of man is deceitful above all 
things, and we arc all apt to deceive our. felves in jud 

2 8 A T reparation for the Holy Communion y 

of our felves, that it is not a fuperficial view but a drift 
examination that muft give the juft and true knowledge 
of our (elves. 

5. And laftly, we will make and pra&ife this exami- 
nation in thofe points we have found neceffary : that after 
it they who are approved in their own Conferences, may 
chearfully approach unto the facred Myfteries, and eat of 
that bread and drink of that Cup to their endlefs com- 
fort 5 and others that are not fo, (as I think few are) may 
.firft reform themfelves , left they eat and drink as the 
Apoftle here threatens,damnation to themfelves : Sothefe 
five, The neceffity of preparation, and what the prepa- 
tion is that is fo neceffary : That the beft means to attain 
it, is the knowledge of our (elves 5 and the beft way to 
come to this knowledge, examination: which examina- 
tion becaufe it is the chief point, we will ftridly make, 
in the laft place, that according to it, we may either ap- 
prove or reform our felves before we prefume to come to 
the dreadful Sacrament of the body and blood of our 
Lord : Thefe 5. 1 fay we (hall at this time asGodftiallinable, 
profecute in their order 3 but plainly, as defirous to leave 
you rather better than more learned. And firft of the firft, 
the neceffity of preparation, But let am an examine, &c. 
The end of examination is preparation } for to exa- 
mine and not to prepare our felves, were but to fee our 
own foulnefs and refufe to cleanfe it } to inquire into our 
Lords will, and negleft it when we have done : and that 
will only make us worthy of more ftripes. And there- 
fore he that commands the one, doth in the fame words 
of neceffity in join the other. And indeed holy and Di- 
vine Myfteries as in reafon they require an holy and fan- 
dified preparation s fo in Scripture hath it ever been pre- 
ferred and exafted at their hands , that (hall draw near 
unto them : yea the very Heathen Priefts would not en- 
ter upon their Superftitious Ceremonies to their falfe 


ZJfon i Cor. xi. verfiiS. 229 

Gods without firft proclaiming a, procul ejie profj ni, all 
profane and unhallowed perfons be ye far awa y. And 
it was the ufe in the Primitive Church for the Miniftcr 
as it is in St. Bajils Liturgy, or the Deacon his Affiftant 
as Chryfoflom hath it, To cry with a loud voice before 
the Communion Sarttfa Sandis, holy things pertain un- 
to holy people. And for this caufe it was that the Lord 
gave fuch fhi& command in Law that no uncircumciled 
perfon (hould prefume to eat of the Pafchal Lamb 5 nor Exod. : 
yet any circumcifed neither under four days preparation ^\. 
and fan&ification of themfelves. With what reverence xxl1 ' 6 ' 
then and awful regard fhould we draw near unto the 
true Pallover, in the blelled Sacrament, which fucceeds 
in the room of that other ?' and exceeds it too,, no left 
than the fubftance doth the (hadow, than the body and 
blood of the Son of God, doth the flefh and blood of a 
Lamb, taken from the flock ? To (hew this, our Saviour 
himfelf at his laft fupper, arifeth from the Table, takes 
the Bafon and the Towel, wafhes and wipes his Di£ 
ciples feet before he would inftitute his bleffed Sacra- 
ment or fuffer them to be Communicants at it. Now by 
the feet in holy Scripture are meant the afft&ionsof the 
heart 5 for as by the feet the body walks, fo by the aP- 
feftions the Soul moves to whatfoever it defires: They are 
the fpringsand Fountains of all her vital operations $ and 
as the Fountains are, fiich are the ft reams 5 if thofc be 
troubled, thefe will be foul 5 if they be clcanfed, the other 
will run clear. And therefore thefe feet, thefe affeftions 
of the heart being once wafhed ( the meditations of the 
head, the words of the mouth and the aftions of the 
hand, which are but rivers flowing from the abundance 
of the heart and the hearts afle&ionb) cannot but partake 
of the (lime purity. For which rea(bn when Peter who 1 
at the firft was not willing to be wafht at all, afterwards 
was defirous to have all wa(lit 5 h\s head and his hands 


2 40 A ¥ reparation for the Holy Communion^ 

as well as his feet 5 our Saviour replies, he that is wafjjed 
needeth not to waff) fave his feet only, for then he is 
clean every whit, Job. xiii. 10. The feet then, the affe&i- 
ons ot the Soul, on whofe cleannefs doth depend the pu- 
rity of the whole man and all his a&ions, thefe are they 
that our Saviour by this aft of his own doth inftruQ: us 
carefully to wafh and cleanfe, before they tread a ftep to- 
wards his holy Table. How can they there exped to be 
partakers of him, who himfelf in that place told Peter 
that without this wafhing he could have no part in him ? 
They fruftrate the end and benefit of the holy Sacrament, 
they proftitute the bleffed myfteries themfelves, they dif 
honour both them and the Majefty of that God who is 
prefent at and in them 3 who prefume with unwafht feet, 
unhallowed affe&ions to enter upon the (acred Symbols 
fan&ified with the peculiar prefenceof the precious body 
and blood of the Son of the everliving God. No mar- 
vel therefore if fuch profaners of this blood are held as 
guilty of the (hedding of it which was purpofely (bed to 
cleanfe them from the guilt of their fins 5 if infteadof. feal- 
ing falvation to their own Souls they do but eat damna- 
tion to themfelves for not difcerning the body of their 
Lord. For did they difcern it, did they underftand and 
conceive it to be there,they could not but approach unto 
it with greater reverence, with much more heed and aw- 
ful regard. When it was at the worft and loweft eftate 
the malicious Jews could bring it to, bereaved of all form 
and beauty, yea and of that bleffed Soul which dwelt 
within it 5 and now remained only a dead and crucified 
Caikafe, all over gaping with wounds, and gored with 
blood 3 yet even then with what care and reverent re- 
f di was it handled by the good Arimathean .<? It was 
wrapt up in fine and clean Linnen, imbalmed with fweet 
Oyntmens and perfumes, and laid in a new Sepulcher 
hewen out of the Rock : How then and with what high 


ZJfeH i Cor. xl verfe a 8. 241 

efteem fhould we, ( we that are to be made not Sepul- 
chers, but Shrines and Temples, not of his ignominious, 
but glorified body, not of his body only,butof his whole 
perfon, of his body and blood and Soul and Divinity 
and all) how I fay and with what diligent preparation 
fhould we fee that all things be pure and clean, and fweet, 
and new, where ftich a gueft is to be entertained, where 
he is not to be lodged for a night or two, but to inhabit, 
where he is not to lye a while as in the grave, but to 
dwell and live forever? This were fomething to the 
purpofe, and we fhould then (hew we difcerned the 
Lords body , which now we feem not at all to regard 5 
eating and drinking of his flefhand blood with no more 
reverence and refpeft, than if we were at an ordinary 
Table of Bread and Wine. Nay Iaffure my fel£ many 
of us make more preparation, being but to dine with 
fome Neighbour , than they do to come to the great 
Kings fupper. They can with all diligence apparel and 
trim up the outward man, againft every ordinary feaft 5 
in the mean time neglecting the inward man of the Soul, 
little regarding how foul and flovcnly that comes to the 
holy Banquet. But let fuch carelefs men in time take 
heed 5 the wrath of the Lord hath never fhown it felf 
more terribly, than on the profaners of holy things, efpe- 
cially his own holy prefence. Many and fearful are the 
examples in this kind. The great King of Babel no 
fooner polluted the Sanctified Veilels, but even whilft he 
is carrouzingin the bowls of the Temple, a ftrange hand 
from heaven writes his doom on the wall before him : 
the terror whereof loofeth the joints of his loyns, and 
makes his knees knock one againft another : which was 
but a forerunner of his mine, who that night loft at once 
both his Kingdom and his life. But how dreadful was 
that judgment in the 1 of Sam, vi. where fifty thoufand 
Souls are luddenly ftruck dead for but looking irreve- 

I i rently 

^ ±2 A T reparation for the Holy Communion, 

rently into the holy Ark 5 and Vzzah inftantly fmitten 
with the like vengeance for but touching it with profane 
hands, though with a good intent to hold it up when in 
his judgment it was like to fall? And fhall we who are 
permitted (I fay not, to touch or to look into the move- 
able, buf) to walk into the (landing Ark, the Temple of 
the Lord, yea to enter in within the Vail and ap- 
proach-up even to the Mercy-feat, and eat of the holy 
fhew bread that (lands before the Lord, if we continue 
to pollute that (acred place and banquet with our un- 
wa(ht feet, unclean and impure affections, fhall we think 
to efcape alone without wrath from Heaven ? Let no 
Soul flatter it felf with fuch a bold and mad prefamption. 
The divine indignation that informer times was wonte- 
ver almoft to follow fuch profanations at the heels, 
though in thefe later ages the great day of final accounts 
drawing on, it feem to ilacken the pace 5 yet it will cer- 
rainly overtake them one time or other, if not here in 
this world, yet infallibly in that other hereafter, though 
oftentimes even in this alfo. 

Even at this inftant when the Apoftle wrote this very 
Chapter, the Lord had fenta fearful (icknefs amongft the 
Corinthians, and that for this very caufe, their profa- 
ning of the Sacrament '-> as you may read the words imme- 
diately following my Text. For this caufe, faith he, fome 
are even novo fie \, others weak^, and many amongfi you 
fallen ajleep ; that is, taken away by bodily death. But 
however it go with us now, yet at that day when the 
great King fhall come to take a particular view of his 
guefts, he will not fail to find out all thofe carelefs peo- 
ple, that have prefumed to fit down at his table without 
their wedding garments, and pronounce upon them that 
heavy doom in the Gofpel, take them, bind them hand 
dnd foot, and cafi them into utter darkjtefr, there f jail 
he weeping and gnafoing of teeth. S,o necefiary is this 


ZJpon i Co r. xi. verfe 28. 243 

duty of reverent preparation, and (b great the neceflity 
urged upon the high terms of no lefs than plagues and 
punifhments here, and deftru&ion forever hereafter. So 
true is that of our Apoftle, he that eateth unworthily 
doth hut eat judgment unto himfilf\ (b the word im- 
ports, judgment temporal, though he repent, and with- 
out repentance damnation eternal j and that in fo hein- 
ous a manner as ii he were guilty of the very body and 
blood of the Lord, no lefs than the cruel Jews that (bed 
the one and crucified the other, or treacherous Judas 
that betrayed both. Well then, neceflary it is and highly: 
But to come to the fecond point, let us now fee what the 
preparation is that is fo neceflary : wherein it confifts, 
and how far it extends that muft denominate and make 
a worthy Receiver. Surely though no Man living be 2. 
abfolute worthy in himfelf, or can by any means attam 
unto that entire and compleat worth which is fully an- 
fwerable unto the dignity and holinefs of thofe (acred 
myfteries, yet it pleafeth God of his grace to accept of 
him for a worthy Receiver of them that doth truly and 
faithfully endeavour to receive them with a competent 
meafure of that reverence, and thofe qualifications which 
he hath prefcribed in his word, amongft which, Know- 
ledge^ Faith, Repentance, Love and Charity, Love to 
God and Charity to our Brethren, I fuppofc,are the chief 
if not all. And thefe fure at leaft are fimply neceflary, 
by them we muft examine and with them we muft pre- 
pareour (elves, whofocver will be worthy Receivers. 

Firft with Knowledge,an honeft degree of knowledge; Knowledge 
what the myfteries are,what they fignitie and exhibite: for 
what purpofe they were ordained of God and are received 
by our felves. Thus much fecms requiiite in the meaneft 
capacity 5 for fo long as we are ignorant of thefubftantial 
parts and fundamental doctrine of the Sacrament, fo long 
as we neither know nor confider the main ends and pur- 

I i 2 pofes 

244 A Preparation for the Holy Communion, 

pofes for which it was inftituted, how can. we poffibly 
prepare our felves worthily to receive it? we (hall fail 
fhort for want of difcerning the body of the Lord. And 
in this every Man ought to examine himfelf 3 and many 
Men others too as well as themfelves. It is not the pro- 
per duty of the Miniftcr of Go J only to Catechife : every 
Father and Mother of a Family, is or ought to be in this 
regard as a Minifter within his own charge. It is our part, 
not to be ftill laying of the Foundations and Principles of 
the Doctrine of Chiift, but to lead you on towards per- 
fcftion, Heb.v'i. 1. As St. Pet ir the Apoftle faid of mini- 
firing at Tables, nay as St. Pauloi Baptifm it felf, I was 
not fevt to baptife but to preach : So we may much more 
fay of Catechizing, We were not fent to Catechife but to 
preach the Gofpel : our office is to difpenfe the Word 
and Sacraments, yours it is properly to prepare : yours it 
is tp teach and inftruft your Children and Servants, that 
they may be fit and capable to receive both f> though the 
lloth and ignorance of thefe times, to your fin and (hame, 
hath caft this burden wholly upon our (houlders moft Fa- 
thers for the want of willingnefs or knowledge deferving 
to be Catechifed no lefs than the Children that are un- 
der them 5 yea in my underftanding much more, having 
!oft in their age, that little which they learned in their 
Fa-ib. The fecond qualification is Faith 5 without it, it is im- 

poffible to pleafe God ^ as in any other duties we can 
exhibite unto him, fo efpecially in this of the Sacrament 
It is the eye of the Soul, by which we behold and look 
upon 3 the hand by which we lay hold and apprehend 3 
she very mouth by which we eat and receive the Body 
and Blood of our Redeemer, given and applied unto us 
m thefe rayftical figures. Non dentes jedfidem, prepare 
not therefore thy teeth but thy Faith, faith Sr. Aug, (or 
vr$de & mewdacafli^ believe, ajnd thou hail eaten. And 

for 1 

ZJpo?i i Cor. xi. verfe 2S. 245 

for this duty, we fuppofe there needs little preparation 
or tryal, every Man thinks he can readily aflure and ac- 
quit himfelf in the performance 5 but when we come to 
examination anon, we (hall find it a harder matter than 
we imagine, to believe aright and as we ought. 

The third ofthefe preparatory qualifications is Repen- Rtpintanet. 
tance, which though it be alio generally required as pre- 
cedaneous unto all facrifices and ferviccs which we offer 
unto God, according to that of the Apoftle, Let him de- 
part from iniquity^ whofoever will call upon the name 
of the Lord : yet the more holy and facred the actions 
are^ the more especially ought we to clcanfe our (elves 
and purge our fins and corruptions before we go about 
them: for I will be fan&ified faith the Lord m thofe 
that draw near unto me : And nearer well we cannot 
draw unto God or God unto us, than in this Sacrament } 
ordained of purpofe to joyn and unite both in one. But 
do we think his pure and precious body will vouchfafe 
to be received and dwell in an unclean and polluted Soul? 
(hall this'bread, panis deCtzh^ bread from Heaven, the 
Childrens bread, as it is in the Gofpel, and indeed the 
food of Angels, (hall it be given, do we imagine, unto 
whelps ? (hall thefe precious Pearls of the Gofpel fhel I'd up 
in Divine Myfteries be opened and caft unto* Swine? 
(hall the cup of the Teftament be given unto him, that 
bath nothing to do with the Covenant ? furely no, What 
haji thou to do, faith God in the Pfalms, to tal^e my Co- 
venant in thy mouth Jo long as thou hateji to be reform* 
ed ? to take it in thy mouth fo much as by naming of it 5 
how much leis haft thou to do to take the blood of the 
Covenant in thy mouth by receiving it, fo long as thou 
refuleft to reform thy felf by true Repentance? This 
therefore is the main and principal part of our qualifica- 
tion wherein we cannot be too diligent and careful : and \ 
the othct of Love is like unto 'vu 


i^6 A Preparation for the Holy Communion, 

Love. Of Love firft unto God who hath (hewn fuch marvel- 

lous Love unto us, and from us (hould receive all Love 
and thankfulnefs again. And then unto our brethren, 
that as God hath loved us, fo (hould we alfo (hew Love 
and Mercy unto one another. 

In regard of the />/?, this bleffed Sacrament is well 
termed the Encharifl, that is, the Sacrament of thankfgi- 
ving, wherein by the affiftance of the blefled Spirit we do 
in all thankfulnefs and grateful return of our beft affe- 
ftions, folemnly commemorate the wonderful Love of 
the Son that fuffered , and the infinite goodnefs and mer- 
cy of the Father that gave him to death for the fins of 
the world. In regard of the other (the Love of our bre- 
thren)it is as rightly (tiled a Communion ,that is,a common 
union for fo it is doubly ,a common union of our felves a- 
mongftourfelves,and of all unto our Saviour } But firft we 
muft be united unto one another,before we be united unto 
him: as wedrirk of one cup and eat of one bread, fo 
we muft be knit into one body myftical by Love, or we 
(hall never be knit unto our head Chrift Jefiis by Faith. 
What union canft thou expeft with him fo long as thou 
art at variance with thofe for whom he died ? His blood 
was (hed for us all whilft we were yet enemies, and (hall 
we think we may drink it, and in it remiflion of fins to 
our felves, fo long as we refute to remit the fins of ano- 
ther? can we hope or exped that mercy from God, 
which we will not (hew to our own fie(h ? No, no, if 
without this thou thinkeft to receive any favour from 
him, or look he (hould receive or accept any facrifice 
from thee, thou deceived thy felf It is his rule in the 
Gofpel, If when thoucomeft to offer at his Altar, thou 
remembreft that thy Brother hath ought againft thee, 
leave thy gift there, go and firft be reconciled to him, 
then come and offer thine oblation, Ecce honor em fuum 
dejpicit^ dum in proximo charitatem requirit. .Behold 


ZJpon iCor. xi. verfe 28. 247 

(faith Cbryfoft*) how he preferreth thy Charity before 
his own honour ; who will not accept of any facrifice to 
himfelf, till thou haft fhown love to thy neighbour. And 
fo here thefe four, Knowledge, Faith, Repentance and 
Love , are as you fee the principal qualifications where- 
with due preparation muft of necetiity adorn and beau- 
tific the Soul:, they are the feveral parts, whereof that 
Wedding-garment muft be made up, wherewith it is to be 
arrayed, and wherein every one muft appear that would 
be held and accepted of God for a worthy Receiver. And 
thus much of the firft points, the preparation and the ne- 
ceffity of it drawn from the phrafe and commanding 
force of the Text, Let a man examine him ft I fc for this 
[£?/] is not pcrmiffive, let him do it if he will^ or if he 
will not let him chufe, but mandatory and imperative, 
let him fee and be fure that he doth it : and that under 
pain of damnation, as it follows in the next verfe. 

Proceed we now in the third place unto the aft whereby 
that preparation is made, and thefe qualifications are beft 
attained unto, and that is a diligent fearch and examina- 
tion of our felves and ways. Let a Man ex mine himfelf 
For certainly the readieft way and direftcft unto due pre- 
paration rs the true and faithful knowledge of the right 
temper and difpofition of our own Souls. And therefore 
next unto the book of God, Man himfelfis the beft book 
he can ftudy, fince the knowledge of himfelf (as the ve- 
ry heathen Plnlofophers could acknowledge) is the be- 
ginning and fountain of all both Wildom and Goodncfs : 
of Wifdom, becaufe as himfelfis a microcofm and com- 
pendiary fum of all creatures, fo the knowledge of him- 
felf cannot but be the fum and brief abftract of all fcien- 
ces: andof goodnefs, becaufe he is evil without remedy 
that doth not underftand how evil he is : for of neceffi- 
ty he muft know his own corruption before he can eleanfc 
and purge it, which is the rcafon tUat evil Men, who 


248 A V reparation for the Holy Communion, 

though they love not evil as evil, yet love the pleafure 
of it : are fo nice to enter into their own Souls, and 
fearful to make too ftrid a fearch into the pollutions of 
their hearts, left they (hould be driven to abandon and 
forfake them when they cannot retain without too much 
trouble to their own Confidence. Rightly therefore Se- 
neca^ Mdli ublq\junt^ prxterqvdm fecum, wicked Men 
are willingly every where elfe, rather than at home, 
they are ftill gadding abroad, and the lefs they can abide 
to look on themfelves, the more they delight to be curi- 
ous examiners of other men : how fecurely will they pry 
into all their aftions 5 how narrowly can they obferve e- 
very defeft and imperfe&ion, the leaft mote in their Bro- 
thers eye that will not behold beams in their own ? with- 
in blinder than Moles, without quicker fighted than Ser- 
pents. And Plutarch though but a Philofopher can give 
you the reafon of both, for the guilty Soul, faith he, 
which in it felf is but as an unclean cage, a very fink of 
Sin and iniquity, tnetuttis ea qu£ intus funt, exibit fo- 
ras, fearing that foulnefs and uglinefs which is within, 
quickly flyes out of doors, and like a Fly flutters up and 
down till it light on a gal'd back, fucking and feeding up- 
on other mens vices, that he may the better leffen and 
excufe his own, or dare to attempt greater himfelf It is 
happened unto fuch, faith the fame Author, as unto thole 
that have footy houfes or curft Wives, they are never 
well longer than abroad. Like Satan in Job, their Souls 
compafs the earth, and walk through the world : wan-, 
dering ftars they are to whom the blacknefs of darknets 
is referved, faith St. Jude , at whofe doors though our Sa- 
viour himfelf ftand and knock never fo long,never fo loud, 
he cannot hope for admiffion : there is no body within 
' to anfwer or open and let him in, their Spirits are gone 
forth, and it is impoffible they (hould hear what is done 
at home, their cogitations are fo deeply bufied abroad } 


Vpon i Co p.. xi. verfe 28. 249 

or if pcrad venture they now and then hear him at their 
better leifure they, confider it but little, as fuppofing they 
have not much need of him. They have been fo long 
taken up in the view of other mens fins, as they forget 
their own 5 they have (b constantly fixed their eyes on 
the crimes of their brethren, as they begin to think them- 
(elves innocent : In this cafe now is it poffible they (hould 
duly prepare or deeply repent, whilft they judge of their 
own goodnefs by others evil, and fuppofe themfelves 
well enough already, becaufe perad venture they are more 
wicked } But could we obferve the Apoftles rule, let o- 
ther Men alone and examine our (elves, could we as di- 
ligently obferve our own defedfe and imperfe&ions (io 
give them no worfe name) as we do other Mens, and o- 
tner Men do ours, taking eftimate of our (elves by what 
we truly are in our felves, not what we feem oppofed to 
others^ we (hould quickly difcover at lead the corrupti- 
on and hypocrifie of our own hearts : we fhould foon find 
how rotten we are at the core, how defperately fick, and 
what great need we have of the Phyfician. And (till the 
longer we look, the wickeder fhall we appear 3 the more 
narrowly we fearch and the deeper we dig into thefe im- 
pure vaults , the more ever (hall we abhorr our felves 
with Job 3 till we cry out with the Prophet : that my 
head were full of water, and mine eyes a fountain of 
tears, that all the day long I might bewail my fins and 
iniquities in the bitternefs of my Soul. What elfe was it, 
but this ferious confideration ofhimfelf, that made holv 
David fo afflict his body with fackcloath, and his head 
with a(hes ? what was it that made his eyes fo often to 
water his cotoch, and his bed to fwim with perpetual 
tears , but that ID the 51. V fains, I acknowledge my ini- 
quity and my fin is ever before me} And fure did we 
carefully look into our felves, did we faithfully and fre- 
quently fct our fins before us as that Prophet did, we 

K k (hould 

2 5 o ^ Preparation for the Holy Communion, 

flhould foon acknowledge and bewail them with that true 
and hearty forrow that he hath done. So dire&ly doth 
the contemplation and knowledge ofourfelves lead un- 
to true repentance, the fum of our preparation. But 
this knowledge of our (elves, efpecially of our fins, is not 
fo eafily attained as we imagine, and it is not prefently 
gained upon the iirfi view : every Man hath not (uch clear 
eyes as Adam^ at fitftiight to difcover his own nakedncfs; 
or if he have, he can quickly find out fig-leaves, fubtie fhifts 
\iud excufes to cover it, as well as he. And therefore it is 
not a (light view, but a thrift examination that muft eye 
it : Let a Man examine himfelf. It is ftrange that him- 
felf (hould be driven to examine himfelf: doth not the 
Soul underftand the Soul? cannot the fpirit of man un- 
derftand what is in man, without fearching it out by ex- 
amination ? iurely no,the heart ofman&ixh the Prophet, 
is deceitful above all things and wicked^ who can kporv 
it? and becaufe wicked, therefore deceitful 5 and cun- 
ning not only to deceive others but even it (elf. The un- 
der! tanding indeed hath eyes, clear and bright enough to 
fearch into the dark corners of the Soul, and difcover the 
windings and turnings, all the obfcure Alleys and Laby- 
rinths that are in it , did not the heart (end forth a thick 
fogg ofgrofs and earthy affeftions to- muffle up and blind 
them left they pry too far into her fecrets. For the will 
wherein the affeftions refide, hath taught the intelle&ive 
power (which is under her command, being Miftris of 
the Soul J either not to look at all, or look very favour- 
bly on that which fhe likes 5 and inftead of judging of 
the goodnefs (which is the proper office of the under- 
(landing praftick) (he diverts herimployment wholly to 
the (eeking of cunning devices,and finding out of falfe co- 
lours anddifguifesto cover the foulnefs of the evil, which 
pleafure or profit moves her to affeft. And then how is it 
poffible for this knowing faculty of our Souls to difcover 


Vfori i Co r. xi. verfe 28. '251 

thofe fins and hypocrife?, which her (elf with all her wits 
feek to hide even from her felfas well as from others? 
And therefore unlefs we vindicate the intellect from 
this thraldom, and deliver it from the pow£j and ty- 
ranny of the will 5 and that will's corrupt affections, that 
it may be a free Umpire and Judge within us 5 unlets lay- 
ing afide all love of our felves and fins,wedteal truly and 
impartially with our felves \ Nay unle(s we be jealous of 
our own fouls and take our felves, as we well may, for 
thegreateft enemies of our felves } and fo deal with our 
hearts as we would do with felons and other offender 
that is, fearch and examine them with all ftri£tne(s and di- 
ligence 5 we fhall never throughly difcover the truth of 
our own bofoms. For the heart is a fly and fubtle male- 
factor 5 he will not quickly confefs } he muft be tript with 
many queftions, often taken in contradictions, nay have 
evident proofs brought in againft him, or he will never 
acknowledge his error : nothing but tnanifeft truth can 
extort it from him : Unlefs it be the rack, on that indeed, 
he will fometimes confefs : on the rack of fome (uddetl 
Judgment, on the rack of a tormenting Conference you 
ihall hear it then cry out before any body examines them, 
like Judas, 1 have fin tied in betraying innocent bloody 
and hang themfelves when they have done, and to fin 
worfe in (bedding their own. But this of the rack,is con- 
fefs and be hang d } that which we feek by examination, 
is confefs and be forgiven. Ifvpe confefr our fins, God is 
faithful to forgive them, faith St. John, though moft men 
had as lievc be hang'd as confefs} and out of a ftubborn 
Pride had rather excufe than acknowledge their crimes : 
So lofing the benefit of remiffion, for want of feeing how 
much they deferved punifhment : which nothing but a 
true inquiry and a faithful examination can fet before 
their eyes. For want whereof it is that fo many think 
well of themfelves now, and are as fure of heaven as if 

Hk 2 they 

2<2 A ¥ reparation for the Holy Communion y 

they had pofleffion already, who God knows (hall never 
come there. Only this benefit they gain by their falfe 
fecurity, that without any murmuring of Conference they 
go merrily to Hell : for as Solomon hath it, there *r a 
way that is right in a mans eyes, but it leads down unto 
death. In this way the Pharifee in the Gofpel feemed to 
walk : I thank God, faith he, I am not as other men, no 
Adulterer, no Covetous, Extortioner, no unjuft per- 
fon, as that Publican: but he gave Almes to the poor, he 
fafted every week and payed Tithes of all that he had : 
He was right indeed in his own eyes, and why > but be- 
caufe his eyes looked only outwards, upon other wicked 
men whom he found hirafelf unlike : or if at anytime 
inwards, it was through the falfe fpeftacles of pride and 
felf-love which can prefent him with nothing but feem- 
ing goodne(s,and that multiply ed much more than it was: 
But as he was right in his eyes, had his eyes alfo been right 
in his head, he might upon better examination havefeen 
what our Saviour eafily difcerned, die hypocrify of his 
heart 5 which did but cover it felf with Sheeps cloathing 
being inwardly more ravenous than a wolf 5 under pre- 
tence of religion and long prayers, eating up the fub- 
ftance of poor women, and devouring Widows houfes : 
and therefore he tells them, Publicans and Sinners (that 
is, the moft lewd and diffolute people) fhould fooner enter 
into the Kingdom of Heaven : For the foulnefs of their 
Crimes paft all excufe, leaves fome hopes they may in time 
come to fee and deteft them : whereas the other whofe 
tins being deep and fecret are not fo eafily difcerned, and 
his wounds though they fefter and putrify at the bottom 
( as being never (earched to the depth) yet becaufe they 
are skinned over at the top with an outward formality of 
Fveligion, he pleafeth himfelf with a conceit he is through- 
ly cured, and fo of neceffity nourifheth his death within 
him, without ever looking after the Chirurgion. Thefe 


ZJpon i C o r. xi. verfe 28. 253 

Pharifccs are not yet all dead , they ftill live and will 
do in many a bofomc, and in theirs efpecially that live 
moft civilly, and lead think they are harbored there. For 
who almoft is there amongft us that is not right in his 
own eyes ? who is there that looking on the outward fur- 
face of his a&ions, how juftly he lives and free from 
afperfion, how diligently he frequents the Church, hears 
Sermons, receives the Sacrament, and the like, doth not 
fecretly in his heart thank God he is not like other men ? 
when if he look into it a little better, he may peradven- 
ture find it, for all this, as empty of true piety unto God, 
or charity unto his Brother, as that falfe Pharifee was. 
We do not yet know, nor (hall we till we undeftand our 
felvcs better,how apt we are to deceive our felves^and flat- 
ter our Souls out of their falvation. The very grofs and 
palpable offender can (hrowd, you fee, his crimes under 
fuch fair titles as they feem to him little or none at all, nay 
vermes fometimes inftead of vices. The Covetous 
man is but thrifty, and the Drunkard a good fellow; 
the quarrelling Ruffian a man of valour 5 and the prodi- 
gal Spendal, kind and freehearted. How much more ea- 
fily then (hall the civil hypocrite Aide away under the 
falfe pretences of a goodly outfide ? Wherewith he is Co 
induftrious to cofen others, that at length valuing his 
goodnefs by their opinions,whom he hath abuled, he cheats 
himfelf ere he is aware of his own Soul. That therefore 
in fo dangerous a cafe we may take care we do not deceive 
our hearts any longer ^ but every man deal faithfully and 
truly with himfelf where it fo highly concerns him : Let 
us come at length to the examination it fclf For this 
hitherto is but to (hew how neceflary it is to examine ; 
we will now endeavour to makethat examination, and we 
will make it not in all things we might,butonly in that pre- 
paration and thofe qualifications of it which ercwhile wc 
found neceiiarily required in a worthy Communicant: that 


254 A Preparation for the Holy Communion, 

accordingly we may condemn and reform our felves before 
we approach unto the holy table. Wherein, becaufe I 
delire to deal impartially with mine own Soul and yours, 
I (hall intreat your patience, if I come as near your Con- 
fciences as may be, which you cannot afford without find- 
ing the comfort of it in your felves, for affuredly the 
more willing the heart is to be furrowed and plowed up, 
the better ever it takes the immortal feed, and the (boner 
and furer fends forth fruit to eternal life. To enter on 
it then, The qualifications of our preparation, wherein 
we are to examine our felves, I have (hewn you to be 
four, efpecially, Knowledge^ Faith , Repentance and 
Love, But before we deal upon them, it will not be amifs 
briefly to reflect on the examination and preparation of 
our (elves, and fee and confider how much heretofore 
we have failed in both 5 and how (hort we have been of 
that due Reverence and regard thofe Sacred Myfteries 
require. Shall I ask you then? for fo he muft do that 
will examine : what time you have taken from your 
earthly affairs to beftow on this holy imployment? 
nay ask but your own hearts, and they will quickly 
anfwer you : for have you afforded your felves, I fay 
not a month or a week, but a day or two or fbme hours 
of them to call your Souls to a ftrift account, to (trip 
your hearts of worldly cares and vanities, and recal 
your wandering thoughts to thofe fevere and ferious 
cogitations as may become your own fanftification and 
the high and holy inftitution of your Saviour ? Confider 
well whether with David , you have entred into the 
Chambers of your own bofoms, and faithfully communed 
with your own Souls : whether you have tryed out your 
hearts and reins, and your fpirit hath made diligent 
fearch, as he both did and requires. Obferve heedfully 
whether carting off all masks and vifors of Hypocrify, 
all Fig-leaves of diminution and excufe, how thou haft 


ZJpon i Co r. xi. verfe 28. 255 

expofed thy (elf and thy Soul naked unto the view of 
thy fearching Conference , whether thy mortified heart 
beginning to thaw with remorfe, hath freely opened her 
pleits and folds wherein (he hid her iniquity 5 and pre- 
ferred thee with her fins in their true (hapc, that thou 
mighteft as truly deteft and abhor them. If it befo, it is 
well : if not, take heed, labour and drive, weep, cry, 
pray, do not ceafe, be not fatibfied till it be fo 5 for then 
it will never be right thy preparation will lack of his 
due, and thy examination will be lame. But I examine 
this examination no farther. It is a lecret adl: known on- 
ly to their own reins and the fearcher of them, to whom 
therefore I remit it 5 and pafs on to the qualities and 
vertues wherewith you are to prcpare,and wherein I may 
more freely examine and evift your Souls, as having 
outward and fenfible effefts whereby they may be judg- 
ed. And the firft of thefe (to omit kjzowledge whereof 
we have fpoken fufficiently already) is Faith : but here 
examination thou thinkeft altogether needlefs 5 for thou 
art mod fare and certain thou believeft. Yet what if 
one fhould tell thee thou didft not believe ? like e- 
nough thou wouldft tell him again, thou doft not be- 
lieve him in that , for thou wilt ftill fay thou know- 
eft nothing better than that thou believeft, why > and 
I know it too, and know more, that the very Devils 
believe and tremble, which is fomething farther: and 
their Faith peradventure fomething better than thine, 
who believeft and doft not tremble : which yet thou well 
mighteft, didft thou underftand thy felfor believe in God 
aright, and as thou oughteft. But the truth is, moftmens 
Faith (as we (hewed but now of the underftanding) fol- 
lows their affections 5 believing little more than what 
they defire. Should a Man preach and maintain that 
the goods of this world ought not to be ingrofled into 
private and particular hands, but that all things (as it 


2^6 A V reparation for the Holy Communion, 

was in the primitive Church) amongft Chriftians (hould 
be common, who think you would believe this fooneft, 
the Rich or the Poor? The Poor indeed would quickly 
embrace it, becaufe beneficient to them - but the Rich 
that (hould be lofers by it, would hardly or never af- 
fent. In like manner (hould we urge that precept under 
the Law, that money (hould be lent freely to our bre- 
thren that want, and not be put out to intereft : or in-' 
force that Divine Precept of theGofpel, to lend and look 
for nothing again, Matth.m. the poor Creditor you may 
be fure will entertain this for his relief, but the griping 
Ufurer is deaf on that fide, and can eafily find out drifts 
and diftin&ions to avoid his own inconvenience. Search 
now and examine thy felf narrowly and fee if thy Faith 
doth not deal thus with God in the chief Articles of it : 
fcarce ever believing any thing but what it likes. The ob- 
ject of Divine Faith is the word of God, wherein befides 
Hiftories, the chief things it propofeth to believe are but 
three, Frecepts^Comminations^xwii Promifes: Precepts 
of duty : Comminations of punifhments : and Promifes 
of reward to the obfervers or neglefters of them. And 
all thofe equally to be affented unto, becaufe delivered 
by the word of the fame God : otherwife thy Faith is 
defe&ive and maimed. See then and confider truly whe- 
ther thou doft adhere unto the one as to the other, whe- 
ther thy Faith doth not reft only upon the promifes , 
neglefting the duties 5 and yet flighting the threatnings 
againft thofe that negleft them. The promifes of Mercy 
indeed are fweet and comfortable } who doth not wil- 
lingly and gladly believe them ? but comminations and 
duties are terrible and troublefome, and few will give 
them faithful entertainment. That Chrift fufiered on the 
Crofs, and fhed his blood for the fins of the whole world 
and every mans in particular, is a pleafant and grateful 
Doftrine, how doth our Faith hug and embrace it as 


ZJfon i Cor. xr. verfe 28. 257 

if there were nothing elfe to be believed ? But fhould we 
once thunder out that of St. Paul, That notwithstanding 
this blood, no Lyer, no Drunkard, no Adulterer, no co- 
vetous or unclean Perfon, (hall enter into the Kingdom 
of God : here our Faith is at a ftand, and will be fure ei- 
ther not to believe it,or never to acknowledge that them 
(elves are fuch. Again, bleffed is the man to whom the 
Lord imputeth no fin, faith David 5 yea marry, bleffed 
be that tongue for ever,I believe it with all my heart: nay 
read a little farther, and in rvhofe fpirit there is no 
guile, how now? whydoft thou ftagger? pifh ! 'tis im- 
poffible j this feems to have crept into the Text, no bo- 
dy knows how. St. Paul when he cited it, left it out $ 
and we are not bound to believe it, or any thing elfe we 
cannot away with. There is no condemnation to them 
that are in Cbrijl Jefus, faith St. Paul, a gracious pro- 
mife, and a very cordial to the Soul, every Man is ready 
to lay hold of it before it be out of his mouth : but to 
whom doth it appertain ? To them, as it follows, which 
rvall^not after the fleflj, but after the fpirit. This is a 
(evere duty on our parr, and a very corrofive to the flefh $ 
which will hardly be brought in fubjeftion to the law 
of God, and therefore will not eafily believe it fhould or 
poffibly may be. Thus thy fruitlefs and prepofterous 
Faith is ever ftrong to lay hold on the promifes, though 
weak and of no power to work obedience to the com- 
mands, or believe the judgments denounced againft dip- 
obcyers. For didft thou (b, truly thy belief would teach 
thee to tremble ; for which caufe I told thee thy Faith • 
(which in this cafe is only a carnal confidence) falls (hort 
of that which the Scripture tells us is found in Devils 
that believe and tremble. Nay, if we fearch and exa- 
mine a little farther, we fhall find thy Faith failing even 
in the very promifes. For though in fpiritual promifes that 
concern mercy and remiffion of fins now, or the King- 

L 1 dom 

258 A Preparation for the Holy Communion, 

dom of Heaven hereafter, thou art more than faithful, e- 
ven foolifhly prefumptuous: yet in the promifes which 
pertain unto this life, we are all for the raoft part (though 
Chriftians in profeffion, yet in truth and pra&ice) grofs 
and palpable Infidels. Thou beginneft thy Creed with, 
I believe in God the Father Almighty s wherein thou 
doft acknowledge him thy Father^ and therefore willing} 
Almightyjmd therefore able to relieve and fuccour thee in 
all thy wants and diftreifes f, but from the teeth outwards : 
for let want or diftrefs approach though but afar oftj how 
art thou prefently perplexed? what anxious and heart- 
breaking care doth inftantly vex and difcruciate thy 
very Soul >■ how are thy thoughts loft and diftra&ed this 
way and that, and every way fearching and bending thy 
will upon all humane helps and fuccours that may be im- 
agined,with fuch fear and diftruft,as if there were no God 
in Heaven or providence of his upon earth ? Tell him 
now of his Father Almighty, that knows whereof he 
fhall need, and will not fail (ifhejfr/2 ■ feek. his kingdom- 
and the righteousness thereof) to add and fupply all o- 
ther things that are neceffary, and you (hall give him as 
niuch comfort, as if you had caft water in his Shooes, 
He is clear out of his belief now, and Pater nojier too, 
when if you (hew him the plain Text in Mat. Take no 
care (that is no anxious and folicitous care) what you 
Jhall eat) or wherewith you Jkatt be cloathed «, or in Da- 
vid^ do good, and verily thouJI)alt be fed r he will foon- 
tr laugh at their promifes than believe them. Nay which 
is ftrange, a Man whom God hath well bleft, that hath 
no want within ken, nor likely to have any, yet fcrapes 
and fcratches on every fide, as if poverty were coming 
on him like an armed Man, as Solomon fpeaks ; who if 
urged to relieve the necetfities of his poor Brother (with 
butafmall piece of Silver) though the King intreat, and 
the King of Heaven command, and his Minifters pcrfwade, 


Vfon i Cor. xi. verfe 28. 259 

yet it may not be wrung from him. He can prefently caft 
doubts, who knows whether himfelf or his Children may 
not live to want ? Shew him the promifes of God in the 
Scripture afl'uring the contrary, that it (hall be a means te 
profper and multiply the reft : tell him that of the Wife- 
man, Cafi thy bread upon the waters^ and after many 
days thou ftalt find it : or that of another, he that gi^ 
vet h to the poor, lendeth unto the Lord 5 yet nothing 
can move him : which manifeftly argues either he dotb 
not believe God when he fays it, or at lead not believe 
he is a good paymafter 5 yet this Man thinks he hath 
Faith 3 nay many of them are fo far from relieving, as 
they can find in their hearts to opprefs and grind thofe 
that are poor enough already : and as if they conceived 
that honeft courfes and Gods bleffing on them were too 
weak means to provide fufficiently for themfelves and 
Children, they can (hift and (hark 5 projeft and under- 
mine 3 fcrew themfelves into teftaments and deceive 
trufts 3 buy over their Brothers head that imploys them 
for himfelf^ and ufe all their wits and fraudulent devi- 
ces to compafs an eftate, and root their pofleffion in it 
for ever: madly fuppofingto eftablifh their Generations 
by thofe ways for which God never fails, as he every 
where threatens, to weed them or their pofterity out of 
the Inheritance fo purchafed ; it being his glory ever to 
deftroy the wifdom of the wife, and to mine the houfe 
built in fraud or on the ruines of others. For the hope of 
the wielded, faith Job, if as the fpiders web, cunningly 
fpunout with a great deal of labour all night, and fud- 
denly fvvept away in the morning. What Faith then is 
there in this ? or indeed, what is it elfe but a wild branch 
of meer Gentilifm and infideiity,if not abfolute Atheifm? 
For did he truly believe God or his comminations, it 
were not poffible, one that loves his Children fo well, 
could run fo direel: a courfe to deftroy them. But aflii- 

L 1 1 redly 

260 A Preparation for the Holy Communion, 

redly he doth not believe 5 and whatfoever we pretend^ 
yet for the mod: part, we fecretly fay in our hearts with 
that Fool in the Pfalrn, if not. there k no God, yet at 
lead, there *r no knowledge in the ntoft high : or elfe 
with thofe wicked ones in Job, tuJI),Godcareth not, cir- 
ca car dines ceeli ptrambhlat, his walk is about the hinges 
of Heaven, he doth not trouble himfelf to behold or re- 
gard the things upon Earth. Do not fuppofe I wrong 
you: (earch your own Conferences truly, and I believe 
the beftofyouall will find even this infidelity lurking 
in them. For wert thou abfohueiy allured in thy Soul of 
the omnifcience, and omniprefence of the Lord 5 didft 
thou faithfully believe that he is every where, and be- 
holdeth every aftion and operation of thine., though ne- 
ver fo fecret, that he is about thy path and about thy 
bed andfpyeth out all thy wayes, and feeththy thoughts 
more clearly than thou thy felf $ how were it poffible 
for thee in his prefence and under thofe eyes fo often 
and deeply to diffemble with thy Brother, with thine 
own heart and with God himfelf? Couldft thou imagine 
a window in thy bofome and thy Neighbour permitted 
now and then when thou dreameft not of it, to look in 
upon thy impure and fraudulent thoughts, and fee how 
thy cogitations are bufied 5 how would thy Soul fhame 
and blu(h to be taken tardy in fuch bale and unwor- 
thy imployments? which yet thou canft freely excr- 
cife and continue without any trouble or interruption at 
ail, though God himfelf and his pure eyes behold them, 
iv.hercunto thy bread- is tranfparent as glafi, and more 
open than the air* what doth this -(hew but that thou be- 
litveft it not ?■ for to believe his prefence truly, and fo 
much contemn it, ismecrly im poffible. It is beyond im- 
agination to conceive, were thy Faith firm in this point, 
how/ it poffibly can be, that the fight of God and his 
holy Angela fliould not deter thee, not only from think- 

ZJpon i CoR.xi. verfe 28. 261 

ing but from acting thofe fccret works of darkneft 3 which 
the coming in but of a little child can utterly interrupt 
and hinder. Of neceffny thou mud be driven to confeG, 
either that thy Faith is alleep, and thou doft not believe 
it : or thy reverence utterly dead, that thou efteemeft of 
a child more than thy Maker. A (lured ly could we fortify 
our perfwafions but in this one Article of Faith, and 
ftrongly apprehend the truth of it, nothing could be of 
greater power to purge our hearts, and our hands too 
from all evil and uncleannefs. Thus if thou carefully 
examine thy faith by the effefts, and judge of it, as thou 
fhouldft, by thine aftions, (for the tree is known by her 
fruit) thou wilt eafily find notwithstanding thy former 
conceipt of thy felf, how full of infidelity thy falfe heart 
is, and how little thou believeft either threats, or pre- 
cepts, or promifes* or providence, or any thing elfe fin-, 
cerely and as thou (liouldeft. Well therefore it would de- 
ferve thy frequent cogitations and prayers and tears to 
confider and bewail it thoroughly, crying out with him 
intheGofpcl, Lord, I beluve, help my unbelief. And 
never think it helped till thou findeft it reforming thy 
affections and lufts, not led and ruled by them : till thou 
perceived it working powerfully in all the thoughts of 
thy heart and actions of thy hands, ami the whole courfb 
of thy life. For this is the true teft and tryal, and to 
thefe marks our Saviour himfelf fends thee, to make full 
proof of it. Thefe arc the figns, faith he, that (hall follow 
them that believe. /// my name jh all they cajl out devils, 
they Jljdll fpeal^ voith new tongues : they foall takj up 
ferpents : and if they drink^any deadly thing it JbdS 
not hurt them : and when they lay their hands on the 
jic hotkey pall be healed. If thofe figns follow not thy 
Faith,it is vam and thou art yet in thy fins. But thou wilt 
lay the time, of Miracles is pa(l y and thefe days require 
them not. Neither do I require them as then $ neither then 


161 A T reparation for the Holy Communion, 

.and in thofe times were they common unto all Believers : 
But the faying of our Saviour is univerfal and in the (pi- 
ritual fence is ever true, that thefe figns follow them and 
all them that unfeignedly believe: For every Man natu- 
rally hath Devils enough within him to be thrown forth, 
and unlefs thy Faith have power and virtue enough to 
difpoflefs and caft out the impure fpirits of luxury 
and avarice, of envy, wrath, malice, and hypocrifie, and 
the like foul Fiends wherewith our nature is full: unlels 
it be able to give thee a new tongue and a new language, 
and cleanfing thy mouth of all oaths and blalphemies, of 
(landers and reproaches , of deceit and fcurrilitys can 
teach thee to fpeak the words of fobriety, and fan&ity, 
and of truth every Man unto his Neighbour 5 unlefi it 
can embolden thee to take up Serpents, to receive and 
lovingly embrace thy mortal enemies, and make trea- 
cle of them too, drinking up all the deadly venome 
which their poyfoned ftomachs can difgorge againft thee, 
not only without hurt, but even as thy phyfick 5 that fo 
lifting up pure and innocent hands upon them with pray- 
ers and benediftions, though they revile and curfe, they 
may yet at length be won from it and cured of the ma- 
lice wherewith they were fick 5 and others alfo by thy 
example, of their feveral difeafes, who feeing thy good 
works may glorify thy Father which is in Heaven : Until, 
I fay, thy Faith hath power to work thefe things (unlefi 
our Saviours figns be falfe)it is never current and efFe&ual. 
If you fay, thefe things are too high and hard for us, we 
cannot attain unto them 5 you do withal fay and confefs 
that you do not truly believe: For true Faith is not dead 
or drouzy, but powerful and operative, working even 
wonders unto flefli and blood 3 which St. Paul proves 
by a full cloud of witnefles in the it. to the Heb. produ- 
cing a whole Catalogue of the antient Worthies, who all 


Vfon i C o r. xi. verfe 28. $62 

through Faith afpiring to the promifes were mighty and 
marvellous in their actions, overthrowing Kingdoms, 
working rightcoufnefs and doing fuch great things as we 
cannot conlider without admiration. And whence all 
this, but becaufe their Faith was flirting and active, not 
lazy and languishing like ours 3 which is only a Carkafi 
of belief without any foul of life and vigor in it : other- 
wile we (hould foon find in our felves what the fame Au- 
thor elfewhere affirms, that nothing is available like Faith 
when it is working, working by love, which is ever 
impatient and reftlefs till it attains what it defires. Who 
then, or what power is able to refill: it ) not the power of 
the whole world : this is it that overcotneth the xcorld y 
even your fiitk^ John v. 3. no nor the power of any 
thing elfe, credenti omnia font poffibilia, to him that 
believes all things are poffible, faith our Saviour : And 
therefore if ever thele things be impoffible to thee, if thy 
Faith be fo weak that it cannot difpoffefs thee of thy wick- 
ed fpirits and work thofe fpiritual miracles on thy Soul, it 
is a greater miracle if ever it fave thy Soul. For true Faith 
purifies the heart, and cleanfeth the very reins, and is 
afluredly dead, if it do not work powerful effects within 
us. If of unclean and covetous, of malitious, envious 
and deceitful perfons, it doth not make us pure and tem- 
perate, mild and merciful, upright and juft in our acti- 
ons 5 it is unprofitable, and (hall never juftify w 7 ith God ; 
In vvhofe account, whatfoever you think, none are ta- 
ken for believers any farther than they are^iractifec^of 
his word. He that fays he knows God and h'xtttt) his 
brother is a Iyer, faith St. John: and fu re he that fays 
he believes in God and yet forfaketh not his fins, lyes as 
loudly, and doth but abufe his own Soul 5 vainly dream- 
ing of Faith when he hath but the fhadow of it without 
truth or fubftance : and wiH be found at laft but in that 

poei i 

2 64 A Preparation for the Holy Communion, 

poor Mans cafe, who dreamt all night of treafure, and in 
the morning when he awoke was not worth a farthing. 
With that Church in the Revelation, they have a name 
that they live, and canceit they are rich^ whenas there 
it is (aid, they are blind and poor and na^ed and mife- 
rable^ and (hall fo underftand themfelvesin the end : for 
however now we pleafe our felves for a while with the 
vain opinion of our imaginary Faith, yet when we have 
flept our deep, and dreamt our dreams 5 in the morning 
when we (hall all awake from our graves and come unto 
Judgment, it will be found far otherwife than we con- 
ceived. When the [on of man cometh^ faith our Saviour 
himfelf, Jhall he find faith upon the earth ? furely yes, 
fiich as ours for the mod part is, Faith enough 5 (uch a 
fpeculative fancy that floats only in the brain never af- 
fefting the heart } (uch a prefumptuous confidence that 
can feize on mercies, negleding commands, lay hold on 
the paffion and death of a Saviour, but neither obey 
his precepts, nor imitate his life 5 of fuch Faith we doubt 
the Chriftian world will be then and now is, full as it can 
hold $ he (hall every where find it: But of that true and 
real Faith, rooting out finful affe&ions 5 of that high and 
mighty Faith, inthroned in the very heart of the Soul, 
and from thence commanding all the powers and facul- 
ties which it hath $ of that prevalent and viftorious 
Faith, conquering Sin and Satan, and treading under 
foot the glory and vanity of the whole world 5 of this (olid 
^nd fubftantial Faith, which only deferveth the name of 
Faith, and he only looks for, of this he (hall then find 
.but little in the world, as indeed there is very little now. 
.Some icattered fparks of it only there are in a few of 
our bofoms, but raked up in a great deal of embers : and 
if we take not heed, like enough to be ftifled ere we are 
aware. O preferve and colleft them carefully, blow upon 


ZJpon i Cor. xi. verfe 28. 265 

them with thy meditations and ferventeft prayers, never 
ceafe till they break forth into a flame, that may even 
fcorch thy heart with compun&ion and penitent remorfe, 
and fire thy Soul with ardent and burning affections of 
love unto God and charity to thy Brother, which are 
the reft of the qualifications wherewith you are to pre- 
pare your felves, and wherein if we (hould proceed to 
fearch and continue a ftrid examination , I am fure we 
(hould find them every way and every one as falfeas our 
Faith. For Faith is the root, and if that be corrupt, thefe 
which are the branches cannot poffibly be found. Such 
as our belief is, fuch is our Love, fuch ever our Repen- 
tance: all thefe but Cakes of one piece of Dough, and 
feafoned with the fame leaven, hypocrify, our repen- 
tance being but meer formality, our love only verbal, 
and our charity for the molt part but pride or di(gui(ed 
malice. Repentance fincere and true, we may well (ay,is fled 
with Ajlr£a to Heaven 5 or rather doubt whether there 
be any fuch matter. Sure it is but a meer word that hath 
nothing to anfwerit. Search thy felf, try others by their 
aftions, and fee if thoucanft almoft any where find it. A 
Man of an humble and a contrite heart, broken and brui- 
ted with the fight and fenfeof his fins, groaning and bleed- 
ing under the weight and burdens of his iniquities , 
changed truly, converted, regenerate. and reformed in the 
whole difpofition of his Soul, caft as it were in a new 
mould and become a new Man, a new Creature } fuch a 
one were worthy the feeing 5 but our eyes may even 
look till they tail, and no where behold him. Behold in- 
deed we may every where new things enough, but not 
new men. At thefe iblemn fcafts they can have all things 
new, but their Souls, thefe they can permit to go in their 
old cloaths, yea to grow old in the fame fins, which 
they learnt, and grew up with them in their youth. The 

M m antient 

166 A Preparation for the Holy Communion, 

antient fwearer we fee is a fwearer ftill, receive he never 
fo often. The covetous man takes the Sacrament and 
goes away no lefs covetous than he was. The malicious 
man can drink the blood of Chrift, which he filed for 
his enemies, and yet continue in the fame gall of bitter- 
nefs as before £ lupi veninnt^hpi rccedunt, Wolves they 
come, though in Sheeps cloathing, and Wolves they de- 
part faith St. Aufiin. For indeed they do but put on a 
feeming fanftity for the time, and prefently reaffume a- 
gain their old ways. And do generally deal with their 
malice and the reft of their fins, as men do with their 
beards, (have them againft a good time , but leave the 
roots behind which afterwards (hoot out the thicker. 
And this is the repentance, this is the love of which thefe 
times are full as the Moon : but for that which is (erious 
and fincere, knock at your hearts, and fee if they do not 
found as hollow as empty Casks. And for the taft, our 
love and affe&ion to God, it is no lefs verbal than that 
unto our Brother is feigned, or our repentance formal. It 
is in every Mans mouth but no where elfe : they draw 
near him with their lips, but their heart is far from him 5 
that is wholly taken up with pleafure, pride, and profit 5 
the Trinity which the world worfhips, that generally 
knows no other God but Mammon^ as it will appear if 
they fearch their thoughts, for where our treafure is, there 
are our cogitations. But the due examination of thefe 
points will require a fuller difcourfe than this time will 
afford v^hich is run out already, and therefore we muft 

1 r it to another. In the mean while befeeching God 
of his great goodnefs to give us clear eyes and under- 
ftanding Spirit?, to difcern and abhor the hypocrifie of 

: world and the deceitfulnefs of our own hearts, that 
not counted amongft thofe formal Pharifecs where- 
with thefe times abound, profeffing godlinefs, but deny- 

ZJpon i Co r. xi. verfe 28. 267 

ing the power thereof in their a&ions, which can have 
no part or communion with Chrift} but being infpired 
with a true and a living Faith rooted in love, and built 
up in charity unfeigned, we may be reckoned amongft 
thofe few which (hall be held for worthy receivers of 
thofe pledges of his love in the holy myfteries now 5 and 
beefteemed worthy to be received into the pleafures of 
his everlafting Kingdom hereafter, whereunto the fame 
God of his infinite mercy vouchfafe to bring us all, &c> 

Laus Deo in tternunt* 

M m z A 

268 A Sermon on Chrijimas day, 



O N 



Upon L u k. ii. io 5 1 1. 

And the Angel J aid unto them, Fear not : for behold, I 
bring you ty dings of great joy which ft? all be to all 

For unto you is bom this day in the City of DaVid, a. 
Sayiour, which is Chriji the Lord. 

IN the verfes precedent, the Nativity and birth of 
our Lord and Saviour is defcribed: in thefe here, 
it is proved and publifht, defcried in them by an 
Evangelift, preached and publifhed in thefe by an 
Angel} by an Angel unto Shepherds, by an Angel the 
higheft and mod excellent workmanship of God, unto 
Shepherds the meaneft and filly eft people amongft all the 
fons of men. 

So you fee already the three general parts into which 


— ———————— 1 — — — 1 — 1 < - 

Vfon Luk. ii. verfi 10, 1 1. 26a 

my Text doth branch it felf: The Preacher: the Audi- 
ence : and the Sermon : The Meffenger : They to whom 
the Meffage is fent : and the Meffage it felf: The meflage 
or Sermon (for fo the Angels word imports, Evange- 
l/zo vubis, I preach or publifh unto you) is the birth of 
our Lord and Saviour. The Audience Shepherds : the 
meffenger or publiftier of it, an Angel. Thefe are the 
main or principal parts. Two other there are which are 
acceffary : for his meffage is high and of great impor- 
tance : his Audience mean and fearful, affrighted with 
his prefence : the one deferves a preface of honour, the 
other a word of comfort : firft therefore he chears up 
the Shepherds and magnifies his meflage : before he will 
deliver //, he chears up them, Fear not : and magni- 
fies that, behold I bring you ty dings of great joy which 
foall be to all people. So have you thefe Five. i. A 
Meffage. 2. And that Meffage magnified. 3. An Audi- 
tory. 4. And that Auditory comforted. 5. Both per- 
formed by an Angel. And the Angel faid unto them, 
&c. there is the Preacher and his audience : Fear not, 
&c. there is the Audience and their comfort : Behold I 
bring,&c. there is the extolling of the Meflage: For unto 
you is born this day, there is the meffage it felf. And 
this meffage again hath divers parts, fome more fubftan- 
tial, as the Birth it felf and the Titles and Attributes of 
the perfon born. Threein Number, a Saviour, c£r//?,the 
Lord, Others it hath that are Circumftantial, as the time 
when, hodie to day r the place where, in the City of 
Divid: md the perfons for whom, For you, vobk, for 
unto you, ^c. Thefe are the parts of the meflage-: 
and the Prefice that magnifies it, hath no fewer particu- 
lars : r. ft is News : 2. News of joy : 3. Of great joy: 
4. Great joy to all people, all that are or ever (hall be. 
That jfjj// be,&c. 5, And thefe all well ufhcrcd in with 
aa Ecce of admiration and attention. Behold, Thefe two, 


2 70 A Sermon on Chrijlmas day, 

the meflage and the magnifying of it, are the main parts 
of this days ccUbrity and fokmnity, and therefore. they 
are full,and have many branches : the other three, the Au- 
dience, their Comfort and the Angel Preacher that gives 
it, are of leis importance, and fo are but fingle points brief- 
ly delivered. And the Angel f aid unto the?/t^ Fear not. 
But we mud begin with thefe,though the lefler, as the Text 
doth : and firft with the Preacher or publifher of the Na- 
tivity, an Angel, dixit Angelas, And the Angel Jaid.&c. 
And right and fit it was that an Angel fhould fay it : he is 
an high and excellent creature, and his miniftry hath ever 
been juftly ufed in high and excellent a&ions.Now of all the 
aftions and operations external of the divine power,the beft 
and thegreateft, the higheft andmoft excellent,the wifeft 
and moft wonderful is the Incarnation,and birth of the Son 
of God. The other eminent a&s of goodnefs and power 
manifefted either in his life or death, refurredtion or a£ 
cenfion, they do all depend on this which is the ground 
and foundation of them all 3 therefore queftionlefs as it 
is the greateft benefit the world ever knew, fo is it the 
greateft work that God ever did : wherein God is made 
man, and man become God 5 God and man, becoming 
but one perfbn. Such a generation as this who Jljall de- 
clare it, faith the Prophet Ifaiah $ who (hall preach and 
publifh it indeed ? furely no creature in the world is ab- 
solutely fit - yet fince it muft be done by fome, none fo fit 
as an Angel, the beft of his- Creatures, to preach and pro- 
claim the Nativity, the beft of his works. The Angel 
/aid, and he had no fooner faid it, but a multitude of 
Angels receive and applaud it, with a hyinn of glory. 
Gloria m exalfis, Glory be to God on high : one Angel 
preaches and a Quire of Angels fing praifes. So the 
whole fervice of this day both Sermon and Anthem, by 
Angels all. So great is the day we now celebrate and the 
benefit we are now to treat o£ And it were to be wifti- 


Vpon Luk. ii. verfe. io., 1 1. 271 

ed it might ftill be preached by the tongue of that Angel 
which firft publilhed it. But yet fince it hath pleafedGod 
to impofe it upon finful men, we muft perform it as well 
as we may 5 but ftill remembring you, that though we 
do it, 'tis a theam in it felf fitter for an Angel. The Angel 
faid,/'//// unto them. 

And what were they ? in the verfes precedent you may 
fee : Shepherds, they were watching over their Focks. 
What a fall is here ? The beft news the world ever heard, 
the greateftmyfterie God ever wrought, fit to be uttered 
by no tonge but an Angel's, the higheft of his Creatures, 
now in this ftate to be preached and publifhed to none 
but Shepherds, the loweft and meaneft of the people? 
what congruity is therein this? The Cuftom of the world 
in cafe of News great and extraordinary, efpecially ty- 
dings of Joy, is to poft with it to great and extraordi- 
nary perfons, Kings and Princes, no mans ear may have 
a tafte till theirs be firft poffefled with it. And furely 
this, if ever any, was News fit for a King and the grcateft 
King. Why is it then delivered unto Shepherds ? why is 
it not fent to Cefar Auguftus the Monarch of the Earth, 
now fending forth his Edift for the defeription of the 
whole world ? why doth not the Angel hye him unto 
Cy renins his Prefident,or to Herod his King of the Jews? 
why goeth he not unto the high Priefts, to the Scribes and 
Pharifecs, that fate in Mofes Chair? or to fome other of 
the Grandees and Magnificoes of the world? why unto 
none of thefe ? why ? but becaufe men have one Cuftom 
and God another : they look to the great, to the good : 
men refpeft the high and mighty 5 but God regards the 
humble and meek : Efpecially in his divine Revelations 5 
Ithanl^ thee Father, Lord of heaven and earthy that 
thou hafl hid theje things from the wife and prndent 
and revealed them unto babes, Ltti(.x.2i. This is his 
Cuftom, net many w/fc according to the fiefi j not many 

Wight j, 

2 7 2 A Sermon an Chriflmas day y 

mighty, not many noble are called $ butGod hath chofen 
the foolifly, the weak^ and the bafe things of the world 
to confound the wife and mighty , 1 Cor. 1.2 6. No 
marvel therefore, faith St. Antbrofe, if in the firft publi- 
cation of the grace of Chrift, God did rather refpeft in- 
nocence than power, and the fimplicity of Shepherds 
than the pride and imperioufnefs of Kings. It was not a- 
mifs then that Shepherds they were, mean Men, Men of 
an humble Spirit, of an innocent and contemplative 
life, it was not amifsl fay, in this regard, if but to (hew 
the ufe of God whofe manner it is ever to refift the 
proud and (hew grace unto the humble 5 but it agreed 
well too, in other refpe&s. He that was now born was 
fent to the loft Sheep of the hou(eof//5W,and it was but 
right that Shepherds were made acquainted with that 5 
to (hew fpiritual Paftors their duty, who firft receive 
the Gofpel, that they may preach it to others } and the 
flocks their obedience, not to adhere to their own Re- 
velations, but to receive their doftrine ordinarily at the 
hands of their Teachers, for to (hew this, tTie Gofpel was 
firft juftly preached unto Shepherds. Befides, it was the 
birth of a Shepherd that he came to tell : the Shepherd 
that wasfo long ago prornifed: Behold I will raife yon 
up afoepherd^ Ezek. xxxv. 25. he is now born, the chief 
fiepherd^ I Pet. v. 4. the great fhepberd^ Heb. xiii. 20. 
the goodfiepherd that gave his life for his flock, John x. 
1 1. It was but juft then to tell Shepherds of the birth of 
a Shepherd, and the news fitted them well : rightly there- 
fore dixit illis^ he (aid unto them. 

But ftill faid he not his errand prefently 5 they were 
not in cafe to receive it. The appearing of the Metfenger 
hath fo frighted them, that they are not capable of the 
meffage'. If he now tell it, they may chance not to hear 
it : or if hear, not regard it. And therefore before he go 
vith his news, he doth firft fettle their minds for re- 

ZJpon Lu K.ii. verfe 10^ 1 1. 273 

ceiving it with a nolite timcre, fear not. Afraid then they 
were, and fure they might well fear. It was in the depth 
of night, and the Angel appeared fuddenly and in great 
glory, the glory of the Lord fhined round about them. 
They were but Shepherds, no marvel if fuch fear atfuch 
and fo unexpefted a fight } better men than they and o- 
ther manner of pcrfons have been troubled at the ap- 
proach of an Angel though in the day time. Z a chary 
though a juft perfon that walked in all the command- 
ments of God without reproof} though a Prieft, though 
in the Temple and miniftring there : The Virgin Mary 
whom all generations muft call ble(fcd, though a Virgin, 
though the beft of Women, though feparatedand fan&i- 
fied for the Mother of God, yet (as you may read in the 
very Chapter before this) at the appearance of an Angel 
they are afraid both 5 and both comforted, as thefe here, 
with a noli timere, by the Angel, fear not Zachary,\. 
13. fear not Mary, v. 30. And the like might be (hown 
of divers others j fo general it was to fear at the appear- 
ing of an Angel, that fcarce ever any Angel appears but 
with this falutation of fear not, feven times (as a learned 
Man obferves) we read it in this very Gofpel. But whence 
is it, and how comes it about ? Timere ubi non eft ti- 
mor, to fear where no fear is, argues a guilty Confer- 
ence, but thefe were innocent and juft perfons, why then 
do they fear the Meffengers of their comfort? Sure 
though fome may be more innocent than others, yet it is 
not fo abfolutely right as it ought to be in any. None 
fo good and unreproveable in the fight of Men } but yet 
they may be confeious of fomething more or lefs within 
themfelves. But (ay they were not 5 fuppofe them free 
from aftual fin, yet they cannot be freed from natural 
infirmity occafioned by the firft original fin : which A- 
dam hadnofooner committed but he was afraid of God 
himfelfwhen he appeared, and hid his head inabufr* 

N n 

2 74 A Sermon on Cbrijtmas day, 

as foon as he heard his voice in the Garden. And ever 
fince all the Sons of Adam have been afraid at the 
appearing of any Meflcnger or receiving of any meflage, 
from that Divine Majefty. Two things therefore it ar- 
gues 5 fir ft, that our nature is fallen from her firft original $ 
that her primitive excellence and dignity is gone ; fince 
he (faith Stella) who was framed and created to behold 
the Glory of God, cannot now endure the afpcft of one 
of his Angels. And fecondly, befides weaknds it argues 
fomcthing of wickednefs $ and (hews all is not right : Hea- 
ven and we are not in the terms we fhould be,not the beft 
of us all. Angels are Meffengers from Heaven, what ty- 
dings they bring good or bad, we know not ? and there- 
fore we fear, becaufe we know not : a plain fign all is 
not well between Heaven and us, that upon every com- 
ing of an Angel we prefagc to our felves no better news 
from thence 5 but ftill are afraid of the meffages and Mef- 
fengers that come from that place. Since then it befell 
fo great Saints, it might well be the cafe of poor Shep- 
herds in this cafe to be afraid $ and being afraid they 
muft be comforted, or the meffage will hardly be recei- 
ved : fear being in the mind, nothing elfe can well enter: 
fitly therefore before he pours in the one doth he leek 
tocaft out the other with a nolite timere, And the, &c. 
But fear is not fo eafily caft forth, it is pUnus confter- 
nationis affditts, a tenacious affection full of diftraftion 
and confirmation, and will not prefently be thrown out 
with a couple of words. Comfortable words they are in- 
deed, and may well ferve to ftay their minds and colled 
their fpirits 5 but not throughly to ejeft their fear. To 
effeft this, fomethingmoreis required than bare words. 
It is not enough to fpeak them, but he muft give a reafon 
ior them too, that would have them prevail. And what 
better reafon not to fear, than to (hew them there is no 
reafon of their fear ? Timor eft expe&atio mali^ fear is 


ZJfon Luk. ii. verfe 10^ 1 1. 275 

the expectation of evil, and here is no evil towards, no- 
thing but good, and good not towards, butprefent} that 
were but tydings of hope, this is of joy and great joy to 
them and to all the people befides. And this is a nolitc 
timere indeed } a fear not, to the purpofe, not barely 
propounded, but backed with a reaion of power to de- 
ft roy it : for behold, &c. 

Wherein the Angel doth at once, as difpel their paffi- 
on, fo with an honourable Elogy advance and magnifie 
his own meffage before he will deliver it : he pours it not 
forth prefently 5 but fends a preface of ftate before to 
ufher it in with reverence and regard. And every de- 
gree that is in it (for you fee it hath many) joy, great joy, 
common joy, and every degree I fay in it is, as a comfort 
to the Shepherds and diminution of their fear, fo an 
ecce of admiration and attention unto his errand : for 
Ecce, Behold, 8cc. ecce eji vox adtuirantis, it is ever 
commonly the watch-word to a wonder : atleaft. is feldom 
fet but as a note or mark upon things of greateft impor- 
tance, and fuch as require our fpecial regards. And in- 
deed what do Men regard fo much as news, rare and ad- 
mirable events ? who grows not ereft, what ear is not 
open and attent to receive them > And fiich here is this, 
no ordinary and trivial matter, every day to be feen and 
met withall \ but news it is,unufual and unheard of it is, 
which you are called to behold. Behold I bring you ti- 
dings, ftrange tidings indeed of a ftrange birth full of 
prodigies and wonders } wherein the Antient of days is 
become a fwadlcd child 5 and he who is the Son of God 
without a Mother, now made the Son of a Woman 
without a Father ^ a ftrange Woman too, that is both a 
Mother and a Virgin, nay at once both Mother of her 
own Father, and the Daughter of her own Son. For 
fiich a Mother (he muft needs be, that is the Mother of 
Cod. W'here is Solomon with his nihil novum fab pie, 

N n 2 there 

276 A Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

there is no new thing under the Sun > fure here are many- 
new things which the Sun never faw nor the world ever 
heard of before 5 and therefore a greater than Solomon 
is here: of whom Jeremy fpake when he (aid, creavit 
QoMinus novum fiper t err am \ anew thing hath the 
Lord created upon the earth, a woman Jhall compafs a- 
bout a tnav^ Jer. xxxi. News then it is, and that ftrange 
and admirable-^ but yet if it be as well good as ftrange, 
as well beneficial to us as wonderful in it felf, we much 
more willingly behold m Do fo then, for it is both 3 
both news and good news y tidings and tidings of joy } 
great joy too.} for behold I bring you tidings of great 
joy. Joy for the benefit and honour 5 great joy for the 
great benefit and honour we reap by it. Such as the few- 
el is, fuch is the fire £ and as the benefit is, fuch (hould be 
the joy. Never fuch a benefit, never fo great honour to 
us and our nature , never, therefore fo great caufe of joy : 
nay,never any caufe of joy at all but m this, or at lead in 
the hope of this. Set it afide,and nothing but argument of 
wo and lamentation through the whole world to be feen. 
All mankind without it utterly loft in everlafting forrow$ 
and the whole frame of Nature and whatfoever is within 
the compafs of it fubjeft to malediction too, for their 
fakes , and therefore could do nothing but groan and 
travel in pain together with /ar, as the Apoftle fpeaks^ 
Rom. viii. whofe cafe is well expreffed in the Pfalm^ for 
we a\\ ftte in the region of death and darknefs, and 
quale gaudium iis qui in tenebris fedent, and what joy 
hath he that fits in the dark, faid blind Tobe unto the An- 
gel > But that is not all, we were faft bound too in mife- 
ry and iron : bound with the chains of our fins, and (hut 
up to condemnation under the Law, as in a Prifonof mi- 
icry, and quale gandium ? what joy unto fuch, not on- 
ly in darknels but in chains, chained both in darknefs 
und mifery ? This was our. cafe, and in. this cafe to tell 


ZJfon L u k. ii. verfe. 10,, 1 1. 277 

men now ofa glorious light, of a rifing Sun that fbould 
fhine into their darknefs $ and not only To, but to tell 
them ofa ftrange deliverer alio born into the world, to 
give them liberty a; well as light (for light without liber- 
ty would ferve them only to fee their own mifery)ofa 
mighty deliverer indeed that both coulJ and would 
break the gates of Brafs and fmite the bars of Icon in fori - 
der, and fo open the Prifon to the miferable Captives, 
quale gaudium hoc, how great were this joy, the joy 
ofthefe tidings \ And thefe are the joyful tidings the An- 
gel now brings, well therefore may he term them tidings 
of joy and great joy by which we are delivered from' 
darknefs and mifery, utter darknefs and evcrlafting mi- 
fery. Behold £ bring yon tidings of great joy. Joy then 
there is in It, and great joy, yet this is not all that is in 
it, 'tis publick joy too, and that is fomething more. Great 
joy there may be, and we fee there often is, which yet 
concerns but a very few : others in the mean while may 
wail and mourn. This is not fuch, but as it is great in it 
(elf, fo it fprcads and diffufeth it felf unto manv, to all v 
omni popnlo, to all the people. Behold, <&c. And well 
fare that joy where it is merry with all : every good 
heart will like it the better, bonum quo commnnins eo 
melius, for the better it is, ever whatsoever is good, the 
more general it is: This is a degree beyond general, it 
is univerfal joy \ a joy that runsthrough the univerfe and. 
affects the whole world. And the world may well won- 
der at it. It never faw, I am fure never could give any 
the like. As our Saviour (aid of his peace, fo he might 
Well fay of this his joy, nonficut wundus dat guudinn^ 
not as the world givcrii joy fo give I joy, the world is 
poor and beggarly, and cannot give to one but it mull: 
take from another, cannot make one rich, but it muft 
impovcriih another, cannot advance one, but it muftde- 
prefa another^ and, therefore cannot give joy to one, 


78 A Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

but it muft give forrow to another. This is the condi- 
tion of the world, and all worldly joy 5 The Conquerer 
celebrates his triumph , and the vanquifht lament their 
mifery $ The heir joyes and rejoyceth in his inheritance, the 
poffeffor dies weeping and mourning that he muft leave 
it. The advanced afcends merrily unto his feat of dig- 
nity, whilft his predeceflbr tumbles from thence with 
forrow into his own ruin. Run through all the glory 
of this prefent life, and fee if you can any where find 
any man happy whereto felicity doth not arife out of 
anothers mifery 5 and whofe joy is not built upon ano- 
ther mans forrow : and therefore if fome be merry, fome 
muft be fad : if fome laugh, others muft weep: if fome 
rejoyce, others muft mourn : no joy in it to all the 
people : Non vox hominem fonat y it is not the con- 
dition of humane felicity this, neither can it fpring out 
of the Earth 3 an Angel muft bring it from Heaven, from 
thatGod who is truly rich and ofunexhaufted bounty, able 
alone to fill fome without any diminution or emptying of 
others. Yea to fill all and leave none empty. Only ex- 
inanivit femeUpfum, it pleafed him to empty himfelf of 
his honour this day, by affuming our flefti, that we and 
our nature might be replenifht with it : he made himfelf 
poor lying in a manner among brute beafts, that his 
poverty might redound unto the riches of the world 3 
and make men who for want of underftanding might 
well be compared unto the beafts that perifti , in know- 
ledge and goodnefi too, like the Angels of God that ftand 
about his Throne, unlefs themfelves refufeit. And this 
is the ty dings of joy the Angel here now brings, true joy 
indeed and publick joy, Chriftmas joy right, gaudium 
omni popular Joy unto all the people 5 to all that will 
but entertain and embrace it } to all that do not wilfully 
rejed and refufe it. To fuch indeed this joy (hall be 
turned into forrow. but that is their own fault. If when 


Vfon Luk. ii. verfe 10, 1 1. 279 

the Prifon is open'd,any of the captives be enamoured of 
their own mifery, and ftill love darkneft more than light, 
they may queftionlefs perifh in it ^ but then they may 
thank none but themfelves^ it was ftill matter of joy 
that a pafiage was made, and they might have come forth 
if themfelves would. We muft ftill diftinguifh between 
the event of a thing unto obftinate men, and Gods in- 
tention of it in his own mercv : which though feme men 
abufe to their hurt and forrow; vet the news of it in it 
felf is news of joy unto all, to all the people, to all that 
then were, and to all that ever lhall be, quod erit omni 
populo, which flail be to all people, &c. Not only it is joy 
which is unto the pre(ent age, unto all the men of that 
or any one time, but which fhall be unto all ages and 
generations fucceifively unto the worlds end, and there- 
fore (he that now brought forth the blefled tydings which 
the Angel here delivers, all generations, iaith the Scrip- 
ture, Jljall call her bleffed. And this is our comfort, it is 
the word of tenure by which we hold, that it (hall be to 
all people. But this good Erit, that (hall be, is not re- 
ferved only to omnt populo all the people that fhall be; 
but may be read with the joy that goes before, gaudium 
quod erit, joy which fhall be} not joy which is for a while, 
and then vaaifheth ; but which (hall be for ever and ever,e- 
verlafting joy.And this gives us one degree more in the joy. 
For joy though never fo great in it felf, though publick 
and common unto never fo many, yet if it abided) is 
but aperifhingandtianlient joy : but if great, publick, and 
permanent too then tiscompleat and abfolute joy indeed ; 
when it is gwdium quod eji & erit, joy which is and 
which (hall be 5 ifc\t is none but Chrifts joy, a joy which 
none can take from us. The worlds joy is, quod rfi,d> non 
erit, a joy which is, but which fhortly fhall not be, but a 
flaffa, but a blaze, quickly kindled but as fuddenly out. 
Invicem cedunt dolor & voluptas : Joy and grief, like 


280 A Sermon on Chriflmas day y 

day and night, take their turns in this life, and mutually 
ever expel one another. They are clean contrary, yet, like 
twins, they are bred in the fame bowels, wherein though 
they fometimes ftruggle as Jacob and Efau did who (hall 
firft come forth, yet the advantage of precedence is but 
little, when the latter is not fo far behind but he hath ever 
hold of the formers heel : like Aftors in a Tragedy, fo 
they play their parts on the Stage of this world 5 when 
one goes off, the other enters 5 and though joy begin 
the Prologue^ the Cataftrophe ever (huts up in forrow. 
All our pleafiires though never fo fweet in the mouth 
proving, as the Wifeman fpeaks, but gall and wormwood 
in the belly } and fometimes rottenneft in the bones. It is 
therefore gaudium quod eft, only a joy that is, but (hall 
quickly ceafe to be : a joy which like the winter Sun 
may rife glorioufly, but is foon overcaft with clouds of 
difcontent, and muft fet ere long in a night of forrow : a 
long night unto fome that (hall never fee morning. Only 
Chrifts joy, the joy which the Angel here brings, Chrift- 
mas and Chriftian Joyjsgaudium quod eritjL joy which is, 
and which (hall be } which is begun here and (hall be perfect- 
ed and accomplifhed for ever hereafter: when we (hall fit 
down at the right hand of God, where are plea fares for 
evermore. So now you have all unto the full,great joy,pub- 
lick joy, permanent and perpetual joy 5 nothing more can 
be added to make it fuller or greater } it hath already all the 
dimenfions of grcatnefs,height,length,breadth and depth} 
As deep as Hell from whence it delivers 5 as high as the 
higheft Heavens whither it will bring us^ broad as the 
whole Earth fpreading unto all people, that have or do 
inhabit it or ever (hall 5 and long as etfrnity can make it, 
whereinto it runs: joy which (hall be for evermore. Well 
did it deferve that Ecce of admiration fet up in the top of 
it, as a burning Beacon to draw all eyes and affedtions 
towards it. Behold 1 bring ypu % &c. 


■ I ' ■ ■ ' 

ZJpon L u k. ii. verfe 10, ii. 281 

But this is but the Preface : proceed we now unto that 
wherein all this Joy doth confift,and whereof it is fpoken : 
the meflage or fermon it felf : whofe whole fubjeft is the 
blefled birth of our Lord and Saviour we this day Cele- 
brate, For unto you^ &c» Wherein there are three Cir- 
cumftances of the birth, where, when and for whom: Vn- 
to you is bom this day in the City of David: And 
three Titles, or Attributes of the Perfon born, a Savi- 
our which is Chrijl the Lord. The Circumftances are firft 
placed, but the parts of fubftance muft be firft handled : 
both becaufe they are more worthy in themfelves, and 
alfo have nearer reference unto the joy precedent and 
the three degrees of exaltations of it : whereunto thefe 
three titles do fitly anfwer and correfpond : the joy was 
great, publick, permanent, and now we fee the reafon : 
Great Joy? for a Saviour is born : public^ joy^ for that Sa- 
viour is Chrift: permanent and perpetual joy ', for that 
Chrift is the Lord 5 the Lord of eternity that only can 
give eternity to our Joy. And briefly of them all : 
but firft of the firft Attribute of him which is a Sa- 

1. And fure if ever any, this istydings of great Joy, i e 
tydings of a Saviour : no joy in the world to the joy 
of a man faved. We our felves acknowledge it in other 
matters 5 If it concerns the faving of our skin, of our 
goods, of our life, or the like, how do we rejoyce in 
fuch Saviours ? Let a man under the Law in cafe of a 
loft man, caft and condemned, expecting nothing but ex- 
ecution : and then let a Saviour come to him with a par- 
don, and fee if it be not a welcome meflage 5 if he think 
it not the joyfullcft tydings that he ever heard. But 
beloved we have Souls too, and they are our better parts 
by far, and the forrows of that death they arc fubjeft 
to, great and more lafting : And if the faving of a peri- 
lling tranfitory life ot living, be fo precious unto us, 

O o how 

282 A Sermon on Cbrifimas day, 

how full of Joy would the birth of a Saviour be, for them 
that otherwife muft die for ever in perpetual torments ? O 
when it concerns the lofs of Heaven and danger of Hell, 
when the Soul is at ftake, and the well doing or undoing 
of it for ever 5 Confider it right,and in this cafefure no joy 
to the joy of a Saviour. But we do not confider it, at leaft 
not throughly, and that is the reafon it affe&s us (6 little. 
To fpiritual things we are dull and dead, but quick and 
fenfible in carnal : and as it feems, more apprehenfive of 
our ficknefs, than our fins, of the faving of our goods 
and bodies, than of the lofs of God or perifhing of our 
Souls. Otherwife the preferver of thofe wifhes would 
not be welcomed with fuch joy, and the Saviour of thefe 
which are infinitely better, fo coldly efteemed. Certainly 
could we but fee our fins in the true fhape, and behold 
with our eyes the (brrows they deferve, and our fouls 
muft fuffer for them } were we permitted a while to look 
into that fearful pit, whereunto we are condemned, and 
take a view of the horror that is in it, A Saviour from them 
and from thence would be fomething better regarded. 
But however we efteem it not now, when the deftru&i- 
on is too far off us to affeft us 5 yet the time will come 
Jer. xxx. when it (hall, In noviffitno inteUigetis plane, in the end, 
faith Jeremyjje (hall clearly underftand. In the end indeed, 
in that fad and fearful day, when the deftru&ion fhall ap- 
proach and the deftroyer fhall come, when tribulation and 
anguifh fhall be upon every Soul that hath done evil } when 
they (hall cry unto the Rocks and Mountains to fall upon 
them,and hide them from the pretence of the Lord and the 
wrath to come 5 then indeed when we (hall find the want 
of a Saviour, we (hall plainly underftand this, and value 
the benefit and joy of it as we ought, and know and find 
that there is no joy in the earth to the joy of a Saviour. 
2 - A Saviour that is the firft: the Angel addeth for a dif- 
ference, which is Chriji 5 to diftinguifh him from all other 



ZJfon L a k. ii. verfe 10^ 1 1. 283 

Saviours. For othersthere were many bom, and fent un- 
to them at divers and fevcral times to deliver them from 
particular and feveral diftrcfles. As Mojes, JoJh*4 t Gi- 
dcon.Jcphta, shamgar, Sawp [on, and the reft in the Book 
of the Judges $ which indeed is nothing elfe but a Cata- 
logue of Saviours which the Lord at fundry times raifed 
up to free and avenge them of their enemies. Thefe were 
Saviours all in their kind,and joy there was in them, and 
great joy too in their times and to that Nation, but no 
univerfal joy : they were but petty and particular Savi- 
ours. One there was yet behind, that was worth them 
all, one that fhould fave his people from their fins 5 (ave 
not their bodies for a time, but their Souls forever 5 which 
none of thefe Saviours could do. And therefore a pub- 
lick , general and univerfal Saviour, of whom all had 
need, as being all (inners : one much talked of, and long 
expe&ed , the great and famous Saviour of all 5 fach 
a one was behind : And now he is come , this is he , 
the Saviour which is chriji^ &c. He of whom all 
Prophecies made mention , and he the performance .of 
them all 5 of whom all the Types under the Law were 
(hadows, and he the fubftance of them all : of whom all 
the Prophecies ran , and he the fulfilling of them all ; 
he of whom all thofe inferiour Saviours were figures and 
forerunners, and he the accomplifhment of all that in 
them was wanting. 

This is he, Jacobs Shilo, Efa/s Emmanuel^ Jeremy's Gen. xlix. 
Branchy Daniels A ejfias, Aggais dcflderatus cuts&is IO - 
gent i bus ^ the defire of nil the nations, the dejire of them w' xxiii 4 ' 
then, and now the j oy of all nations, Gaudium omni $. 
populo, the joy of all people, a Saviour which is Chrift. Djn ix - 2 5- 
And this, this univerfality of joy is comprifed in the hSjJlJJ 
very name, for Chrift fignifics anointed, and that is as 
much as S. John delivereth in other terms, a Saviour feat- 
ed, John vi. 27. for by anointing, Kings and Priefts and 

O o 2 Prophets 

2 84 A Sermon on Chriftmas day y 

Prophets in old time were deputed, figned and fealed, as 
it were, to their feveral offices, and received power and 
commiffion to execute thofe high fun&ions. 

So then a Saviour he is, not as thofe others were raifed 
up uponafudden, upon fome occafion toferve the pre - 
fent, and never heard of till they came 5 but a Saviour 
in Gods forecounfel refolved on and given forth from the 
beginnings promifed and foretold and now anointed 
and fent with abfolute commiffion and fulnefs of power to 
be a perfeft and complete Saviour of all, a Saviour which is 
Chrift That is, a Saviour ex officio^ whofe office and very 
profeffion is to fave : that all may have right to repair unto 
him and find it at his hands 5 not a Saviour incidently,as it 
fell out, but one ex profejjo anointed to that end, . and 
by vertue of his anointing appointed, let forth and fent 
into the world of purpofe to execute this funftion of a 
Saviour : not to the Jews only, as did the reft, but to all 
the ends of the earth. Soruns his commiffion unto his 
Difciples, ite in univerfum orbem^ go into, the whole 
world and preach the Gofpel, omni Creature to every 
Creature: fo runs his own Proclamation, venite ad me 
omnes^ come unto me, and come all, Matth. xi. 28. and 
of them that do come I will caft none out, John vi. 37. 
Servator omnium hominum , the Saviour of all men, 
I Tim. \v. 4. and as the Samaritans faid of him Serva- 
tor mundi^ the Saviour of the world of Samaritans, 
Jews, and Gentiles 5 of Kings, and Shepherds and all. 
And fure this ispublick and univerfal joy, gaudium omni 
populo, joy unto all people indeed 5 for whom there is 
now a faving office erefted, one anointed to that end, a 
profeffed Saviour to whom all may refbrt. None (hall 
henceforth be to fee:k , there is a name given under Hea- 
ven whereby we may be fure of Salvation, and this is that 
name, the name Chrift, A Saviour which is born, &c. 
Two of his Attributes then we have, a Saviour which is 


ZJpon Luk. ii. verfe icx, 1 1. 285 

Chrift, that is, a Saviour and a publick Saviour 5 but he 
muft be a perpetual Saviour too,, otherwife our joy will 
not be full. Though it be great, though it be general, 
though it be general to all people 5 yet it will fade and 
perifb, it will not be gaudinm quod erit, joy which [hall 
be lafting, everlafting joy, none can give that but an e- 
ternal and everlafting Saviour : And he that will be fuch, 
muft be fomething more than Chrift : fo therefore he is a 
great deal more, Chrifius Dominu^ Chrift the Lord. 

Not a Lord that is particular, and hath reference to a 
private title, whereof he is Lord 5 Lord of this or that 
place, or people, and the like : but the Lord, which is 
abfolute, and univerfal, without any addition : you may 
put to it what you will,Lord of Heaven and Earth,of Men 
and Angels } Dominus Chrijlornm, £> Doming domi- 
noruw, Lord paramount over all : fuch was this Saviour, 
and fuch it behoved him to be \ not only Chrift, that 
name will fort with Men, yea it is his name as Man only, 
for God cannot be anointed. But he that would fave 
the world, muft be more than Man, and (o more than 
Chrift. Indeed Chrift cannot fave us, he that muft fave 
us, muft be Chrift the Lord, and none but the Lord, ego 
[Hm i ego fuw^ faith God himfelf, and pr<eter me non eft 
Servator, it is I, it is I who am the Saviour, I am, and be- 
fides me there is no Saviour 5 none indeed, no true Sa- 
viour but theLord,all otherarefhort^tfa/i/* / hominis, 
Mans Salvation is vain, faith the Pfalmift, any Salvation is 
vain, if it be not the Lords,though they be Chrifts, as Kings 
and Princes are, who are Gods anointed, yet they can- 
not fave. Truft not in Kings and Princes, for nan eft 
falus, there is no falvation, no, no health nor help in 
them, their breath departs, and they return to the earth. 
For though they are Chrift j, yet they are but Chrifti 
Domini, the Lord's Chrifts, and we (hall never arrive at 
full and perfeft Salvation, till we come to Chnfins Do- 


2 86 A Sermon on Chrift mas day, 

Minus Chrift the Lord. All the help and Salvation which 
thofe other Chrifts and Saviours can afford, doth but con- 
cern the body 5 that indeed they may fometimes kill or 
fave at their pleafure 5 but not one of them can quicken 
his own Soul, much lefs give a ranfome for anothers 5 it 
coft more to redeem it than fo, and he muft let that alone 
for ever : let it alone for this Chrift whofe work it is, 
Chrift the Lord that only can fave both Body and Soul, 
his own and other Mens too. Secondly,thofe other Chrifts 
which are not the Lord, as they fave only the Body 5 
fo can they fave' only from bodily and corporal enemies : 
but we had need of a Saviour from ghoftly adverfaries, 
from fpiritual wickedneffes in high places, a Saviour that 
might wraftle with principalities and powers, and triumph 
over them too } and no Chrift may do this but Chrift the 
Lord, the Lord of power and might, only able to bind 
the ftrong Man in his own houfe, and fpoil him of his 
goods : of power alone to deftroy Abaddon the great 
deftroyer of the bottomlefs pit. Thirdly, thofe other 
Chrifts as they fave but from corporal enemies 3 fo but 
from worldly calamities, from debts,and arreftsand prifons 
and the like penalties of their own Laws, But who fhall 
deliver us from fin, and death, and hell ? From fin the 
grand debt of mankind, from death the univerfal Ser- 
geant of all flefti, and from Hell the everlafting prifon of 
Body and Soul ? For thefethey can give no prote&ion, 
they are all fubjeft unto them themfelves, for breaking a 
higher law, the eternal law of the Almighty which no o- 
ther can fatisfy for, but a Chrift as Almighty, Chriftus 
Dominus Chrift the Lord. Laftly, all other Chrifts or 
Saviours whatfbever, as they fave but in few things and 
thofe only corporal, and worldly ^ fo in them they fave 
but for a little while 5 which is but a reprieve rather than 
a faving 5 for long they cannot fave others, that fb quick- 
ly perifh themfelves. Evermore they die, they drop away 


ZJponL u k. ii. verfe 10, 1 1. 287 

ftill, and leave their favourites and followers to feek: but 
it is not a (hort refcue for a time, but a permanent and 
perpetual Salvation that we expeft for ever, and for ever 
we might expedt it at the hands of any other Chrifts, 
and not find it, becaufe they cannot endure by reafon of 
death, Heb. vii. 25. only this Chrift becaufe he is the 
Lord, Dominus vit£> the Lord of life, indureth for e- 
ver s hath an everlafting Kingdom 5 wherein he difpen- 
feth eternal Salvation which he purchafed by his Prieft- 
hood. The author of eternal S alvation to all that depend 
on him, Heb. v. 9. and mark that well, for none but the 
Lord can ^vork eternal Salvation. To fave, may agree 
unto men , thus tofave,to none but Chrift. To begin and 
toend,to fave Soul and Body from bodily and ghoftly ene- 
mies, from fin and offence, and death the puni(hment,from 
Hell the deftruftion, and Satan the deftroyer, for a time 
and for ever, Chrift the Lord is all this and doth all this. 
Now then we are right and never till now, we have all 
his attributes, a Saviour, the word of benefit,whereby he 
is to deliver us 5 Chriji^ his name of office, whereby he is 
bound to undertake it} the Lor d, his name of power, 
whereby he is able toeffeft it. Now our joy is full and 
never till now, we have all the degrees of it: whatfoe- 
ver the Angel promifed is here performed: great joy, he 
is a Saviour 5 publick joy to all people, a Saviour which 
is Chrift 5 perpetual joy, joy which (hall be even forever 
and ever , he is Chrift the Lord : the Lord who will not 
only free us from our mifery and bring us to as good and 
better a condition as we forfeited and loft by our fall 5 
(for clfc though we were faved,we (hould not fave by the 
match:) but that we may not be fa vers alone, but gainers 
and great gainers by our Salvation, eftate us in all the 
blifs and happinefs he is Lord of himfelf And Lord he is 
of life, as I faid. Life then he will impart : and he is Lord 
of glorj, 1 Cor. ii. 8." and glory he will impart: and he 


288 A Sermon on Chriflmas day, 

is Lord ofjoy^ Mat. xxv. 21. Joy then he will impart 
life and glory and joy, and make us Lord of them,and of 
whatfoever is within the name and title of Lord, even 
for ever and ever. And then it will be perfeft joy indeed 
when we (hall enter into the joy of our Lord, into that 
joy and life and glory and bleffednefs wherewith our Lord 
himfelf is eternally bleffed. Gaudium quod er/7,joy which 
(hall be indeed and never ceafe to be,everlafting,for ever- 
more. So now we have all and never till now, all his 
Attributes, a Saviour, Chrift.the Lord 5 all our joy, great, 
publick and perpetual} nay if you mark it, we have yet 
more than this : all his compofition too, two natures in 
one perfon : his humanity in Chrift, his divinity in the 
Lord : and but one Saviour of both, one Saviour which 
is Chrift the Lord,and one perfon which is Man and God. 
And juft fo it (hould be, for of right none was to make 
fatisfa&ion for Man, but Man 5 and in very deed, none was 
able to give fatisfa&ion to God, but God. So that being 
to fatisfy God for Man, he was to be God and Man : and 
fo he is : A Saviour who is Chrift the Lord. And fo he 
became this day } when though the Almighty God as this 
day he was born into the world in our nature and made 
Man. The bleffed birth of which thrice bleffed perfon, 
thus furnifhed in every point to fave us throughly, Bo- 
dy and Soul, from fin aj?id Satan, the deftroyers of both, 
and that both here and for ever : the bleffed birth of this 
thrice blelled perfon (for every word in his name is a fe- 
veral bleffing) is the very fubftance of this daysfolemnity, 
of the Angels meffage and of our joy : That which re- 
mains is but circumftance, circumftance of perfons, time 
,and places of the perfons for whom^ of the time when, 
and the place where „• yet not fo light and trivial, as may 
wholly be omitted: the Angel, the Holy Ghoft would 
not leave them unmentioned, and we may not pafs them 
.over untoucht: yet we (halibut touch them and fo con- 

Vpn Lu k. ii. verfe 10, 1 1. 289 

elude, but taking them in their order backward, begin- 
ning with the place where: where this Saviour was born, 
In the City, &c. And where (hould the Son of David 
be born, but in the City of Davids not in that City 
which David repaired, and wherein he reigned (that b 
Jerufalem, a famous City indeed) but in that City where 
David was born, which is Bethlew, a poor City, a Village 
rather than a City : And in this, this little Town did this 
great Saviour, thisChrift the Lord vouchfafe to be born, 
Indeed when he would die, he would die at Jerufalem^ 
when he was to fuffer fhame and ignominy, derifion and 
difgrace, and all manner ofdifhonour, he would fuffer it 
in the eye of the world in that great City 3 but when he 
was to be born, he would be born in Bethlem : when he 
was to be glorified by Angels and receive gifts and wor~ 
(hip from Kings and Princes 5 he would receive it in an 
obfeure and private place 5 this little Village: that fo he 
might condemn the worlds pride at his firft entrance in- 
to the world, and teach men by his very birth the firft 
point of Chriftianity, to contemn honour and embrace 
contempt. A doftrine which yet the particular place of 
his birth doth urge much more vehemently : for it was 
not only in Bethlem a poor Town, but in an Inn of Beth- 
lem and a poor Inn : fb it feems, for there was no room 
for them in it } and not fb only, but in the pooreft and 
bafeft part of the Inn, in the Stable. This was the Cham- 
ber of ftate for this great King, inftead of fweet odors 
perfumed with filth s and hung with no other Arras, 
but what was weaved by Spiders, wherein he had only 
Litticr for his Bed, a Manger for his Cradle, and an Oxe 
and an Afs for his attendants. So low did he defcend for 
our fakes, by his own example utterly to cry ddwn all 
the pomp and honour of theprefent life, than which no 
thing is of more power to deprive us of the glory of the 
life to come. What a deep humiliation hath he begun 

P p withal? 

2 yo A Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

withal ? and how ftrange a difproportion is this, between 
the titles of his perfon, and places of his birth? the Savi- 
our, Chrift the Lord to be born in Bethlem^ in an Inn, a 
Stable, a Saviour in Bet hie «?,Chrift in an Inn,the Lord in 
a Stable ? yet fo he would have it for our inftru&ion 5 yea 
and for our comfort alfo. It is not point of do&rine only, 
but matter of joy too: for joy there is in it, even that it 
was in Bethlem : Bethlem fignifies the houfe of bread, 
and bread fignifies all that we want 5 to give us our daily 
bread, is to give us whatfoever we need, whatfoever we 
need for the body , but this is fpiritual bread, and fup- 
pliesus with whatfoever we can defirefor the Soul. Joy 
and great joy in this, panis de Co>lo, bread from Heaven, 
the living bread, of which whofoever eats, (hall never 
die 5 and therefore perpetual joy too } joy which (hall 
be for ever, he fhall never die. Joy in Bethlem then: nay 
and joy there is too in the Inn, joy in the very Stable} 
and that publick joy, omni populi^ joy to all the people : 
For an Inn is downs populi^ the houfe of the people, o- 
pen and free for every Man 5 and though there maybe 
private rooms, wherein Men fort themfelves in the Inn, 
yet the Stable at leaftis publici juris ,all Men have inter- 
eft in it .° that is common. And as the place, fo is the be- 
nefit of his birth, the dew of it is as the womb of the 
morning, faith the Pfalmift, that is, his birth, from the 
womb, is as the morningdew, watering and refrefhing not 
Gideons fleece alone, the land of Jury, but the face 
of the whole Earth. And this is the/r/?, the place where. 

Thefecond circumftance is the time when, lodie this 
day, faith the Angel, for unto yon is born this day. And 
what day was this? mod think it was the firft day of the 
week, as this is, fo it will fcrve us right hodie, as this 
day 3 this very day of the week : but what day was 

pfethe year? why of all days of the year, upon the 
thorteft in the depth of winter 5 and pf all hours in that 

ZJpon Lu K.ii. verfe 10, II. 201 

day in the darkeft, for it was in the depth of night 5 andfo 
in the very point and clofeof the old week and beginning 
of the new. That as he chofe the word: and meaneft places 
for his birth 3 fo the loweft periods, and utmoft limits of 
time wherein he would be born. According to his own 
rule, vere recubuit in novijfimo loco, he every way fate 
him down in the loweft rooms. And every way is caufe 
of Joy unto us 5 for ftill we have joy in all, joy and great 
joy : that he came in that feafon in the deep of winter, 
when all things were at the word ; when all things were 
fruitlels, faplefs and even dead, for want of heat and 
comfortable influence. It refle&s on our fpiritual eftate 5 
for juft fo and fuch it was : and the Sun of righteoufnefs 
could never rife in a better feafon, in a time of greater 
need, to unthaw with his divine beams our frozen af- 
fe&ions, to give light to our minds, warmth to our de- 
votions and life to all, that fo we might become as Trees 
of the Lord, full of fap, growing up in Grace and Ver- 
tue, and bringing forth fruit unto eternal life. Joy and 
publick joy that he came on that very day, the firft day of 
the week 3 it was the firft too of the world 5 and that 
he who was to redeem the world, (hould be born into it 
on the felf fame day wherein the world was created.* 
what doth it argue but that the redemption was to be as 
univerfal as the Creation ; as the creation of this afpe&a- 
ble world that was made for man ? And therefore go into 
the univerfal world, faith our Saviour, and preach the 
Gofpel unto every Creature. Laftly, joy and perpetual 
joy that he came in that precife hour, in the deep and 
loweft bottom of the night : the Sun that can then rife 
and in that point and (hine upon us , it is impoflible it 
fhould ever fet. If our very night be turned into day, that 
day fure can never fee night : unlefs men wilfully muffle 
themfelves and turn their day again into night by put- 
ting out their own* eyes: and not to be pitied by any 

P p 2 if 

2Q2 A Sermon on Cbnjimas day, 

if they dwell in perpetual darknefs ever after. So we 
have all, all the joy and all the degrees of it in thiscircum- 
ftance too, the circumftance of time. There only re- 
mains the particular application of all which indeed is all 
in all, and you have it ia the laft point, r^//, all is for 
you, Unto y on, &c. 

There is not a word in the Text but, as you havefeen, 
hath joy in it 5 but this word hath the joy of them all, 
all the joy which is difperfed and fcattered through the 
whole, being colle&ed and united in : this -one. Before it 
was only as oyle or wine preffed out into feveral veflels: 
but this is the pipe whereiaall mud be poured and tunn'd 
up, before it will work either cheerfulnefs in the counte- 
nance or gladnefs in the heart, were the joy never fb 
much. For if it be prepared for others, if we (hall re- 
main as empty. Casks 5 quid ad zw, what is it to us? and 
what are we the better > But now all is poured forth in- 
to our own bofoms } and that we may alj filled with 
the fulnefs of it, it is particularly apply ed unto you, and 
every of you, For unto you, &c. And herein is the 
comfort of all, not that he was born for all in general, 
but for you in particular. Omni p&pulo to all the people, 
isTomething too large and univerfal, and the hundredth 
part of them (hall not receive benefit by him, and fb it 
leaves us (till in doubt : we would gladly therefore hear 
it in more reftrained terms, in terms of.fbme propriety 
that may allure us: why vobis for you,he is born for you, 
Yea now you fay fomewhat 5 And twice it is here faid for 
failing,in every verfe} once Evungehzo vobis?lbr\f\g unto 
7<?#«good>tydings, in the firft, and now Natus vobis,, 
bom unto you, in this latter, that ye may know the met 
fage r is yours and the birth is yours,:, therefore, the met 
fage is fent unto you, becaufethe birth concerneth ycu. 
So yours they be. both, both meffage and, birth, and joy 
a;id all 5 whatfcever is contained in, bpthjsj wholly yours. 


ZJponLu k. ii. verfe io> 1 i. 295 

Yours the Saviour, yours. the Chrift, yours his benefit, 
his office, his power: his benefit to fave you 3 his office 
to undertake you 5 his power to fecure you. Yours his 
falvationas}6(us,his Anointing as Chrift, his dominion as 
the Lord. For if the birth be yours, all that follows the 
birth muft be yours too : if he himfelf be yours, all that 
is his is yours alfo. And fo it is, omnia ejus veflra font, 
all that he hath is yours, Lul^. xv. 31. Now then fince 
he, and all that he hath is ours, will it not be well done 
to make our Entry, to take feifin of him, and then to 
difpofe all to our beft benefit? fo fhall we, as Bernard 
wifhethus, nti nojlro in uulitatent noftrant, & dt faU 
vatore jilutem operari, imploy or make ufe of him, for 
our beft behoof: draw his proper extrafl: from him, and 
work falvation out of this our Saviour. But how may 
that be done ? fure no way better, than as God in his in- 
finite-mercy this day gave hirru fo we this day again in all 
thankfulnefs receive him : otherwife w€ fhall but evacuate 
the gift, and dtfhonour the giver } but abufe his good- 
neft, and lofe our own benefit : For it is not fo ours, but 
by our own negleft it may be loft : For though all be 
ours, becaufe given us 5 yet nothing fhall be ours, if not 
accepted. Ours indeed he and all his are already by right 
and intereft$ but they are never throughly curs, till they 
be ours by poffeffion , and then they are ours indeed. 
Pollcflion then let us take : but how or which way fhall 
we take it ? no way fo well as in the blefled Sacrament, in 
the holy Myfteries inftituted of purpofe, and ordained 
to no other end but for pledges to allure us, and con- 
duits to convey unto us this blefled Saviour and all his be- 
nefits. There and there only we may be feifed and pof- 
fefled of both: for there and there only are both to be 
?cceived. Thither then let us approach with all reverence . 
and due regard to claim our intereft in them, and then 
beaffured it (hall never be denied : He himlelf will pre- 


.2^4 ^ Sermon on Chriflmas day, &c. 

fently meet and anfwer us with an Accipite^ Here take 
this is my body, by the offering w hereof ye are (ancli- 
fied : Take this is my blood, by the (bedding whereof ye 
are faved. Take and receive them both, and with them 
all the joyes and bleffings they both have purchafed, or 
this Text doth afford, for now after this, all are yours in 
right and yours in pofleflion 5 none can bereave you of 
them. You have the Author of all fafe enough, and faft 
enough, with you, nay within you. It is no longer now 
Na tus vobis to you is born a Saviour 3 but in vobis in 
you he is born, and in you he lives and will live for ever. 
Ye may henceforth fay with St. Panl^jam non ego vivo 
fedvivit in me chrijlus , it is not I now that live but 
Chrift liveth in me $ and if he live in us now, we (hall 
live in him for ever hereafter: For if whilft ye live, ye do 
not live but Chrift liveth in you 5 why, when ye die ye 
fhall not dye but live in Chrift, in Chrift the Lord of life 
and glory and joy 5 and with Chrift be made coheirs and 
Lords of them all,and whatfoever other bleffednefs where- 
with he himfelf is everlaftingly Bleffed. Which the Lord 
God Almighty vouchfafe unto us, for this our Saviour 
Chrift the Lords fake : who this day came to purchafe 
them for us, and to whom with the Father and the bleffed 
Spirit, three Perfons, &c. be rendred all, &c* Amen. 

Laus Deo in aternum. 





O N 



Upon G a l. iv. 4, 5. 

When thefullnefs of time was come, God fent forth his 
Son, made of a Woman, made under the Law: 

That he might redeem them that were under the Law, 
tl?at we might receive the adoption of Sons. 

THE Text begins with the fulneft of time, but 
we may well begin with the fulnefs of the Text, 
for it hath both, fulnefs of time and fulnefs of 
matter 5 the love of the Father, the humility of 
the Son, and the happinefs of man arifing from both are 
here at the full. Firft the fulnefs of the Fathers love, who fo 
loved the w#rld as Ik gave his only begotten Son. When 
the fulnefs, &c* God fent his Son , &c. Secondly the 
fulnefs of the Sons humility, not only vouchsafing to take 
on him our natureroade of a Woman,but alfbour mifcrable 


zcj6 Afecond Sermon on Chriflmas day y 

condition, undertaking to fatisfy the Law unto whofe 
condemnation we were {ubjedL^made under the L<*n?,&c. 
Thirdly and laftly, the fulnefsof our blifs and happinefs 
arifing from both, as being now ranfomed from the death 
of everlafting forrow which the Law did threaten, that 
he might redeem, &c. and not fo only, but adopted al- 
(6 unto that immortal life of glory, which the Gofpel 
dothpromife, that we might, &c. by the one we are 
freed from all evil, by the other inverted with whatfoe- 
ver is good, and both muft needs make up the fulnefi of 
happinefs, That he, &c. So thefe three are here at the 
full, and in the fulnefs of them doth confift the fulnefi 
of the whole Gofpel, whofe foundation is wholly built 
upon the Son of God fent into the world 3 of whom 
there is little to be known, and by whom there was lit- 
tle performed and fulfilled, which is not even in thefe 
veifes fully expreffed. For you have here both founda- 
tion and roof} both fubftance of the work and all the 
circumftances that belong unto it 5 and you may fee in it 
not only that he was a Saviour fent into the world (which 
is the main^ but alfo, who it was that was lent, and by 
whom,andin what manner, to what end, and in what time, 
which are neceffary adjuncts. If you demand of it, who 
it was that was fent ? it tells you the Son of God} if by 
whom? itanfwers,by God his Faihev,Godfent his Son } 
if in what manner ? it replies in a twofold 3 made and 
-made again} twice made, fadnm ex, e^ faSum fab, 
made of, and made under, made of a Woman, and made 
under the Law. If to what purpofe all this? it gives 
you a double end, which is the comfort of all, Redemp- 
tion and Adoption unto men. To them that were^&c. 
That we might, &c. Laftly, if when it was performed ? 
you have it clearly and fully in the firft words, in pie- 
mtudine temporis, in the fulnels of time. When the 
fulncfs, &c. So have you the fending, and whatfoever 


ZJpon Ga l.iv. verfe 4^ 5. 297 

may feem to belong unto it, who was fent, and by whom, 
how, and why, and when, not one the leaft circumftance 
is omitted: but you have all, fo full it is, and yet you 
have not all the fullnels. For fhould we inquire more 
particularly into the nature and perfon of this Saviour, 
here they are all three, one perfon and two natures, or 
two natures in one perfon 5 he is the Son of God, fee his 
Divinity, but of a Woman, fee his humanity: made of a 
Woman 5 fee their union in one perfon, for God cannot 
be made Man, but by making himfelf one perfon with 
Man. This for his incarnation, will you now inquire for 
the birth or nativity of the perfon fo incarnate > it's here 
too, for as he was made, fo was he fent 5 as made of a 
Woman, fo fent into the world : made of a Woman by 
incarnation, and fent into the world by birth and nativi- 
ty. God fent his fon made of a woman. Should we yet 
proceed a ftep or two farther, after his incarnation and 
birth, would you behold his life or contemplate his deaths 
fee what he did in the one, or confider what he fuffered 
in the other 5 that you may do alio, faftus fib lege^ will 
give you both. For what were the aftions of his life, 
but the keeping of the Law in himfelf? or what was the 
paffion of his death, but theTatisfying of the Law for o- 
thers that had broken it ? and in regard of either, made 
under the law, under the law to fulfil the precepts which 
it commands 5 and under the Law to fatisfy the penalty 
which it injoins. So by this time I think it is full, filled 
with the fiilnefs of the Gofpel of ]efus Chrift, whofe na- 
tures, perfon, aftions, paffion, whofe incarnation, birth 
life and death, it fully contains, vcre verbum abbrevia- 
turn, it may well be termed an abbreviated word, a viol 
of Spirits 5 a very extract, and quintcflence drawn from 
four Evangelifts, and clapt up in two verfes by an Apo- 
fde. Two verfes, which as I (aid, have but two general 
parts 5 fulnefsof time and fulnefsof matter, both tend to 

Q_ q declare 

^8 A fecond Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

declare the greatnefs of the Fathers love, the depth of 
the Sons humility,and the height of mans happineft. The 
Fathers love is full,and grows unto 'its fulnefs by two de- 
grees. He fent> and he fenl his Son. The Sons humility 
is full, and it arifeth unto its fulnefi by two degrees, 
made of a woman ,and made under the law. Mans happi- 
neft is full, and it cometh to its fulnefs alfo by two de- 
grees, Redemption and Adoptionjhat he might, or that 
we mighty &t\ If then the greateji thing the Father could 
fend (the Son) or the worji thing the Son could fuffer(the 
maledi&ion of the Law) or the beji thing men could re- 
ceive or with for (adoption of Sons) can make it full 5 it is 
full indeed and to purpofe 5 for it is filled with all thefe. 
And ofthis fulnefs we will now draw out untoyou,as much 
as the (hort time will permit, beginning firft with the ful- 
nefs ofthe time, When the fulnefs of time was come^ &c. 
All the works of God, faith the Wife man, are done 
in number, wefght and meafure, and therefore ^ftftftion- 
lefs in a juft and opportune time } For time it is tflsfdoth 
both number and meafure all his works, yea and gives 
weight unto them too: his weightieft works and greateft 
would be fomething the lighter and leffer, were they not 
defigned unto the fulleft and fitteft times. This then, as 
it exceeds all other in the greatnefs ofthe work : fo was 
it fit to receive an anfwerable fulnefs of the feafon : 
And fure the feafon mull: needs be full when fo great a 
work was poured into it, when he came to fill it, in whom 
the fulnefs of the Godhead dwells bodily. True, but yet 
the Text doth not fo much derive the fulnefs of the time 
from his coming, as kpply his coming unto the fulnefs of 
:he time : as being full nd fit to receive him. Again 
the time appointed by the f athcr, as it is a little before, 
and foretold by his Frqphel , ■ as now full come and ex- 
pired 3 this then muft needs : lefi of time. True 
?.lfo j they argue the ftdti „•£ of I . but (hortas wc mal 

ZJpon G a l iv. verfe 4^ 5. 299 

it 5 for had there not been a fulnefs and fitnefs in the 
time it felf, it had never been either appointed by the 
one or foretold by the other : though without his ap- 
pointment it came not to this fulnefs neither. True it is, 
that the wit of Man is too narrow a veflel fully to receive 
and comprehend all the reafons of this fulnefs 5 yet fure in 
that which it doth apprehend, it hath reafon enough to 
admire the wifdom of the Lord in the fitnefs of his ap- 
pointment 3 not without fpecial convenience, chufing 
out neither the firft beginning of the world nor the lafl: 
end of it, but a mid time, as it were, between both, 
when the world (hould arrive at his juft age. Not a time 
of war, but a time of univerfal peace: Not the time of a 
Common- weal , but the time of a general Monarchy : 
not of the iEquinox,but the Solftice : not in the Summer, 
but the Winter : not in the day,but in the night : for all 
thefe may be comprehended within this fulnefs, as not 
wanting their convenient fitnefs. 

Firft then upon great reafon the Lord chofe not the 
firft ages of the young world, but deferred it for fome 
thoufands of years, that being firft (hadowed in types 
and figures, and promifed by many and antient prophe- 
cies and predi&ions, his coming might be the more de- 
fired and expefted of Men 5 and himfelf the better re- 
ceived and with lefs doubt entertained when he (hould 
come. So great a myftery is the Incarnation of the Son 
of God, that unlefs his perfon and a&ions, his birth, 
death, and refurreftion, with all the particulars of either 
had been clearly and frequently for many ages foretold 
by the Prophets his forerunners, we (hould have little 
means either to perfwade it to others, or at this day to 
believe it our (elves. 

And again upon as good reafon he chofe not the end 
and laft age of the decrepit world 3 left all eyes (hould 
fail, and hope faint, in too longexpe&ation, with Where 

oo A fecond Sermon on Cbriftmas day y 

is the promife of his coming •? Rightly therefore in a point 
and period of time between both thefe} neither when 
the world was too old and doting, nor whilft it was 
too young and under tutorage , as it is two verfts before, 
but when it came to full age and ttrength in the fight of 
him that made it. 

Secondly, he chofe not a troublous time of war, but 
of calm and fettled peace } as being the ttue Solomon and 
Prince of peace, that came to no other end but to make 
and eftablifh an everlafting peace between Heaven and 
Earth, God and Man, Man and his own Soul 

Thirdly, he chofe not a time of Republick, neither of 
Anfiocracy, wherein few , nor Democracy wherein the 
people have the chief power 5 but a time of Monarchy^ 
when one Man (Augujius dejar) had obtained the Do- 
minion, did fway the Scepter, command and give law 
untothe whole world } to (hew that the univerfal Mo- 
narch of all Nations, theSupream head of all Churches, 
the Catholick Bifhop, and Paftor of all Souls, was now. 
born into the world. 

Fourthly, he chofe not the iEquinox but the Solftice 5 
not the Summer Solftice, when the Sun runs at his high- 
eft 5 but the Winter Solftice, when the days are at fhort- 
eft: becaufethen the Sun firft begins to return, and the 
days to increafe 5 as in light, fo afterwards in heat. 

So in like manner he chofe the Meridian time 5 not 
the diurnal Meridian, when the Sun by his prefence makes 
light more : but the no&urnal, when by his abfence he 
makes the deep noon of night 5 becaufe at that time the 
Sun is in the furtheft point he can go from us, and firft 
begins to afcend towards the morning. And both, to. 
fhew the true Son of Righteoufnefs was now approaching 
and drawing near unto us, by his comfortable prefence 
to give new light unto our minds and divine heat unto, 
our .affections 5 to unthaw our benum'd and .frozen con- 


ZJfon Gal. iv. verfe. 4, 5. 501 

fcicnces, and to difpel the darknefs of errour that cover- 
ed our Souls, by the beams of his gracious countenance, 
without which a Winter of perpetual coldnefi and ane- 
vcrlafting night of ignorance would for ever hang upon 
this little world of Man. So fit every way and full was 
this time : A time when the world was at full age 5 and 
fulnefs of peace was fpread upon it : when a full Monar- 
chy had general dominion, and the Sun (the meafure of 
time) arrived at his full period : on the SoHtice, thefui- 
nefs of the annual, and on the Meridian, the fulnefs of the 
diurnal revolution 5 the one making the depth of Winter, 
the other of night. A time therefore every way full 5 
but fuller yet by that which it now received, even him 
that was filled with all the fulnefs of God, and from 
whofe fulnefs we all receive whatfoever grace or good- 
nefs we have: who was the fubftance ofall thofe fhadows, 
the body ofall thofe figures, the accomplifhment of all 
prophecies and the fulfilling or filling full ofall the pro- 
rnifes that belong unto our happinefs, and in this regard 
it is ttmpus plenitudin'ts, a time of fulnefs 5 as in the o- 
ther refpefts it is plcnitudo temporis, the fulnefs of time. 
And the fulnefs of time it is : and fo the very inftitution 
of this feaft doth (hew it to be 5 for look how many 
months there are in the year, fo many days we have gi- 
ven to the feaft 5 for every month a feveral day : that as 
the year is a full abridgment of all time, fb this time a fill! 
recapitulation of the whole year 5 that as it is in it felf, 
fo in our own obfervance, we might acknowledge it to 
be the fulnefs of time. But it is time to pals from thi3 
fulnefs to another: from the fulnefs of time, to the ful- 
nefs of the Fathers love that was now (hown in it, who 
now not only fent as at other times, but fent his Son, 
zvhen the fulnefs of time, &c. 

And fure as it is the firft, fo it is not the leaft degree of 
his love that he voucHfaild to fend at all. Do but con- 

302 A fecond Sermon on Cbriftmas day, 

fider what he is that fent, or what we are to whom he 
lent, and we (hall foon with our (hame acknowledge it. 
For what is he but the Lord of glory ? what we but vile 
worms of the earth ? he a gracious Creator emptying forth 
his goodnefs upon us : we his Creatures and yet rebel- 
ling againft him by pride and difobedience. In this cafe 
for him to have (ate ftill in the Throne of his Majefty, 
and fuffered himfelf to be fent and fued unto by us, had 
been a great favour $ and happy we if our humble re- 
quefts might be but received at his hands : But now when 
he a perfon fo infinitely above us, and (b mightily pro- 
voked and offended by us, not once fo much as looked 
after, but ftill negle&ed with the fame pride by which he 
was at the firft contemned : That he now inftead of 
hurling down upon our heads deferved vengeance and 
deftru&ion, (hould condefcend (b low as to fend and (ue 
unto us for peace and reconciliation, muft needs argue 
an infinite love, and bowels filled with yearning com- 
paffion on our miferable eftate. Ernbefcat ergo & con~ 
fundatur humana fuperbia^ O how (hould the pride of 
Mans heart blu(h and be confounded, when the offend- 
ed God firft feeks unto (inful Men, and yet wretched 
Men ftand upon terms one with another, think them- 
felves difhonoured in feeking peace, and chufe rather to 
die in enmity, than admit of reconciliation unlefs firft 
fued unto,and not always then neither ! But God you fee 
doth other wife, and thinks it no difparagement neither to 
fend and fend firft, firft and firft unto m. Mark well, I 
pray you, what one of his Meffengers fays, We are Em- 
bajjfadors for Chriji Jefus and in his ftead^obfecramtis 
vos^ we befeechyou to be reconciled unto God. 2 Cor. v. 
God efteemed it no diftionour to fend Embaffadors unto 
Men with terms of begging and befeeching reconciliation 
at their hands : and yet perverfe Man holds himfelf dif- 
honoured any way to feek it at the hands of his Brother. 


ZJpon Gal. iv. verfe 4^ 5. 303 

Our cogitations fureare carnal and worldly, and our 
felves full of fecular arrogance, othervvife we fhould e- 
fteem it our chiefeft honour to imitate the love of our 
heavenly Father, and to prevent others rather than be 
prevented in virtue and goodnefs. So then a love there 
is in it, and a love that hath fulnefs far beyond the 
empty affeftion of the infolent world, even in the very 
fending 3 that fuch a fender fhould once fend unto fuch 
perfons, an offended Creator unto offending creatures 5 
this love hath fulnefs, but in that which follows is the 
fulnefs of love, for he not only/?*/, but he fent his Son^ 
When the fulnefs of time rvas come^ God fent his Son. 

The Lord had many times heretofore fent unto the 
finful world, fometimes by the miniftry of Patriarchs and 
Prophets 5 fometimes by his miniftring Spirits the holy 
Angels of Heaven: yet both are but his ordinary Met 
fengers, and therefore declare no more than his ordinary 
love: But now he fent one, that was never fent before, 
one infinitely above either Prophet or Angel or what- 
foever creature elfe is, or may be, an unufual and extra- 
ordinary perfon. And therefore if we rightly eftimate, 
as we fhould do, the love of the fender by the excellen- 
cy of that which is fent, efpecially being fent not as the 
former only in a meflage but as a gift unto the world \ 
then fince there is nothing fo great and excellent as his 
Son, his only begotten, and only beloved Son in whom 
is the fulnefs of his own Godhead and brightnefs of his 
own glory, As in fending him he fent the greateft, the 
beft and the fulleft thing he had : fo it rauft needs argue 
the greateft, the beft, the fulleft affe&ion that may be 
imagined- There is not a fending of his, but hath ecce 
chant as in it, behold the love of God 5 but this ecce 
quanta^ ci.iritatem ojtendit Dcus^ behold how great 
love God hath fhovvn unto us! 1 Johnm. 1. In every 
one of the ether Tendings there is 2 dilcxit Dens, God 


504 A fecond Sermon on Cbriftmas day y 

loved the world, but now \thfic Deus dilexit, God fo 
loved the world as he gave his only begotten Son. It was 
not therefore any thing but love, and no empty love 
neither, that he fent at any time and by the miniftry of 
any to fach as we 5 but now fure it is full, and the ful- 
nefs of love when he fent unto us him whom he moft 
loved 5 his only beloved Son. And fare it is well for us 
that he fent fuch a Meffenger : no other that had been but 
a meer creature could have been fent in his errand, or at 
leaft if he had been fent, could ever have returned with 
his difpatch. 

Were there nothing in his bufinefs more than the con- 
queft of Satan, I doubt not fome other creature ftrength- 
ened by God and the power of his might, might eafily 
have been enabled to tread down that evil fpirit under 
our feet. But confidering that God meant not to deli- 
ver Man by a powerful conqueft, but a juft redemption, 
by a juft Redeemer that (hould difiolve the juft condem- 
nation of the Law, there is fomething more in it than the 
conqueft of Satan : In this cafe he that (hall undertake it, 
muft not only vanquifh the Prince of darknefs, but by 
fatisfying Divine Juftice appeafe the King of Glory that 
was offended. And this I fuppofe no meer creature en- 
dued with any power of God whatfoever (unlets that 
which arifeth from perfonal union with the Creator, 
and maketh him ceafe to be a meer creature) could ever 
be enabled to perform and accomplifb. He that (hall come 
to Redeem, as it is here, that is, lay down a full price for 
Mans tranfgreflion : He that (hall put himfelf under the 
Law, that is, undertake the penalty which Divine Juftice 
doth injoin unto the breakers : if he be but a finite per- 
fon,he (hall be fare to fuffer infinite forrow : or rather be- 
caufe being finite he cannot at once fuffer any thing that 
is infinite, he muft fuffer it infinitely, that is, never make 
nn end of fuffering, but lie under it for ever. The per- 


ZJfon G a l iv. verfe 4, 5. 305 

(on (atibfying muft be as infinite as the perfon offended 5 
othervvife he can never be of that infinite merit as to make 
a temporary paffion equivalent to a perpetual punifhment. 
And this ftilladdsfulnefsto the Fathers love and to his wif- 
dom too, who by fending this perfon not only fent one 
that was full and anfwerable unto his own love, but full 
and futable alfo to our neceffity. When no other Crea- 
ture either in Heaven or Earth was either of worth fuf- 
ficient to be imployed , or of fufficient ability to per- 
form the imployment of this meflage and embafly, miftt 
filinm^ he jent his Son. 

So the Fathers love is full 5 twice full : he fent and fent his 
Son : fent firft,and fent the beft thing that he had. We now 
pafs on to the Sons humility *, wherein we (hall perceive 
his love, arifing unto fullnefs by two degrees, made, and 
twice made *, Made of a Woman,and made under the Law. 
It muft needs be a great degree of humiliation for the 
Son of God to be made at all, to be made any thing *> (or 
to make him, faith one well, is to mar him, be it what it 
will be. He is the maker and Creator of all things, and 
therefore when hchimfelf is made, nolcfsthan the Cre- 
ator is made a Creature, which cannot be but an infinite 
abafement : But yet (ince he may not come in his own 
glory, but muft be made \ if there be any thing better 
than other, let him be made that 5 feme Angel or Arch- 
angel, or any other of that Celeftial Hierarchy. No he 
would by no means take on him the nature of Angels, 
that defcent was not low enough for his humility. 
He made himfelf lower than the Angels 5 he was made 
man, and a man not made immediately by the fingers 
of God like Adam in his full ftrength and beauty 5 but 
bred by degrees in the womb oi a Woman : for even 
that he vouchfafed not to abhor, ft8#m ex mulierc. 
made of a Woman, &c. Thus it pleafcd the Lord to 
abafe himfelf, and thus it pleafcd him to exalt us and our 

R r Nature^ 

306 Afecond Sermon on Chrijlmas day, 

Nature 5 by the affumption whereof, man is now become 
God,and God is made man. He that was the Son of God 
without a Mother, is now become the Son of a Woman 
without a Father : and as God at the firft drew a Wo- 
man out of Man without the help of a Woman 5 fo he 
now took a Man out of a Woman without the help of 
Man. For he was not begotten but made f, made a man, 
but of the fubftance only of a woman, made of a wo- 
mat?^ &c. Blefled woman ^ from whofe body the re- 
deemer of mankind took the blood that was to be ilied 
for the fins of the world : yea of whofe blood he made 
that body which men and Angels muft ever adore. What 
wonderful titles haft thou obtained, thou Daughter of 
the Father, Mother of the Son, and, I had almoft (aid, 
fpoufe of the Holy Ghoft that wrought thy conception! 
how, and how ftrangely art thou become, as the Daugh- 
ter of thy Son, fo the Mother of thy own Father ! For 
fo (he muft needs be that is the Mother of God. Blefled 
therefore thou art, and well may all generations fo call 
thee } from whofe bowels fo great a bleffing is defcended 
to all generations. This much we willingly afford, and 
more than this we may not give, thou maift not receive 3 
we honour, but we may not adore thee: we blefs thee, 
we praife thee, we magnify thee 5 only we do not wor- 
ship thee : that belongs unto thy Son, which is both thy 
Son and thy Saviour. For the blood which he took from 
thee, he even paid for thee : he took it from thee, fo he 
is thy Son 5 he pay'd it for thee, fo he is thy Saviour. God 
thy Saviour, and therefore thy Father, as well as thy Son, 
as well as thy Saviour. So his thou art, and his Creature, 
by a double title of Creation, of Redemption. Thou 
maift not then take unto thy felf any part of his honour 
and worfhip $ whom thou thy (elf art for ever bound to 
worfhip and honour. Honour enough it is for thee, that 
he that made thee vouchfofed to be made of thee ? Made 
ofawomfitt) &£» Nci?- 

Vpn Gal. iv. verfe 4, 5. 307 

Neither hath he honoured her alone in her own per- 
fon, or in her own Sex 3 but man and all mankind. For 
though he were made of a woman, yet not made by a 
woman 5 made of a woman, but madehimfelfa man 5 
that both man and woman might rejoyce and glory in 
him. How well may we cry out with David % Domine 
quid eft homo, Lord what is man that thou didft mag- 
nify him, or the Son of man that thou didft fo vifit him? 
And how well may we anfwer with the Tame Prophet, 
Homo eft res nihili, man is a thing of nought 5 that is, a 
thing drawing near unto nothing, of no worth, no value, 
no continuance 3 yetfuch a thing itpleafed the Son of God 
to be made,and therein to be made lower than the Angels, 
that he might raife and advance this thing of nought 
far above all principalities and powers, and crown him 
with worflaip and glory. So have you both his natures 
God and man $ the Son of God, and yet the Son of a wo- 
man. So he was, and fo it was convenient he (hould be 
that was to be the redeemer of man } who might not be re- 
deemed, but by a pailion proportionable unto a perpetual 
punifhment. For as I faid before,had he not been God,his 
fufferings could never have been of that infinite value: 
fo I now fay, had he been nothing elfe but God, he could 
not have fuffered at all 5 and for this reafon be was both 
God and man : man to fufFcr, God to merit : man to ferve, 
God to fit freeman to die,God to rife again from the dead: 
for had he been God alone, he could never have (uffered 5 
had he been man alone, he could never have made an end 
of fuffering : God only could not die 3 nor man only rife 
again from the dead : rightly therefore was he both, both 
the Son of God 3 neither made nor created, but begotten 
of the Father 5 and the Son of aman,notbegotton by any 
Father, but made and created of the fubftance of a wo- 
man, Made of a woman, &c. And even unto this his 
love brought him for tmr lakes;, for whatfoever elfe he 

P. r a had 

3 08 Afecond Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

had been made, it would have done us little good. In 
this then was the fullnefs of his love as before of his Fa- 
thers 5 that he would be made, and was made not what 
was fitted for him, but what was beft for us : not what 
was moft for his glory, but what wasmoft for our benefit 
and behoof. But yet this is but the firft ftep of his fulnefe, 
he was made once more tor our fakes 5 made of a wo- 
man, and made under the Law too, made under the Law. 
It was a marvellous defcent and humiliation that the 
only begotten of the Father (liould vouchfafe to be 
born of a woman 5 that the Son of the everliving God 
ihould be content to lay afide his own Majefty and glory, 
and cloath himfelf with the raggs of our mortality : to 
leave hishabitation in the higheft heavens, and dwell in 
a Tabernacle of Clay whole foundation is in the duft, as 
Job fpeaks. Surely were man turned into a beaft, into a 
worm, into duft, into nothing, it were not fo great a dis- 
paragement, as that the Son of God (hould be made man. 
This making cannot but make his humility, and with it, 
his love, unto us, deep and full .:. but this next making 
( made under the law ) makes it deeper and fuller ftill. 
For in that he only took on him our nature, but in this 
our condition : Firft our nature as Man, now our con- 
dition as finful men :. men under the law, as it follows, 
that is, fubjeft unto the heavy maledi&ion wherewith 
the Law threatens the breakers of it. This was our 
condition, and this he undertook : which was much more 
than to take our nature : by that he was made man , 
but by this, he that knew no fin was made fin, 2 Cor. v. 
that is, made a facrifice for fin 5 was contented tobe hand- 
led as a (Inner, and to endure whatfoever the Law could 
lay upon finners$ and this is jaUum fab lege made un- 
der the Law indeed 5 under the Law he was, and freely 
was fo$ and it muft needs add feme fulnefs to his love, that 
k, was meerly voluntary , and free from necefiity. We in- 

ZJporz Gal. iv. verfe 4^ 5. 309 

deed, though we willingly fin, yet we would not willing- 
ly lie under the Law : but we are either born under it 
through corruption of natures orcaft under it for our 
corrupt actions, whether we will or no : but for him who 
neither knew original foil nor aftual fins 5 who though 
he took on him our rlefti, yet not that flefh which lufteth 
againft the fpirit 5 though born of a woman, yet of a wo- 
man only without mixture of flefhly generation, of a wo- 
man but a woman overfhadowed by the Holy Ghoft, and 
therefore pure in his conception. And as conceived by 
the Holy Ghoft/o he was united totheSon,whereby hebe- 
came uncapable of voluntary tranfgreftion, and therefore 
nolefs pure in his a&ions, than in his conception, but clear 
and innocent in both , ( juft fo he was born, fo juft he 
lived : ) for him I fay, if he come under the Law, it muft 
be Love and not necefllty that (hall bring him, lexjnjio 
non eft pofita^ no Law for the juft, no Law could touch 
him. The Law was added becaufe of tranfgrellions, faith 
the Apoftle, 1 Tim. i. 9. but no tranfgrefiion was found in 
him: who could convince him of fin? and therefore quid 
illi & legu what had he to do with the Law or the Law 
with him } He might indeed well be Dominus legis, 
Lord of the Law, as he faid he was Lord of the Sabbath: 
but //*6 lege under the Law, or [ubditus legi fubjedt to 
the Law, to the pain and penalty of the Law, no Law in 
the world could make him, had he not of his own accord 
made himfelf fo. And therefore it is not natus but fu&us^ 
not born under the Law, no nor fallen under it neither 
(that's our condition) but made under the Law : to (hew 
that it was not laid upon him either by natural neceffity, 
or through voluntary breach 5 but "meerly by his own 
free undertaking was made that which naturally he was 
not, and in jufticc ought not to be. Made therefore, net 
by any other but by himfelf, who of his own accord, and 
out of his. own love unto us freely undertook and pay.'d 


to Afecond Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

that debt which he owed not : othcrvvife no power of 
Law, no malice of Devils, no nor the wrath of the Fa- 
ther, could ever have feiled on an innocent perfon, had he 
not of grace and great compaffion unto men taken on him 
the perfon of finners, and in their (lead put himfelf under 
the Law, that they might be freed from the punifhment. 
Freely therefore and of his own accord without all con- 
ftraint, without any neceffity,of meer love and compaffi- 
on, faUnm fub lege, made under the Law. 

And now the doftrine begins to be comfortable indeed 3 
comfort there was in it, and not a little in his firft making 
ex muliere^ when he was made of a woman 3 for made of 
women we are all ; fo there was an alliance and consan- 
guinity between us in that : befides, the fled and blood 
which the Divinity affumed, muft needs be advanced to 
great glory 3 fo there is honour in it alfo to our nature. 
But yet if this were all, if there were no more in it than 
fo, his alliance with us and the honour of our nature in 
him would prove but a cold comfort God knows 5 for 
what good is it to us that our nature is exalted in an- 
others perfon, though to the .height of Heaven 5 if we 
our felves be thrown down and periffi hi the depth of 
Hell in our own perfons? or what were we the better to 
have a kinfman great and wealthy, if notwithftanding we 
lye in prifon under the Layv for our own debts? Sure his 
wealth is little unto us unlefs he relieve us with his wealth: 
But if he pleafe to become our furety,to enter into bond, 
and put himfelf under the Law for us $ then he (hews the 
part of a true kinfman, and there is real comfort in that. 
Such and far worfe was our cafe and eftate : (uch and in- 
finitely beyond it was his love and compaffion. We were 
debters indeed by virtue of a handwriting that was againft 
us, Colof ii. 14* a handwriting of ordinances which was 
our bond 5 for we were bound to keep and perform them : 
but we brake the covenants and fo forfeited our bond,and 


ZJpon Gal. iv. verfe 4^ 5. 1 

in it forfeited no lefs than our lives. The condition of 
our obligation was no money matter, it was not pecuni- 
ary but capital y and the debt of a capital obligation, is 
death. Now he that (hall undertake fuch a debt, that in 
this cafe (hall be content to take up our forfeited bond, 
and put in new fecurity of his own, be bound skin for 
skin, body for body, and life for life, and be content to 
pay the bond too when the day comes 5 his love fare is 
full, and he brings comfort with him to purpofe. And 
even this he did f, this he undertook and this he perform- 
ed for us. He undertook it at his Circumcifion, and per- 
formed it in his paffion. Whofoever. is Circumcifed, 
fa&ks eft debitor univcrJ£ legist becomes a debtcr unto 
the whole Law, faith St. Panl, Gal. v. 3. At his Circumci- 
fion then he undertook the debt, he entred bond anew 
with us 5 and in fign that he fo did, he then (hed a few 
drops of his blood whereby he figned the bond (as it 
were) and gave thofe few drops as a pledge or earned, 
that when the fulnefs of time came, he would not fail to 
(hed all the reft. And (hed it he did 5 what at his Cir- 
cumcifion he undertook , at his paffion he performed , 
even to the full. He bound himfelf in a bond of death, 
and death he underwent , even the death of the Crofs, 
the mod bitter reproachful curfed death of the Grofs : fo 
payed all to the utter moft farthing 5 and having paid ir, 
delcvit chirograpkum^ he cancelled the handwriting, 
thefenteceof the Law that till then was of record, and 
flood in full force againft us 5 but now that the whole 
world might know it to be void, he hung it up in the 
fame place where it was fatisfied, he nailed it to the Tree 
of htsCrofs, Col. ii. 14. 

But yet this is not all 5 the penalty is but one part ci 
the Law and he became debtor unrottj* legis, to the 
whole LawXaith the Apoftle, and the whole Law he pay- 
ed, whatfeever was due. In. the Law we confider.a dou- 


1 2 A fecond Sermon an Chrijlmas day, 

ble force or power : it hath a commanding, and it hath a 
condemning power : a power dire&ive, and a power vin- 
dicative : it hath precepts which it injoins, and it hath 
punilhments which it inflifts : by the one it informs us 
what we are to do : by the other what we muft fuffer if 
we do it not 5 and he was under both parts, that both 
might be fully difcharged : for as he fatisfied the one at 
his death, fo the other in his life. In his life he exa&ly 
kept and obferved all the precepts of the Law to the leaft 
tittle : and in his death he received the full punilhment 
of the Law to the word and utmoft extremity, and fo 
was under both, and fulfilled both, paid all, both princi- 
pal and forfeiture : the principal, in keeping the Law him- . 
felf 5 the forfeiture, in fuffering the penalty of the Law 
for others, that fo others might be freed from both. 
Sure now the Sons humility (that humbled himfelfto 
death, even the death of the Crofs) is full, no lefs full 
than the Fathers love. The Father fent, and fent his 
Son : the Son was made, and made of a Woman 5 made of 
a Woman, and made under the Law 5 made under the 
Law, and both parts of the Law, that he might be fully 
made. And this is Gods fulnefs : Let us now proceed unto 
Mans fulnefs 5 for from this fulnefs of the Fathers love 
and the Sons humility we all receive the fulnefs of our 
own blifs and happinefs contained in our Redemption 
and Adoption^ for to.thefe purpofes all this was done, 
That he wight redeem them^ &c. And thefe two, Re- 
demption and Adoption, are the two degrees of our ma- 
king (for without them we had been marred, utterly un- 
done) and they fully anfwer unto the two degrees of 
his making, made of a Woman,and made under the Law: 
He under the Law, that we might be redeemed from un- 
der the Law : he made the Son of Man, that Men might 
be made the Sons of God. So the making of him was 
his own marring, but his marring was our makings he 


Vpn Gal. iv. verfe 4^ 5. 313 

twice marred by his making 5 we twice made by his mar- 
ring. He of God made Man, and of Man made a (inner 5 
we of finners, that is, bondflaves to the Law, made Free- 
men, and of Freemen Sons} Sons of God and Heirs an- 
nexed with Chrift. And what more is there that we 
could with to make it up fuller > fince our defires can ex- 
tend no farther, than to be rid of all evil and to be en- 
dowed with whatfoever good is 5 and by thefe two, Re- 
demption and Adoption, we are made partakers of both. 
To be redeemed from under the Law, is to be quit of all 
evil 5 and to be adopted into the ftate of Children, is to 
be intided unto all that is good. For all evil is in being 
under the Law, from whence we are redeemed : and all 

J;ood, in that heavenly inheritance whereunto we are a- 
opted: we were created to inherit a glorious King- 
dom, but through fin we loft our inheritance , and not 
fo only but together with it we forfeited our lives 5 a 
fentence of death and everlafting deftru&ion was paffed 
upon us 5 and from this now we are freed by redempti- 
on 5 in that again we are reeftated by adoption, and 
what would we more? But we muft fpeak a little in 
particular of both, and firft of Redemption. That he 
might redeem^ &c. 

Every deliverance is not Redemption } but fuch only 
as is obtained by a juft and a full price 5 fo the word im- 
ports, and fomething more: Redemption $ a rebuying 
or buying back again of fomething formerly fold, or for- 
feited into the poffeffion of another. Ever a former alie- 
nation muft go before, and a valuable fatisfa&ion follow 
after 5 otherwife there may be a bare emption without 
the former, a reemption without the latter : but unlefs 
both be precedent, it cannot be Redemption. And fure 
fuch a matter had formerly befallen us. A kind of aliena- 
tion had gone before whereby we had made away our 
fe!ve«, fold our inheritance and forfeited our lives: A 

S f making 

3 14 Afecond Sermon on Cbrifimas day, 

making away indeed, rather than a fale it was 5 for fuch 
a trifle made away : firft in Adam for the forbidden fruit, 
a matter of no moment : fince in our own perfons daily 
made away for fbme trifling pleafure or profit not much 
more worth: And having thus pafled our felves away by 
this felling our felves under fin, the Law feifeth on us, 
whofe dreadful doom is death and Hell, and ever lading 
forrows there with the Prince of Hell So infinite apu- 
nifhment doth it inflift, becaufe in the breach of it an 
infinite Majefty was offended. In this heavy cafe we lay 
ihut up under the Law as in a Prifon, Rom. iii. 23. faft 
bound with the cords of our own fin?, rrov. v. 22. the 
fentence paffed on us, and we waiting but for execution : 
what evil is there not in this eftate and on every Soul 
that is in it? Our Faith Cure is weak, and we do not 
throughly apprehend what we have pnly heard of: but 
could we fee it with the feeing of the eye, as Job fpeaks, 
were we permitted to ftand on the. brink and look into 
that fearful pit of everlafting horror whereunto we are 
condemned by the Law, what mifery and fulnefs of mi- 
fery fhould we then difcern } or rather what mifery 
fhoukl we not difcern in oyir lamentable eftate, fen fenced 
unto that gulf of forrow before our eyes with legions of 
Devils attending at our backs, ready to execute the fen- 
tence, and pufh us in to fufFer that torment which we 
could not endure to behold? Could we but with our 
fancy place our felves in this cafe, which they are in that 
are under the Law, this point, lamfure, would be full 
on our parts, even fulnefs of mifery. Well then the firft 
degree of our happinefs, is to be rid, to be quit of this 
miferable eftate } but by what means may that be done, 
and who fball obtain it for us? Prayers and intrcaties 
would not ferve turn, our pardon may not be had for 
the begging \ but fold we were, and bought we muft be : 
Qod was wronged and rauft be righted-:, the Law was 


Vfon Gal. iv. verfe 4, 5. 315 

broken and rauft be fatisfied 5 and without this ranfom 
the prifoners may not be delivered. A matter therefore 
not of Interceffion, but of Redemption 3 But now the 
price of Redemption who (hall lay down ? fureitisnot 
fo eafily done , we fin indeed with great facility, but to 
expiate fin, will coft a great deal more : he that will do 
it muft refolve to fufter as much punifhment, as a world 
of Men can deferve or an offended God in juftice inflift: 
and who or what is there amongft the works of the 
whole creation, that may ftand under his wrath, until 
it hath taken full revenge, and not perifii under it for 
ever > Gold and Silver in this cafe is of no worth , the 
blood of Bulls and Goats of no value, Men of as little e- 
fteem as either 3 and therefore (hould they offer the Sons 
of their loins for the fins of their Souls, they could do 
no good, it coft more to redeem them than fo, therefore 
they muft let that alone for ever. Nay fhould an Angel 
of Heaven be incarnate to fuffer for fin, he would become 
but as an incarnate Devil and muft lie in Hell for ever. He 
is, though an excellent creature, yet but a creature 5 and 
a creature may not fatisfy the Creator: when therefore 
nothing may do it 5 nor mineral, nor beaft, nor man ? 
nor Angel, nor any thing elfe created, no remedy but 
God himfelf muft be made Man, and the Man God made 
under the Law, ut ilJe, that he may do it, that he might 
redeem them that were under the Law. This is the ut, 
the end, the firft end for which all this ado is kept fj for 
which Heaven and Earth are thus troubled 5 for which 
is all this bufinefs, this fending and making, making over 
and over again 5 that fince there was nothing of fuffici- 
ent value already created, a new perfon of extraordina- 
ry worth and dignity might be made, ;// ille^ that he at 
leaft might be able to redeem us from under the Law. 
And fure full and able he was every way $ being Man 
he might undertake for Man 5 and being God he could 

S f 2 gwi 

^ 1 6 A fecond Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

give fatisfa&ion to God : for as fins againft an infinite 
perfon are of infinite guilt, fo fuflering in an infinite per- 
ibn muft be of as infinite merit : from whence it is that 
afhort paffion in him is equal to a perpetual punifhment 
in us 5 for what is wanting in the fufferings is abundantly 
iupplied in the dignity of the fufferer, whofe infinite per- 
fon fuffering finitely, carries full proportion with finite 
perfons fuffering infinite punifhment. Able then he was 
and no lefs willing than able 3 what he only could do he 
lovingly did do, and did it too to the full. Any the leaft 
bufferings of his had been enough, but that he might be 
fare to lay down a full price, he gave, pretiofnm fangni- 
mm, his precious blood, faith St. Peter, yea his life blood, 
faith St. Matthevpy dedit vitam, he gave his life a ran- 
fbm for many, Matth. xx. 28. he is content to bleed un- 
to death for this little world, when the leaft drop of his 
blood had been enough for many worlds. He was not 
fparing in his price 5 but as the rfalnjiji fpeaks, with the 
Lord ts plenteous redemption^ plenteous indeed, every 
way there is a plenitude and fulnefs in it, he fully made 
under the Law, we fully delivered from under the Law 5 
which yet is but part of our fulnefs, but the firft degree 
of ourhappinefs to be rid and quit of the mifery under 
which we lay. And yet this had been full enough were 
there no more } but yet this is not all, no he left us nofe 
there, but that the meafure might flow over 5 he gave us 
not over, when he had freed us of this wretched eftate, 
till he had brought us to the blefled eftate himfelf is in 5 
and of prifoners under the Law, made us Heirs of that 
glorious Kingdom promifed in the Gofpel. For fo it fol- 
lows at the laft end of all and the fulleft too, ut nos reci- 
piamtu, that we might receive the Adoption of Sons: 
that is, of Captives condemned become children adopted , 
adopted to the joint fruition of all that he hath, which 
3s fully as much as he could give or we could defire. To. 


ZJfon G a l. iv. verfe. 4, 5*. 317 

purchafe our pardon , to free us from death and the 
Law's fentence, this feemcd a fmall thing to him, yet this 
is lex hominis, mans goodnefs goeth no farther : and 
gracious is the Prince that doth but fo much. For who 
ever heard of a condemned Man adopted afterwards, or 
that thought it not enough and enough if he did but 
fcape with his life ? So far then to exalt his bounty to 
that fulnefsas pardon and adopt both, non eft lex homi- 
nis h&c : no fuch meafure amongft Men. Zelns Domini 
exercituum, but the zeal of the Lord of Hofts was to per- 
form this Ift. ix. 7. So full is this on his part, that he did 
not only redeem but adopt, purchafe us, and purchafe 
for us: give us our lives, but part with us his own King- 
dom. And full it is, I am fure, on our parts that are a- 
dopted, did we fully know the riches of our inheritance 5 
which we (hall not do till another fulnefs of time come. 
Many and glorious things are fpoken of thee thou City 
and Kingdom of God 5 but yet when we then come to 
behold it, we (hall fay of it as the Queen ofsheba did 
of the wifdom of Solomon, when (he came to him : The 
report was lefs than the truth, and the one half thereof 
had not been told us. For what tongue may tell us that 
which neither eye hath feen, nor ear heard, nor ever 
may enter into the heart of Man, till Man enter into it, 
till that day when it (hall be faid unto him, intra in 
gaudinm Domini, enter into thy Mafters joy ? In the 
mean time where we cannot conceive, what ihould we 
fpeak ? where the thing is fo full, that all words are too 
empty to exprefs it, it will be enough to admire in (i- 
lcnce, or fay only with David, Suit the lot is fallen unto 
us in a fairground and we have a goodly heritage: (o 
now we are come to the true fulnefs indeed, and we 
may not go farther, not farther in our difcourfe, it muft 
needs ftav where all words fail, and every tongue or ne- 
ctffny is fpeechleft. Nay no farther in our deling this 


o 1 8 Afecond Sermon on Chriflmas day, 

Adoption is the fulnefs of our option, nay a fulnefi be- 
yond our with 3 fince we could not poffibly conceive fo 
great happinefi to with for it. By this time then it is 
full Sea, and all the banks are filled on every fide. It is 
now as Ezekjeh waters that he law flow from under the 
threflhold of the Temple, that took him firft to the An- 
kles, then to the Knees, after to the Loins, at laft fo high 
rifen there was more no paflage, Ezc{. iv. 7. for juft fo it 
fareth here with the Text, that by the like degrees runs 
on, till at length it rife to an immenfity of fulnefi, not 
to be forded. Firji, from the fulnefi of his compafiion 
God fent to releafe us : Secondly from the fulnefs of his 
love he fent his Son ? who in the fulnefi of humility, 
was content to be made } and to make a full union with 
our nature, made of a Woman 5 and to make the union 
fuller yet with our finful condition, be made under the 
Law 3 that we might receive a foil deliverance from all 
evil, by being redeemed 5 and a full eftate of all the joy 
and glory of his heavenly inheritance, by being adopted. 
£0 here is fulnefi of all hands. And fure amidft all this 
fulnefi, it were much unfit that we only (hould be empty 
for whom all was done. If there be fulnefi of compafli- 
on in the Father, if fulnefi of love in the Son to purchafe 
benefits and bleflings for us, full above meafure 5 fure 
there fhould be in fome meafure at leaft a fulnefi of duty 
in us again to return unto them. Otherwife if we neg- 
lect fo great Salvation, we may and (hall notwithstand- 
ing this Redemption or Adoption either, depart as empty 
of mercy, as we are ofgoodnefi. The Catholick Re- 
demption is not fo abfolute but that many may perilh for 
whom Chrift died, as the Apoftle fpcaks \ The general 
and probationary Adoption is not fo peremptory, but 
that upon misbehaviour divers may be difinherited a- 
gain. Filii Regni ejiiicntur foras, even the Sons of the 
Kingdom (hall be caft forth, faith our Saviour himfelf. If 


Upon Gal. iv. verfe^., 5. mq 

thou then wouldft be a firm and conftant partaker of thefe 
benefits, being thus fet free by fo noble a Redeemer, and 
at fo high a price, (land upon thine own worthy value 
thy Soul at the fame rate it was ranforned at 5 do not a- 
gain bafely fell it and thy birthright, for the poor plea- 
iures of this world, like Efau for a mefs of pottage : But 
as Cod is full of compafiion, full of mercy, full of love 5 
lb be thou full of Duty, full of Piety, full of Repentance, 
and then Redemption and Adoption both (ball be fully 
thine and thine for ever. But yet thefe are but the ge- 
neral duties of our whole life: if we would make it up 
full indeed, we arc to confider thofe that are fpecial and 
proper to this time in particular, and they arc principal- 
ly two, Joy, andTVbtf^/ 5 that as the perfons are two, 
the Father and the Son, and the benefits two, Redemp- 
tion and Adoption 5 fo that both might be fully anfwer- 
ed, the duties are two, joyfulneis and thankfulnefs unto 
the Authors from whence they proceed. So thefe two 
will make up all fuli 3 efpecially if they be in thofe full 
degrees, if they be full in us, in our felves. And that fo 
rhcy fhould be, their very names do teach us, Joffuinefi 
and Thank^fHlnefs both ending in Fulnejs \ to fhew that 
they may not be remifs, but that we fhould be full and 
abound in them, as at all other times, fo chiefly in this 
which is the fulnefs of time, or the time of fulnefs, chafe 
you whether. And a time of fulnefs I am fureit will be in 
one (enfc ; of fulnefs of bread, and fulnefs of bravery, 
of fulnefs of mirth and paftine 3 and fo it may be, and io 
it hath ever been a joyful time even in outward appear- 
ance : only we mull be careful that this outward joy eat 
not up, evacuate not our fpiritual joy proper tcrthefeafh 
Which then is truly fpiritual, when our fpirits (hall re- 
)ovce not fo much in external fports with the multitude, 
as with the bltiled Virgin, in Domino falvat ore, in God 
Qur Saviour : God our Redeemer^ as it is here, And fure 

520 A jecona sermon on uvrijunas aay y 

a Redeemer brings joy with him indeed : we our (elves 
acknowledge it in other matters, if it concern the re- 
deeming of our goods, or of our momentany lives. Tell 
an undone Man of one that will redeem his mortgaged and 
forfeited Land s tell a loft Man caftand condemned un- 
der the Law of the Kingdom, of a Redeemer that will 
purchafe his pardon 5 it is a welcom meffage,the joyfulleft 
news that ever he heard. Shall thofe tranfitory things 
affeft us thus, and (hall fpiritual things and eternal affe<3: 
us nothing ? Are our earthly eftates fo dear unto us, and 
is the recovery of a celeftial inheritance in a Kingdom of 
everlafting glory not worth the thinking on > Are our 
animal and perifhing lives fo precious, and (hall the re- 
demption of our Souls caft and condemned to the for- 
row of eternal torment not be regarded? Sure did we 
worthily conceive of it, fuch a Redeemer would be wel- 
comed with our beft and fulleft joy. But however it 
go with us now when the deftru&ion is not near enough 
to afFed us, fure I am the time will come when it (hall : 
In novifimo intelligetis plane, in the latter end ye (hall 
fully underftand, faith the Wife-man. At that day, that 
fearful day, when tribulation and anguifh (hall be upon 
every Soul that hath done evil, when they (hall vainly 
cry unto the Rocks and Mountains to cover them from 
the prefence of the Lord, then indeed ye (hall underftand 
and know that there is no joy in the world to the joy 
offuch a Redeemer: but alas then of a graciousRedeem- 
er he will become a terrible and inflexible Judge. And 
therefore, beatus populuj qui fcit jubilationem, blefled 
the people that now know how and wherein to rejoice. 
And as we are to rejoice for the benefits we receive, fo 
we may not be unmindful of them from whence we re- 
ceive them. That were like fwine that fat themfelves on 
the maft, but never look up to the hand that beats them 
down. And therefore after our joyfulnefs or fulnefs of 


ZJfon Gal. iv. verfe 4, 5. 321 

joy, our fulnefs of thanks or thankfulnefs is to enfue. We 
muft fing both parts in the Chriftmas Carol of that blef- 
fed Woman of whom he was this day made, My foul 
doth magnify the Lord^ as well as my fpirit rejoiceth 
in God my Saviour. To render our thanks then and to 
remember to do it fully $ to forget none, to him that was 
fent, and to him that fent $ fent his Son in this, the Spirit 
of his Son in the next verfe 5 the one to procure,the other 
to feal and aflure unto us both thefe benefits. To all 
three therefore, to the Father that fent, to the Son that 
came, to the Holy Ghoft that made him at his coming: 
(for by him he was conceived) to the Father for his mif- 
fion, to the Son for his redemption, to the Holy Ghoft 
for his adoption (for by him it is wrought 5 he that made 
him the Son of man, doth likewife regenerate us to the 
ftateof the Sons of God:) worthily therefore to all three 
is all thanks and praife and honour to be rendred forever- 
more. But yet this thankfulnefs is but verbal, and there- 
fore not yet full 5 for fulnefs of thanks would furely be 
expreft in fomething more than words: and in what may 
that better be, than in the holy Eucharift, the Sacrament 
of thankfulnefs, and is by interpretation thankfgiving it 
felf? When Davids zeal throughly warmed with the con- 
federation of Gods mercies brake forth into that fiery de- 
mand,c[uidretribTtamDominO)What(hM I return untothe 
Lord tor all his benefits? he could find out nothing fo full 
as tjlis, accipiam Caliccm faltttis, I will take the Cup 
of Salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord. Sure- 
ly if our hearts be hot within us as his was, and we me- 
ditate a return as he did 5 Ecce calix faint is^ behold the 
Cup of falvation^ let us take it, and with it in our hands, 
call upon him,render him our true Eucharift or real thankf- 
giving indeed. The Cup of Salvation cannot but do well 
in the day of falvation : In it is the blood of the Cove- 
nant, the price upon Covenant to be laid down for U9, 

T t and 

5 2 2 Afeeond Sermon on Chrijimas day, 

and therefore the Cup of Redemption : In it is the blood 
of the Teftament wherein our glorious inheritance is by 
way of legacy conveyed unto us 5 and therefore the Cup 
of Adoption. So that our freeing from under the Law 
and our inveftiture into our new adopted eftate, are not 
full, nor fully confummate without it. And yet this may 
not be all. No, when this is done, there is an allowance 
of twelve days more for this fulnefs of time, that we 
fhrinknotup our duty into this day alone, but continue it 
throughout the whole. Sure every good heart in this fo- 
lemn commemoration of our Redemption, and Adoption, 
will himfelf remember to redeem fome part of the time, 
to adopt too fome hour in the day at the leaft, to think 
on him a little and bethink himfelf of the duty the time 
calls on him for. That fo no day be empty, quite empty 
in this fulnefs of time : but that fulnefs of time, fulnefs of 
mercy, and fulnefs of duty may all meet together and 
make a full union. That as the time is filled with the com- 
paffion of the Father, and the love of the Son lj fo we 
may be filled with the grace of the Holy Ghoft. Then 
(hall we be fure to pafs on from one fulnefs to another, 
from this here to another which is behind, from the ful- 
nefs of Grace to the fulnefs of Glory. For all this is but 
the fulnefs of time 5 that is the fulnefs of eternity : when 
time (hall be runout, and his glafs empty, zn&tewpits 
nxnt erit amplius, and fnall be no more 5 which will be 
at his next fending \ for yet once more (hall God fend him, 
and he come again. At which coming we fhall then 
indeed receive the fulnefs of our Redemption, not from 
the Law, that we have already 3 but from corruption to 
which our bodies are yet fubjeft : and receive the full 
fruition of the inheritance whereunto we are here but 
adopted. And then it will be perteft, complcat, abfolute 
fulnefs indeed, when we (hall all be filled with the ful- 
nefs of him that filleth all in all, Eph. i. 2.3. that is, with 


Vpon Gal. iv. verfe 4, 5. 323 

the fuinefs of God himfelf. For Denj erit omnia in om- 
nibus, God it is that (hall be all in all, i Cor. 15. and 
then fure all will be throughly full indeed. To this we 
afpire, and in the fuinefs appointed of every one of our 
times, Almighty God bring us 5 by him and for his fake 
that in this fulnefi of time was fent to work it for us in his 
perfon, and work it in us by the operation of his bleffed 
Spirit. To whom with the Father and the Son, be ren- 
dred all thanks, &c. 

Laus Deo in aternunt. 

T t 1 THE 

524: -A third Sermon on. Cbriftmas day, 


S E R M O N 




Upon Es ay liii. 8. who jball declare his Generation ? 

F whom fpeaketh the Prophet this, of himfelf 
or of fome other man, faid the Queen Can- 
daces Treafurer unto Philip : and Philips 
faith the Text, began at that fcripture and 
preached unto him Jefa : A&. viii. And this is that 
felf-fame Scripture, at lcaft part of it, which that Ethi- 
opian Eunuch then read, and Philip, that we be not 
ignorant whom it concerns, of Chrift Jefus expounded. 
And though he who was a ftranger unto the Common- 
wealth of ifraA and the Oracles of God, cculd not un- 
derhand it without a Teacher 5 yet unto us that are con- 
-verfant in the myfrery of Chrift, it is manifeft in it felf 5 
there being no clearer nor more illuftrious Prophecy 
of it than this whole Chapter, wherein his birth, pafiion, 


ZJfon E s a y liii. verfe 8. 525 

death and refurre&ion are Co fully and evidently defcri- 
bed, as it may well be termed an Evangel a Gofpcl, ra- 
ther than a Prophecy. It begins firft with his firft birth 
and beginning, He ft all grow up before him as a tender 
plant and as a root out of a dry ground, v 2. ft goes on to 
his fbrrows and fufferings,and for whom he endured them. 
He isdefpifed andreje&ed ofmm,a man of forrowt and 
acquainted with grief, &c- He fuffers then, and for us< 
he fuffers, but he muft fuffer unto death, and of that it 
will affure you too. He is brought as a Lamb to the 
/laughter, &c. But though he be mean, (lain and (laugh- 
tered, yet he may not abide under death: though judg- 
ment be pafled on him and executed too, and he impri- 
foned in the grave and jaws of the pit, yet all the bands- 
and cords of death cannot hold him, he mult up in de- 
fpight of them all: And therefore it follows, he was 
ta\en from pr if on and from judgnent } which was ve- 
rified in his refurre&ion from the dead,wherein the judg- 
ment and fentence of death was disannulled and the Pri- 
fon of the Grave broken up. In contemplation of which' 
high argument of his Divinity that could fo arife \ the 
Prophet breaks forth into this admiration of his Ce- 
leftial defcent, and off-fpring, Who foall. decUre his ge- 

So then it is.manifeffc not only by Philips interpretation; 
but by the Prophecies own clcarnefsand fullnefs, that the 
Prophet fpake not this of himfelf but of fome other man > 
and that other man to be none other than Chrift Jefus the 
Eternal Son of God, whole Incarnation, birth or gene- 
ration we this day with all joy and thankfiilnefs publickly 
Celebrate, and are now as well as we can to difcourfe of} 
yet not as thinking to exprefs it, but only to ffaew you 
how inexpreliiblcitis, for Generationem ejus^ &c 

Now (that we may bound our difcourfe within certain 
lines and limits, this generation of our Lord andSayiour 

J2 6 A third Sermon on Chrijimas day, 

is not fimple and of one fort, but various and manifold. 
As his Perfon is compounded of divers things, fo hath he 
accordingly (everal generations. In the blefled Trinity 
there are three Perfons and but one Subftance : In Chrift 
Jefus three Subftances and but one Perfon : he hath but 
two Natures indeed , Divinity and Humanity 5 but the 
Humanity again is compounded of two feveral Effences, 
corporal and fpiritual, a body and a Soul 5 fo in all there 
are thefe three,a body,a Spirit, and the Divinity $ where- - 
unto both are united. And according to thefe three we 
(hall confider a threefold generation, Bivine, Humane 
and spiritual: For Chrift was born from all Eter- 
nity 5 and (till is in heaven without a Mother 5 on earth 
he had in due time a humane birth without a Father , 
and in the minds and Souls of men he is (piritually born 
without Father or Mother : of a Mother without a Father 
he was born once : without Father or Mother he is born 
often : of a Father without a Mother he is born always 
and perpetually. Laftly, of his Father in Heaven he is bora 
God $ of a Mother on Earth he was born man 3 without 
Father or Mother in the Souls of men he is born God and 
man. As there are three Subftances therefore in our 
Lord and Saviour : fo hath he three births or generations 
which we (hall confider in their order, Divine^ Humane 
and Spiritual 3 all three fo hid and full of admiration in- 
utterable, as the Prophet and we with him, may well fay 
of them aMiGenerationem, &c. 

To begin then with the Firft his Divine generation, 
whereof we (hall (ay but little, becaufe indeed we can (ay 
nothing worthily and as we (hould fay : For how (hall 
frail man fay, what no man can poffibly conceive, fincehe 
cannot fully fay and enunciate what he doth conceive ? 
That there are feveral perfons in the God-head,is the high, 
yeahigheft Ad of our faith, no fubjeft for our expreffion. 
That God hath a Son we are bound to believe, but how 


ZJpon E s a y. liii. verfe 8. 327 

he begat him we are bound not to inquire 5 bccaufe he 
hath not revealed, nor will reveal, peradventure may not, 
but to the glorified eye. Then indeed and then only 
when we (halite him as he is, we (hall fee his generati- 
on and be happy in feeing it : it is the eternal and ever- 
lafting bleffednefs of the Father to beget him, for it is his 
inmoft natural Aft and eilential : and it (hall be our 
perpetual happinels hereafter to behold it, which we 
fhall then but behold, comprehend it we may not 5 but 
know it we fhall: And this is life everlajlmg to kyorv 
thee and him whom thou haji fent. In the mean time 
till that life everlafting come, whileft we are Pilgrims, 
and lead a life temporary here upon earth, wherein we 
know and prophefie but in part 5 it is not our Icaft wif- 
dom, to know fuch high myfteries are no part of our 
knowledge. It is enough for us with holy Mojes to fee 
the back-parts of the Lord, to fee him in his efFefts, his 
word and outward works 5 to fee him in his glory,in his 
Effence and inmoft operations, we cannor, and live. And 
they who will attempt it with thofe Bethpemites that 
would needs pry into the Ark, (hall afluedly die. Such 
afpiring Spirits, that with the bold Schoolmen, do pierce 
into the hidden fecrets of Divinity, what do they but 
like foolifh flyes, flutter about the light, till they are at 
length finged with the flame? For qui fcrutatur ma- 
jejtjtem opprimetur a gloria, he that fcarcheth into the 
majefty of God (hall afluredly be oppreft with his glory. 
And therefore it is dofta ignorantia^ learned ignorance, 
as St. Auftw hath it, not to know what may not be un- 
dcrftood \ and it were much better pioufly to profefi it 
than ralhly to arrogate feience : For that may deferve 
pardon, but this (hall never want punifhment, faith the 
fame Father, Serm. 15. For which reafon wcllfaid the 
great St. Bafilof this high Point when he came to treat 
of it, myjlerium hoc Client io fotius quam oratione to- 

Unci 'urn ', 

3 a 8 A third Sermon on Chriflmas day y 

lendumjt is amyftery to be adored in filence not expreft 
by words. HomiL de Nat. Domini. The Prophet 
Efay himfelf was not able to do it, and which is more, he 
knew that none elfe could. And therefore quis enarrabit 
who (hall declare it? for his Interrogation hath the force 
of a Negation, who (hall ? that is,nonecan, whojhall de- 
dare, &c. There is indeed in it felf, nothing fo light 
and clear and evident as this Divine generation, where- 
in light of light, and very God of very God, is produ- 
ced and begotten : but withal unto us, nothing more 
hidden, fecret and obfcure. Not that there is any obfcu- 
rity in God, in quo tenebrs non fitnt ullti^m whom there 
is no darknefs, faith the Scripture: but that he dwells in 
unacceffiblelight 5 and is cloathed with Majefty inapproach- 
able, as with a garment 5 aciem oculorum vincens, non 
Jolum hominum fed etiam Angelorum , darking and 
blinding the fight both of men and Angels. And therefore 
how is it poffible to behold the light of his generation, 
who is the brightnefs and very fplendor of his Fathers glo- 
ry ? mens deficit, vox filet, non mea t ant urn fed etiam 
Angelorum, the eye of the mind fails, and the tongue of 
every Creature becomes mute and dumb, not mine alone, 
faith St. Cyprian, but of the beleffed Angels alfo. There- 
fore Sluts enarrabit ? Before ever the world was, or any 
foundation of it laid, Ibi non tempus, non feculum in- 
tercejfit, nemo fpectator adfnit, when as yet, faith St. 
Baft I, neither time nor age was formed, nor any fpe&ator 
by, to witnefs or report it : but God alone injoying and 
embracing himfelf from all eternity in himfelf and of 
himfelf he begot his only Son, who is none other but 
himfelf: no other God though another perfon. And who 
then fljall declare} Again, the Father begets a Son, and 
yet the Son is not younger than the Father, nor the Fa- 
ther any antientcr than the Son : he begets him by com- 
municating his Eflence unto him, and he communicates not 


Vpn Es ay liii. verfe 8. 329 

any part,for it is indivifible,but his whole and intire Eflence 
unto his Son, and yet parts with none himfelf, who hath 
heard or may conceive fuch things? who therefore flsall 
declare f Yet once more : the Son of God is perfeft and 
compleat within himfelf and fo hath been from everlaft- 
ing, intire and wanting nothing, and yet, which is ftrange, 
as continually produced and begotten : for not as in the 
beginning God made the Heavens, fo in the beginning he 
begot his Son 5 who in the beginning both was and was 
begotten : the Heaven was made once, but the Son is be- 
gotten for ever, and who, &c. Laftly, to omit many 
things, the eternal word is truly the Son of God, and is 
truly born of him 5 and yet notwithftanding hath no Mo- 
ther that ever bare him, but (which hath moft admira- 
tion) is begotten only with a look, by mere afpeft and 
intuition, as the Fathers fpeak and the Scriptures inti- 
mate, and therefore who fiall declare ? Thefe and many 
other the like high and inexplicable myfteries of this won- 
derful generation the Apoftle (eems not to exprefs but to 
ftiadow as well as he might , when he terms him the 
brightnefs of his Fathers glory and the exprefs image of 
his Perfon, Heb. i. 3. For though thefe words cannot 
reach home to the thing } yet others more apt and figni- 
ficant may not be found. For brightnefs is ever coeval 
with the thing that is bright 5 if bright in it (elf: the 
brightnefs of the Sun is neither before nor after 5 but 
fully as ancient as that Sun that begat it : and fo be- 
gat it, as it doth not ceafe ftill to beget it. For it is not 
produced once for all, but is generated perpetually 5 and 
generated not of two, but of one only 5 who can com- 
municate it to other things, and yet lofe none of it him- 
felf Excellently therefore the brightnefs of his glory 5 
and as fully the exprejs image of his perfon, to (hew as 
far as may be (hown the manner of his generation by 
iight and intuition. For the images which we behold 

U u when 

33 o A third Sermon on Chrifimas day, 

when we look on our felvcs in a glafs, are of all others 
the mod exaft and perfeft. Now God himfclf is his 
own mirrour, wherein beholding and comprehending 
himfclf he produceth the moft exprefs and abfolute image 
of himfelf So that the Divine intellect of the Father 
reflefting inwards and fully conceiving his own perfeftion, 
doth at once both conceive and bring forth his own and 
only Sony the fubftantial and effential pifture of him- 
fclf And therefore no thought here, of Mother or Ma- 
trimony, nor imperfc&ion or inquination 5 but he is be- 
gotten after a pure, clean.chaft, high and fublime manner: 
as the beam from the Sun, as the image from the glafs, as 
being the brightnefs ot his Fathers glory and the ingra- 
ven Character of his perfon. Though neither of thefe 
can fully exprefs it 5 for it is wonderful, and therefore to 
our ears cannot be uttered : it is (ingular, and therefore 
hath no example : for how fhould the imperfeft Crea- 
ture every way fquare with the abfolute perfection of 
the Creatour ? And therefore let us adore in Soul and 
believe it in heart 5 but lay our hand on our lips and not 
think to utter it in words : whereof when we have fpo- 
ken,yea and thought all that we can, we muft fhut up all 
with the Prophets Admiration, who jhall declare ? 

And this fhall (uffice for the non-declaration of his Di- 
vine birth and generation, we now pafs on to his humane 
the fubjeft of this days Solemnity, and therefore the chief 
theam of this hours difcourfe,but a theam every way befet 
alfo with fo many Pearls of higheft admiration,as we may 
well fay of it as of the other, Qui* enarrabit ? Nay in 
fome things it may feem fomething ftrangenhan his other 
generation. For that God (hould be born of God, though 
we can no way apprehend it, yet in reafbn it carries fome 
Correfpondence and proportion : But that God fhould 
be born again, and born of a woman., hath fuch an infi- 
nite disparity, that unlefs it had been foreftiewn by fuch 


Vpn E s a y Jiii. verfe 8. 331 

illuftrious prophecies and confirmed by fo many and great 
miracles, it had exceeded not only reafon but even all belief. 
Well therefore did S.Paul termit a myftery andagreatmy- 
ftery,and great too without controverfie, without contro- 
vert great is the myftery of Godlinefs, God manifejiedin 
thefleft^i 7Vw.iii.God in the flefh, a great myftery indeed I 
yea how many great myfteries are there in it ! The Antient 
of day s is become a fwadled Child 5 and he who was the Son 
of God without a Mother, now made the Son of a woman 
without a Father ; a woman that is at once both a Mother 
and a Maid 5 conceiving and bearing a Son,and yet a Virgin 
in and after both conception and birth. Nay more,the Mo- 
ther of her own Maker, and (o the daughter of her Son : as 
he the Son of his own daughter. No marvel therefore that 
at this admirable birth of his, he had marvail and admi- 
ration it felf given him for his name 3 for his firft, To us 4 
Child is born and to us a Son is given, the principality 
ft) all be upon his ftjoulders, and you ftjall call his name 
Wonderful^ ifa. ix. wonderful, and full of wonders, as in 
other things fo efpecially in his birth and generation, and 
therefore, ghtis enarrabit ? Wife Solomon having with 
all his skill and diligence fearched into the depths and 
profundities of Nature, after all his travel could find out 
no new thing under the Sun 3 but that you may know a 
greater than Solomon is here, our Saviour this day to- 
gether with himfelf brought many new things, you fee, 
into the world, which the Sun never faw before, nor 
ever fhall fee again : A new birth, new man, new perfbn, 
new Heavens, new Earth, a new Creation 5 for all had 
need of renewing, and all things in him are made new, 
Ecce nova jam faffa funt omnia^ behold all things are be- 
come new, faith the Apoftle. All things, but wretched 
men, that regarding it not grew old in their Sins, but 
fhall receive apunifhment hereafter that fhall never grow 
old in it felf, becaute it fhall "never be ended. And there- 

U u 2 fore 

33 2 ^ ?i>/W Sermon on Chrifimas day, 

fore «£»// .<? Yet that we may declare it as far as we car^ 
or at leaft declare how far it is above all declaration, we 
will in their order briefly touch upon thefe circumftances 
of his birth and generation : Who it is that is born, of 
whom, and in what manner, and where he was born : 
For there is newnefs and ftrangenefs in them all not fully 
to be declarable. AndySfr/^who or what he is that is born ? 
And what is he, an ordinary mm as we our felves are,, 
one of the rout, one of the vulgar > A Man indeed he 
was* and when he was at the loweft and worfr, Pilate 
could term him (b : ecce homo, behold the Man : but yet 
no ordinary Man, he was a King too, and. a King born ^ 
where is he that is born king of the Jews ? fay the 
Wilemen of the Eaft. Nay no petty, King, no King of 
the Jews alone 5 he (hall have the Nations too for his 
inheritance, and the ut term oft parts of the earth fpr 
his.pojffejfions, faith God in the Pfalm. And therefore 
an univerfal Monarch. And yet higher, for / will make 
him my firft-born, higher than the Kings of the earth 5 
higher indeed, even the high God that is King both of 
Heaven and Earth 5 and therefore his nanae fhallbe cal- 
led Wonderful and mighty counfellor, and Dens fortis^ 
the Jirong God, pater dternns, the everlafting Father^ 
feith my Prophet in the place but now quoted. And it 
is worth the obferving in the beginning of the verfe, A 
child k born and a f on is given: towards the end this 
weak child is the mighty God, this young Son is the ever- 
lafting Father^ for the Son of God is our Father, and 
this Father now became the Son of Man and made him- 
felf our Brother. The Antient of days that fate on the 
throne in the 7. of Dan. whofe garment was white as 
fnow 5 and the hairs of his head as pure wooll, to fhadow 
his eternity, who hath neither beginning of days nor end 
of life 5 This is he that is this day born a young and 
tender child, even that mighty and Almighty God now a, 


ZJpon E s a y liii. verfe 8. 333 

weak and fwadled Infant. This fare is new and marvel- 
lous, rightly therefore ftill do his titles begin with won- 
derful, whofe perfon and birth may well be admired, can- 
not be exprefled, for §>jti$ enarrabit j? 

And yet this is not all the wonder that is in him : 
ftrange and very ftrange it is, that he ftiould be the Son 
of Man and Mans evcrlafting Father § that is, God and 
Man : but yet it is another new thing and little lefi ftrange, 
that this God ftiould be per feci Man. and yet have no 
Humane Perfon. A Humane Nature he had, but a Hu- 
mane Perfon he had not. And therefore nonfolum atfv* 
ejl novus^ Jed is qui nafcitur cji homo novur, it is not 
only a new birth, but he that is born is a new kind of 
Man 5 the like whereof was never known, having a Hu- 
mane Nature, but a Divine Perfon. N>)lorius indeed 
after the manner of other Hereticks, not content to 
leave this myitei v unto his Faith, but fceking to com- 
prehend it with h<sreafon, was fo blinded with gazing up- 
on a light tooftrongfor his eyes,as he would not acknow- 
ledge the thing, becaufe his weaknefs could hot conceive 
who it ftiould be 5 how a Humane Nature ftiould be and 
fubfift without a created and Humane Perfon : and there- 
fore he impioufly formed unto himfelf a double Perfon in 
Chrift, and fo in effect two Chrifts, one that had a Hu- 
mane, another that had a Divine, both Nature and Per- 
fon : a great errour and pernicious : For were it lb, were 
they not feveral Natures, but two diftincr. perfons, the a- 
ftions or paflions of the one could not properly be at- 
tributed to the other fince the one is not the other. Chrift 
the God could not be \Un - and Chrift the Man could 
not be God : but one God alone, the other Man alone : 
and fo neither, could have redeemed the world 5 for God 
could not fuffer, nor Man fathfy. Chrift Jefus therefore 
our blefled Lord is but one 5 one fubfbnce and hypo- 
ftalis that hath two Natures Divine and Humane - both 


. I ■ ■ ■ ■ • ■ 

334 A third Sermon on Chrijimas day, 

knit and united in one and the felf-fame Perfon, and 
therefore juftly and truly may be faid to be,and is 5 both God 
and Man: and becaufe Man,could die 5 becaufe God,could 
add an infinite price unto his death, and fo reconcile both 
God and Man. But you will fay, how isit poffible that a 
Humane Nature fhould fubfift in a perfon and hypoftafis 
not her own, who may conceive, who can apprehend it ? 
neither do I fay you fhould, but that you (hould believe 
it. Had we reafon to demonftrate it, it were not won- 
derful, had we example, it were not lingular: But now 
whenbefides and above the whole order of created Na- 
ture, a new Man and after a new manner with fo great a 
miracle is born and brought forth, having a created and 
Humane Nature fubfifting in a Divine and uncreated Per- 
fon, we may truly fay q uis enarrabit $ And this for the 
perfon, who or what he is that is born. 

Novvifwefhall remove our confideration unto herof 
whom he was born, peradventure we fhall find neither 
left nor fewer marvels and miracles in this, than in that 
other. Forcertainly that God fhould become Man is ve- 
ry much 5 but that he fhould be born of a Woman is yet 
much more. For he might have created a Humane Na- 
ture out of the Earth, as he did the firft Man, and had 
it plcafed him, affumed it in an inftant: and therefore 
needed not have lain nine months in the womb after 
that manner as we fhame to imagine, and is altogether 
unfit we fhould fpeak : there is horror in the very con- 
ceipt of it, and therefore well faith the Hymn, thou didft 
not abhor the Virgins rcomb* This would be very ftrange 
indeed could we apprehend the infinite Majefty of that 
God who was pleafed for our fakes to defcend fo low. 
That that fublime and excellent glory, in prefence where- 
of the holy Angels themfelves cover their faces with their 
wings 5 that Almighty Lord which fate on the circle of 
*&e Heavens, and in companion otwhom the inhabitants 


ZJpon E s a y Jiii. verfe. 8. 535 

of the Earth arc but as Grafhoppers, and all the Nations 
of the World but as the dropping of a bucket : that fuch 
and fo great a God, for our good, and that we might 
have nearer affinity with him, fhould difrobe himfeJf of 
all his honour, and be wrapped in films and skins inftcad 
of a Garment : leave that circle of the Heavens and cafe 
himfelf into the Dungeon of the womb, not abhorring 
that dark place, which we our (elves abhor but to think 
on: Aftonifhment may wellfeife the mind that (hail truly 
meditate on it. If it do not kindle your affection and de- 
votion, it cannot at the leaft but raife up admiration > 
enforcing us to crv out with the Prophet, gntis tnarra- 
bit & 

Neither is this all the ftrangenefs, that God was born 
of a Woman, who by this means was advanced into a 
ftrange affinity with her Maker, becoming at once both 
the Mother of her Father and Daughter of her own Son : It 
is ftrange too and a miracle in Nature that he was born 
of none but a Woman, that he who before had a Father 
and no Mother, fhould now have a Mother .and no Fa- 
ther. Three forts of Generation or rather Production, 
had palled before : The firft, without Man or Woman, 
fo Adam. Thefecond, of Man without Woman., io Eve. 
The third of both Man and Woman, fo we all their po- 
fterity. But now to make all compleat and never till now, 
the fourth is added, of a Woman without a Man $ th 
a Fatherlek Son, and a Virgin Mother might double the 
wonder : this b it which my Prophet intimates in the 
firft entranqeof this Chapter, he JhiU grow up as aplea- 
(ant plant and as aroot out of a dry ground : as a root 
fpringing of its own accord from that virgin earth, un- 
tilTd, unfown, and unmanured by the hand of Man: So 
fprang he f-orn the maiden loins of his Mother, and had 
no Mans afliftance living for a rather, who then JJull de- 
clare, O'C. 


336 A third S ermon on Cbriftmas day, 

And as he was begotten without a Father : fo (that 
we may touch upon the manner) was he born, as it is 
likely, without pain or hurt unto his Mother. It is true 
a puniihment it was, and from the beginning, and from 
the beginning until now hath it ever preva'iled,all Women 
naturally bringing forth in forrow. But our Saviour was 
no natural Man : All things in him you lee are miracu- 
lous and fupernatural. And why not this in his birth as 
well as fo many things elfe ? why not born without for- 
row as well as conceived without pleafure? It is the col- 
le&ion of a Father, Vbi voluptas partum non antecejjit y 
neq'-y dolor fubfecutus eft. She who felt no delight in the 
conception fufiered rightly as little pain in the birth, 
faith Greg. Nj/Jf. or at. de Chrifti re furred. Nee in con- 
ceptione fine pudore? nee in parturitione cum dolore : 
unftained in her conception, and unpained in her partu- 
rition, faith St. Auftin^ Serm. 14. de Nativ. and in my 
underftanding, rightly $ for what labour or forrow could 
he bring in his birth, that left her a perfeft Virgin, that 
bare him ? And therefore in this regard alfo, who JIull 
declare^ &>c. 

So many wonders are there in his birth, and yet it is 
not a much lels wonder he made choice of fuch a place 
to manifeft all thefe wonders in. In Bethlem an obfeure 
and little Village, in a poor and mean Inn of that Village, 
in the meaneft and bafeft place of that Inn, the Stable. 
This was the great Chamber, the ftately Manfion hung 
with Arras weaved by Spiders, and paved with the filth 
of other Beads 5 wherein this great Monarch^-the mighty 
King of Glory, was pleafed to be born, and together with 
himfelf to produce fo many miracles into the World: 
The very place, wherein he had only littier for a Bed, a 
Manger for his Cradle, an Oxe and an Afs for his atten- 
dants, being as great a miracle as the reft. And as the 
bafeft place, fo did he make choice of the obfeureft time.- 


Vpn E s a y Jiii. verfe 8. 337 

A time indeed famous for an univerlal peace fpread upon 
the face of the Earth, but in it he picked out the lowed 
and utmoft extremities time hath , the lad age of the 
world, the lowed period of the year, the deeped and 
darked point of the night. And (o in both regards, ve- 
re recubuit in novijfimo loco y he truly (ate him down 
in the nethermod room 5 and at his fird entrance into 
the world, trod the world and all worldly pomp and 
glory under foot : that his very birth might preach con- 
tempt both of it, and all the vanities it hath, unto fin- 
ful Man, for whofe fakes he vouchfafed not to abhor, I 
fay not now, the Virgins womb, but the durty cratch 
and filth of the Stable. And in either refpeft, who pall 
declare, &c. or who (hall declare the infinite love he 
(hewed in it unto miferable Men, for whofe advancement 
the Ring of Glory was pleafed to abafe himfelf fo low ? 
Surely as the great Gregory in his Morals, Deo tanto ma- 
gls homo debitor fuit, quanto pro illo Dens etiam in- 
digna fnfeepit, The more unworthy things God un- 
dertook for us, the more ever are we bound unto God, 
and therefore let every Soul truly and effectually fay 
with St. Bernard, quanto pro me vilior, tanto mihi cha- 
rior, by how much the viler he hath made himfelf for 
me, the dearer ever (hall he be unto me. Thus every 
circumdance of his production is wonderful, and can- 
not but declare how every way undeclarable his ge- 
neration is. But yet, that we may more perfectly be- 
hold it, we mud raife our confideration higher, from 
the circuradances to the fubdance and effects of this 
mighty work. And indeed in thefe regards, who (hall 
declare his generation ? For it is the bed and greated, 
and wifed work the Almighty ever wrought, and doth 
more fully manifed his infinite power, wifdom, and good- 
nels, yea and judice too, than all the red of his creatures, 
*>r all the red of his operations in them. Fird then for 

X x the 

5 3 8 A third Sermon on Chrifimas day, 

the power and omnipotence of God, how unutterably is 
it here (hown more than in any, or all other things el(e ? 
the Incarnation of God being a greater work than the 
Creation of the whole World. He made indeed at the 
beginning Men and Beads, Plants and Elements, Sun 
and Moon, Heavens, Stars, and Angels, excellent works 
and wonders of his power : but yet when the word wu 
made flcjl\ he made and wrought a greater wonder tha'n 
them all. Much power was fhown in knitting and com- 
bining jarring and difcordant Elements peaceably in one 
body : more in the conjunftion perfonal of this materia! 
body with an immaterial fpirit 5 but incomparably moffc 
ofall in the hypoftatical union of created Body and Spi- 
rit, with the uncreated divinity of the Godhead it felf 
For howbeit to make Man ofduft, and duft of nothing 
argues an infinite power 5 yet that infinite is much more 
confpicuous when this Man is made God, and that God 
which made him, made Man himfelf. And the reafon is, 
becaufe that in making of Man, or any other creature 
the infinity of power is not manifefted in the effeft, which 
cannot be but finite becaufe created 3 but in the manner 
of creating it of nothing, and the ability ever of creating 
it, or fome other greater and more excellent. So God 
might have made a larger world than this, and creatures 
of other kinds, and in every kind of richer eilence and 
higher perfections: And when he had done fo, might do 
fo again and again, yea and after that, might yet ftill 
and perpetually do fo. For an effeft of finite and limited 
perfeftion, may be infinitely multiplied by an omnipo- 
tent power, but can never grow infinite in it felf 5 and 
becaufe it cannot grow infinite,is infinitely capable of fur- 
ther perfection. But here the infinity of power is not 
only in the manner of working, but difcernable after a 
fort in the vvorkitfelf And God hath now produced 
an effeft even commensurable with his power, and unca- 


ZJfon E s a y Jiii. verfe 8. 339 

pable of farther perfection fubftantial, an effeft: where- 
unto nothing can be added that may advance it higher, 
or make it greater 5 filly Man being made and become 
the great God, whom all other both Men and Angels 
muft worfhip for ever. So here is in a manner an infinite 
effe&, and fo the expreffion, as firm as may be, of an in- 
finite power 3 not that the humanity is infinite, for then 
it {hould be the divinity, but that both are fo united as 
they make but one perfon,which is infinite. From whence 
it follows, that asChrift the God, is truly Man : foChrift 
the Man, is truly God : and therefore to be adored, both 
God and Man. And what more infinite produ&ion of 
an infinite power is there imaginable than the making of 
a creature fo one, (as he is, and is to be adored ' as one) 
with the Creator bleffed for evermore ? For who then 
(hall declare the power of his conception ? Secondly, the 
wifdom of the Almighty, which though like his mercy 
it be over all his works 3 is yet more confpicuous here 
and (hines brighter, than in the Sun or any other opera- 
tion of his hands, had we eyes to difcern, or wifdom e- 
nough of our own to behold it. For in him are hid all 
the treafures of wifdom and knowledge ', faith the Apoftle. 
The treafures, that is, the wealth and riches, the abun- 
dance of the Divine Wifdom, are all in him 5 but like 
veins and mines they are hid in him, in him are hid all 
the treafnres^ and we cannot fully difcern them now : 
yet unlets we be ftark blind we may difcern enough for 
our fatisfa&ion. He is the eternal wifdom of the Father: 
and indeed none but the Fathers wifdom could have 
found out a way to (hew mercy unto Man, and yet give 
full (atisfaifrion unto his own juftice. For Juftice and 
Mercy, (Man offending) were, as it were, at variance, 
either pretending who (hould have him. Juftice demands 
him, to be given to Jier for revenge : Mercy oppofeth 
and with all her might pretends for a pardon: both ftrug^ 

X x 2 line 

3 40 A third Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

ling in the bowels of the Almighty, that dearly affefts 
both. Juftice propofeth but few, only two arguments: 
but they are powerful. The fir fi urgeth the Almighty 
with his own verity and truth. Thou hart fpoken the 
word, the day that thon eateji.thon fhalt die the death: 
And with thee there is no fhadow of change, therefore 
thou mtift not alter the thing that is gone out of thy lips. 
The fecond, with a precedent drawn from his former a- 
ftions. The Angels finned, and thou didft not fpare 
them f, why, be alike then unto all. For why (houldeft 
thou afford earthly men that favour which thou den iedft 
unto Celeftial Spirits, of far more excellent Nature > But 
now Mercy on the other fide cries out pitifully with that 
cry in the Pfalm. wherefore haji thou made all men for 
nought $ what though thou haft faid the word, it was 
but the word of legiflation, and thou art Lord of the 
Law, the fupream Lawgiver, and therefore maift difpenfe 
with the Law, which thou giveft, and in doing fo thou 
doft but remit thine own right, thou wrongeft none o- 
ther, which therefore is without all wrong to thy Ju- 
ftice. And for the Angels, they were but fome of them, 
not all the Angels that finned, and they finned willingly 
and wilfully, of their own accord and without a Temp- 
ter} their fin remaining in themfelves not propagated to 
others,, and therefore they periuhed worthily- in thy 
wrath, and I made no interceffion for them. But Man 
was deceived and feduced by the fubtlety of the Ser- 
pent: his fin befides not cleaving to himfelf alone, but 
palling forth upon all his pofterity that pafs from him. 
And fhall the whole generation and kind, who finned 
not of their own will but by being in his loins, be eter- 
nally deftroyed, for one and that anothcrstranfgreffion? 
It is fufficient that Juftice hath triumphed in thofe evil 
Spirits, let mc have my vi&ory now in thefe : Good rea- 
(on there (hould be fome regard had of me^as well as of 

her : 

Vpon'E say liii. verfe. 8. 541 

her : fhe is thy Daughter indeed,yet fhe is but thy Daugh- 
ter-in-law, I am thy natural : it is thy nature and proper- 
ty to have Mercy and compaffion. Thus thefe two, the 
very favourites and darlings of the Divinity, contend 
together, and who or what wit (hall decide the contro- 
verfy 5 or give both content when they have contrary 
demands ? Herein then fhines the infinite wifdom of God 
that in fo difficult a cafe, and perplext(as D 'a tit often terms 
it) could difcover a way, find out an iflue, that fhould 
give full fatisfichon unto either : and not only fo,but ma- 
nifest the glory of the reft of his Attributes 5 of bis power, 
wifdom. gooduels and all, and all at once, and m one 
action 5 by informing a piece of our clay and contriving 
himfelf, and his whole Divinity into a trunk of Earth, 
that fo one perfon might be made of both. A perfon on 
whom Juftice might take her full revenge 5 that Mercy 
afterwards might be ftiown unto the offender : that fo 
both death might be inrhfted (as the one urged) and a 
pardon granted (as the other intreated.) For" being Man 
he could die, and being God his temporary death could 
fatisfy for an eternal : And being God and Man he could 
dye, and with conqueft, (having fatiated revenge) rife 
again from the dead, and proclaim life and gmce unto 
the whole world. So by the infinite wifdom of this work 
all ftrife ends, and both are well plcafed: Mercy and 
Truth are met together, Rjghteoufnefs and Peace do ki(i' 
each other. Yea fo great is the wifdom of it, that the 
bleiled Angels thcmfelvesdelire to pry into it profound 
iy. Sure it exceeds the natural undcrftanding of the 
wife and fubtle Lucifer himfelf 5 who for all his wit and 
cunning was clearly deceived, and fcil'd in this myftery 
whereby he was drawn on to bite at that heel which he 
little dreamt would crulh his head, even whilft he bit it : 
For fuppoiing to fwaUow the humanity which he faw', he 
was fuddenly choaked with the divinity which he could 

a 2 A third Sermon on Chriflmas day D 

not comprehend. So wifely God by Man reftored Man, 
and vanquifht Satan in the felf- fame nature he had conquer- 
ed before. And therefore whb (hall declare the wifclom 
of his generation? 

But above all either power or wifdom, the wonder- 
ful love and goodnefs of the Lord in this ad (hown unto 
the whole world, efpecially unto wretched Man, may- 
well drink up admiration and confound the underftand- 
ing of both Man and Angel. For what an aftonifhing con- 
sideration would it be, could weconfider it as it deferves, 
that fuch vile worms and wretches as we, fhould receive 
fuch high and undeferved favour from that God whom 
we had fo grievoufly offended, and having offended, ne- 
ver notwithftanding fo much as fought or regarded ? 
That he for all this (hould feek us, yea and affume our 
nature and become as one of us, that he might the better 
find us? That inftead of hurling fuch rebellious finners 
into the depth of Hell, as they well deferved, he defend- 
ed from his own glory in the higheft Heavens and took 
on him the infirmity and bafenefs of our earth, that he 
might carry it thither, and into that glory from whence he 
descended ? O the infinite goodnefs of this God to un- 
dergoe the wretchednefs of Man , that Man might be 
affumed to the bleffednefs of God, that finful Man to 
the bleffednefs of that God againft whom he finned, and 
delighted only to fin ! Lord, faith David, what is 
man that thou didji fo regard him, or the fon of man 
that thou didji fo vifit him i Surely, homo eft res ni- 
hili, Man is a thing of nought, of no worth, no values 
yet fuch the eternal Son of God vouchfafed to become, 
that he might advance this thing of nought far above all 
Principalities and Powers, and Crown him with Wor- 
fhip and Glory. Neither did he by this aft glorify that 
particular humanity alone which he affumed, but the be- 
nefit fhall redound, though not in that manner nor yet 


Vfon E s a y liii. verfe 8. 342 

fo fully, yet in a marvellous degree unto all others that 
fhall but glorify him \ for in him they (hall be made par- 
takers too, even of the Divine Nature, i Pet. 1.4. He 
was anointed indeed with the Oyl of gladnefs above 
bis fellows 5 not alone then anointed, but above and 
more abundantly than any others. As that precious 
Ovntmeut which was poured forth on Aarons head, 
fo Divine honours and graces by this union defend- 
ed upon His 5 which it moft plentifully drenched; but 
drencht not it alone (for of his fulnefs we have all re- 
ceived) and therefore it trickles down upon his beard, and 
all men living that (hall adhere unto him 3 and not fo 
only, but from thence drops on the very skirts of his ray - 
ment, even the reft of the Creatures, who have all fome 
intereft in his body and therefore in his glory. 

Whereby we are given to confider not only the great- 
nefsbut the large extent of the Almighty 's.goodnefs in this 
Act of his Incarnation. For bonum eft f»i diffufivunt, 
goodnefs isdiffufive, and loves to communicate it felf, and 
that of God the fupream good moft of all other : And 
indeed whatfoever we every where fee, whatfoever any 
where is or hath any being, it is nothing elfe but a Com- 
munication of the Divine goodnefs from whence they 
have all that they have whatfoever they are. But now 
in this myftery God did communicate a new goodnefs, 
and a greater than ever before 3 not only unto man, but 
in a fort unto all his Creatures : which all have fome 
title in his perfon, and (hall in their time receive a bene- 
diction from it : for man as he was Supremuw Creationis 
colophon, the laft and fupream work of the Creation {, 
fo was he the fum and recapitulation of all that was cre- 
ated before him : and all that was (0 created was but ei- 
ther fpiritual as the Angels, or corporeal as the reft of the 
world : and in man who hath a material body with the 
one r andan immaterial Soul (utabk to. the other 3 both were 


344 ^ third Sermon on Chrtjimas day y 

bound up together in one Creature. A Creature which 
hath being with the Elements whereof he is compound- 
ed 5 life and vegetation with plants 5 fenfe with beafts 5 
reafon and fpiritual exiftence with the Angels 5 and there- 
fore a little but compleat world within himfelf, Nexu? 
& vinculum totius creature, the very knot and band 
that holds together the whole Creation. And therefore 
the whole world being united in man and man unto God, 
every Creature ot the world cannot but have fome inte- 
reft in the union , who have a part in the Nature that 
was united. Had he affumed the nature of Angels,the reft 
of his works that are corporeal had been excluded. 
Had he taken unto him aCeleftial body and made his Ta- 
bernacle in the Su.n 3 the Creatures that have life and 
fenfe had lain unregarded: and fhould any of thefehave 
been honoured with it,thofe that are intelligent and fpiri- 
tual, men and Angels, had been left out under contempt 
for ever. Man therefore was the only creature in whom he 
could intereft and honour all the reft, as being both cor- 
poreal and fpiritual,and having in him being, life, fenfe, in- 
telled and whatfoever the reft have and are. And mans na- 
ture therefore he only affumed, ut dum una ajjumitur in 
qua reliquarum gradus continenturj in una rcliqu<e 
omnes quoad fuos gradus affumerentur. That ib affuming 
the one wherein the degrees of all the reft were con- 
tained, all the reft in that one, according to their degrees 
might be affumed. Wherefore that Cardinal Schoolman 
Caje tan hid not amifs, Incarnatio eji elevatio totius 
univerji in divinam perfonam^ the Incarnation is an ex- 
altation of the whole Univerfe into the Divine Perfon. 
Since by it man, in whom all things are knit together, is 
himfelf knit and united unto God 3 that, as man is all ia 
one, fo God might be all in all. And all from God receive 
•not only elevation and honour , but bleffing and bene- 
-di&ion in Chrift Jcfus, the Son of God, \fho is there- 

ZJpon E s a y liii. verfe 8. 345 

fore the head both oi men and Angels 5 to them a Con- 
ferver, to us a Redeemer, and not unto us only but unto 
all other Creatures that were made for our ufe,and become 
fubjeft unto vanity through our fin : that as they differ- 
ed by mans tranfgrefiion, fo in man they might partake 
of mans Redemption. And therefore the whole Creati- 
on, faith St. Paul, travaileth in pain together with us, and 
together with us (hall be delivered into the glorious li- 
berty of the fons of God 5 and therefore waiteth until 
they fhallbe reveafed. For which reafon our bleffed Lord 
fully is, as he is termed, Salvator mundi the Saviour not 
of man alone but of the whole afpe&able world and 
whatfoever is in it. Thy truth reacheth unto the Hea 
vens^ (Taith David of him) and thy faithfulnefs un- 
to the Clouds $ how excellent is thy name in all the 
World ! thou Lord J/ialt fave both man and beafi: and 
what name is that which is fo excellent in all the world, 
but the name of a Saviour? thou Lord (halt fave both 
man and beaft. And therefore the prophet Efay calls unto 
Heaven and Earth, the Foreft and all the Trees that are 
in it, that is the whole world and whatfoever dwelleth 
therein, to fing and rejoyce together, for this Redemp- 
tion, Sing Heavens, for the Lord hath done it : J/jout 
ye lower parts of the Earth, breal^forth into finging ye 
Mountains, Foreji and every Tree therein 5 for the 
Lord hath redeemed Jacob and glorified himfclf in if 
rati, Efay xliv. 22. And St. Paul gives the reafon 
(which is the lame we have hitherto given) becaufe in 
this Redeemer all things in Heaven and Earth were col- 
lected, and gathered together in one even in Chrijl, Eph> 
x. 10. And not only gathered and collected, but reftored 
in him and renewed: For nova jam fail a fitnt emnia\ 
all things are now made new, faith the lame ApotUe. Moft 
worthily therefore at the name of Jefus, the knee of every 
Creature, both in Heavey.and Earth and under the Earth 

Y y 

54^ A third Sermon on Cbriflmas day. 

is injoyned to bow and give glory ? as being by that name 
glorified in a fort, and reftored to more excellent per- 
fection. So great, fo univerfal is the goodnefs declared in 
this Aft : Yet this is not all. But as it is great unto man, 
and univerfal unto the Creature : lb is it the higheft 
Communication of goodnefs in it felf, and the beft demon- 
ftration of the intrinfick goodnefs of the Creator : the 
higheft in it felf, becaufe in this he communicates himfelf, 
which is not a goodnefs, but goodnefs it felf. Befides *his 
there are but three degrees of communication, Nature, 
Grace and Glory : but this fourth of hy poftatical union,in- 
finirely exceeds them all : on which all acknowledge their 
dependancef) for it reftores Nature, gives Grace, pur chat 
eth Glory. Nature indeed and natural properties are 
a great communication of Gods goodnefs unto natural 
things : fupernatural Grace unto the Soul of man in this 
life a greater : Divine glory unto body and Soul in the 
life to come greateft of all : yet the beft goes not farther 
than a Created quality 5 for though being glorified,we (hall 
fee God, fee his Eflence and be blefled in feeing it, yet we 
(hall (ee it but per fpeciemjjy a Divine indeed but a crea- 
ted light : but in this of Incarnation he doth not exhibit any 
(hews or fimilitudes, he doth not beftow any* created gift, 
whether of natural or fupernatural order 5 but he gives 
and beftows himfelf immediately unto his Creature : who 
doth as immediately fee and injoy him in himfelf, being 
the felffame Perfon with him : a communication of good- 
nefs wonderful above all others, and not to be conceived, 
had it not been revealed. And as the higheft in it felf,fois 
it the greateft demonftration of the intrinfick goodnefs, 
that is, holinefs of the Lord that vouchfafed it. For if 
the deteftation of evil be an argument of goodnefs, how 
full of goodnefs is he,who, that we might know how utter- 
ly he hates and abhors all fin and wickenefs, rather than it 
Ihould efcape unrevenged, would incarnate the Divinity 


ZJpon Es ay Jiii. verfe 8. 347 

it felf, that fo he might punifh it and feverely too, even in 
his own Son? which doth not only manifeft his good- 
nefs, but his Juftice alfo, and together with both the 
greatnefs and grievoufnefs of our fins. How far were 
our Souls gone, and how deadly our Iniquities that muft 
either draw God from Heaven, yea dragg him to the 
Crofs, or plunge us in an everlafting Hell ? And unto that 
our bleiled Lord vouchfafed to be brought, that we might 

be delivered from this Who then (hall declare, either 

the heinous guilt of our fin, or the infinite power, the 
manifeft wifdom, or infinite both goodnefs and juftice 
declared in his generations ? Efpecially his goodnefs unto 
us miferable finners, which we muft ever eipecially think 
on, but never hope to utter ? O what mind, what fpeech 
(hall utter, fay or conceive the great honour he hath this 
day done unto our nature ? how many and marvellous 
benefits he hath in it confer'd on our perfons ? freeing 
us from all that is evil, fin, forrow, death and Hell, and 
inverting us with whatfoever is good, Grace, Joy, and 
Glory everlafting in Heaven ? Say we then all with Te- 
lergks^ Age O Chrifte Dei Verbum e^ fapientia, Well 
then O dear Jefus, the word and wifdom of the Father, 
what (hall we poor miferable Creatures return unto thee 
for all thy favours? Tua enim omnia, & a nobis nihil 
cupis nifi falvari ; for thou haft done all things for us, 
and required nothing of us again, but that we would 
fufFer our frlves to be faved 5 nay thou giveft us falva- 
tion and takeft it kindly at our hands, yea, as a benefit 
unto thy felf, if we will but receive it. O infinite good- 
nefs ! and that we may laud and praife and worfhip thee 
worthily for it, add one more mercy unto all that is paft : 
and as thou waft pleafed to be born in our nature 5 fo 
vouchfafe to be born again by thy holy Spirit in our 
Perfons, that we maj once more lay, £>uis e**rrabit % 

Y v ? Sn 

348 A third Sermon on Chriftmas day, 

So we pafs unto our laft point, from his Divine birth 
of tjie Father and his Humane from the womb of the 
blcfled Virgin, unto \i\sfpiritual in the Souls of all the 
faithful: Fork is not enough that the Son of God was 
born for us or in our nature, unlets he be alio born with* 
in us and in our particular fpirits, by his grace : that fb 
as he was made the Son of Man by being united unto our 
flefh, we might become the SonsofGod by being united 
again unto him in the fpirit 5 By which (pi ritual union 
and myftical, are conveyed and applyed unto us all the 
benefits and graces purchafed by the perfonal. And it is 
not the meriting of Mercy but the aftual conferring of it, 
that muft do us good 5 which, is never fully done until 
he that was born for us be reborn again in and within us 5 
lill he live in our hearts by Faith, and his life revive in 
our converfation 3 till his patience be ftamped upon our 
Spirits, and th&reft of his Divine Vertues ingraven and 
formed on our Souls. For fo fpeaks St. Paul of this Spi- 
ritual Generation, My_ little children, of -whom I tra- 
vail in birth again until Chrijl be formed in you. Gal. 
3v. 19. And formed then he is in us, not before, when 
we canfhapeand form our hearts in fome good meafure, 
according to the pattern and precedent he hath left us, 
truly faying with the fame St. Paul, Vivo jamnon ego, fed 
Chrijlut vivit in me, I live now, and yet not I, but 
Chrift liveth in me : A birth and formation fo full of mar- 
vel and miracle, as .we may nolefs (ay. of it than of thole 
Other, £htis enirrabit, &c i 

For in the fit ft indeed God is born of God: in the 
iecond God is born of a Woman s but in the third, many 
Men and Women at once both bear and are born of God : 
becaufe Gods formation in Man, is Mans reformation un- 
to the image of God : his generation in us, our regene- 
ration in him. And foby the fame aft in which God is 

-rn in Man, in the (elf-fame both aft and inftant Man :s 


ZJpon E s a y Jiii. verfe 8. 349 

born of God, as St. Job* fpeaks. And that by the infen- 
fibleandunfearchable working of the Spirit, which works 
fo fccretly, as Man himfelf cannot obferve and difcern it, 
though it work within himfelf and even in his ownfpirit. 
The child is not more inobfervably conceived in the 
womb of the Mother , than Chrift Jefus in the Soul of 
the Chriftian. And therefore the kingdom of heaven 
cometh not by obfervation, faith our Saviour : that it is 
come, we find ; but how it came, we perceive not : and 
what we cannot difcern, how fhould we exprefs ? who 
then (hall declare, &c> 

Neither is it more fecret than ftrange and powerful ^ 
there being nothing of greater admiration than the won- 
derful work of God in the converfion of a (inner. How 
marvellous is it, that the hearts of wicked Men, that 
were for fo many years before, domicilia D&monum, the 
habitation of Devils, wherein the Foxes had holes, and 
the fowls of the air their nejis, that is deceipt and am- 
bition roofted, and with them Luxury and Avarice, En- 
vy, Wrath and Malice, Prophanenefs, Falfhood, and all 
manner of filthinefs, until it became a den of beafts, a 
cage of unclean birds, and indeed a very Hell of impure 
fpiritssthatfuch a Stable of hkh^AHgeaj's Stable,fhouldfud- 
denly be cleanfed,and a Tenent of Grace, Jefus, as in that 
ofBcthlern, be born in it, in an inftant ? That fo dark 
vaults of lufts and uncleanneG fhould prciently be trans- 
formed into Temples of the Holy Ghoft? That fo impo- 
tent and inthralled Souls fhould be indued with power 
from above, and infpired with fiich an Almighty and mi- 
raculous Fauh, as is able in a moment to call out all thofe 
Devils ? To teach the prophane to ipeak with a new 
tongue, the wrathful and vindictive with patience to 
luck up all the poy foiled malice venemous ftomachb can 
difgorge agajoft them, without hurt ; and not only to 
be good in [hetnfelves, but by laying their hands on tl 

35 o A third Sermon on Cbrifimas day D 

fick, by their charitable works unto the diftrefled , not 
only relieve them, but with their very example recover 
others that were fick of fin unto death. Who can behold 
fuch a change, fuch and fo fudden a mutation, and not 
fay with David^ This is the Lords doing and it is 
marvellous in our eyes ? Sure it is digitus Dei, the fin- 
ger of God indeed, the very power of his Spirit 5 nay no 
other than another incarnation, and fpiritual birth of the 
Son of God in fuch a Soul. And quis enarrabit .<? 

A generation performed with fo fecret and yet fo 
powerful an operation. Which yet we (hall perceive the 
better and receive too the fooner (for though it be pow- 
erful all do not always receive it) if we be obfervant of 
the circumftances of this fpiritual, in the mind, which 
for the quality of time, place and perfon doth much re- 
femble that other humane birth in the flefh. For as then 
he was born in the nighty fo ftill is he ufually begotten 
in the nightly and filent meditations of the Soul. When 
all things were in quiet filence, and the night in her 
fwift courfe, then the Almighty word left the Royal 
Throne and leapt down from Heaven, faith the Au- 
thor in the book of Wifdom : And fure then efpecially 
when all things are quiet and filent, when the works and 
toils, cares and labours of the day are laid afide and the 
Soul in fweet contemplation of the vanity of all her tra- 
vel under the Sun, then I fay efpecially is Divine Wif- 
dom preparing the place for the Son of God : who 
though he leave not Heaven and his throne there, yet 
by his fpirit doth he vouchfafe to defcend and live and 
dwell in this earth of ours for ever. And as in the deep 
of night, fo for the moft part is he born ftill in the 
depth of Winter. For in the Summer and fun-lhine of 
profperity, we are all apt to forget God and regard but 
little what he fpeaks unto us 5 but in the cold and bitter 
ftorms of Winter when our Bark is tofled in a tempeftu- 


ZJpon E s a y Jiii. verfe 8. 35 

ous Sea of afflictions 5 then like other Mariners we can 
quickly pour out vows, leave our canns and caroufes, 
and betake our felves to Supplication and Prayers:, and can 
attentively hearken alfo what the Lord God will fay con- 
cerning our Souls. Only take heed of the 3d. circumftance 
in this point: and though he came in the laft age of the 
world, yet be fure not to defer thy entertaining of him 
till the laft age of thy life. For however he be fometimes, 
and it may be ufually as yet born fpiritualiy in that 
point of Mans days, as he was then of the world} yet it 
cannot be fafe,' yet it muft be more than foolifh to pre- 
fume of it. For we well know how frail we are. and 
God knows how fuddenly we (hall be (wept away in our 
fins 5 when we would give the whole world, if we 
had it, for but one hour of that time we fo foolifhiy 
ncglc&ed, and may not have. Remember therefore thy 
Creator in the days of thy youth before the evil day come } 
and give attentive consideration to the counfel of the 
Wifeman, Defer not to do well, and put not off from 
day to day, for fuddenly JIjjII the wrath cf the Lord 
come forth and in fecurity thou fl)*U be d'ejiroyed. But 
lajily and above all, be moll aflured that as then, fo he 
will (till be born in no other time but a time of peace. 
Peace there was in the whole world when he was born 
in it } and we muft ceafe from wars and envies and ha- 
treds, and have peace every one with his Brother , or 
he will never be born in us. It was the Song and Anthem 
at his birth, fung by Angels, Glory be to God on high, 
in earth peace, good, will towards men. He is the great 
peacemaker that came of purpofe to eftablifh an everla- 
fting peace between God and Man: but on this condi- 
tion, that Man fhallfirft be at peace with Man 5 other- 
wife not to expect it from God, of whom he may not fo 
much as beg mercy for his offences but as himfelf remits 
the trefpafles of others. O take heed therefore, flatter 


352 A third Sermon on Chrijirnas day, 

not thy felf, but fearch narrowly and be fure to ftrip all 
wrath and revenge from thine heart, or be moft allured 
Chrift will never dwell and inhabit there: who cannot 
but hate the very place where fuch odious and hateful 
fins make their abode. Sins that bind all the reft of our 
iniquities on our Souls, yea make whatfoever elfe is good, 
finful unto us. Whereof fo long as thou art guilty, thou 
doft but curfe thy felf when thou prayeft, and damn thy 
own Soul when thou receiveft. This for the time : fee 
now how well the other circumftances agree, which con- 
cern the place of his birth, and efpecially the perfon of 
whom he was born. For born he was not of any ordina- 
ry Woman at a venture, but of a pure and chart Vir- 
gin : and fo will he ftill be both born and bred } in a 
clean and unpolluted Soul. Into a defiled heart full of 
noifom lufts and fordid affe&ions he will not enter, they 
muft be firft purged out, and all the ftains and pollutions 
of them wafhed away and cleanfed in a bath of peniten- 
tial tears 5 then he will defcend thither, be born there, 
and inftead of thofe natural corruptions fill the place with 
all divine and fupernatural Graces : and fo not find but 
make the Soul a Virgin by being begotten in it : A Virgin 
full of virtue which he will efpoule and marry unto him- 
felf for ever. But yet of all virtues he moft anefts humi- 
lity in her 5 the firft and laft of virtues 5 the firft begin- 
ing and laft confummation of whatfoever is virtuous. For 
without it, the Soul is not capable of virtue 5 and had 
(he never fo many would fpoil all by growing proud of 
the virtues which (he hath. And therefore as he was 
born of a Virgin, fo would he be born in no other but 
a Stable the meaneft place and loweft in the houfe : to 
fhcw us the condition of the mind, the humility and low- 
Jinefs of the fpirit, where he ftill is, and ever will be fpi- 
ritually brought forth. For as the covetous Soul is but a 
Barn 5 the Epicure's a Kitchen j the Drunkard's a Cellar} 


ZJpon E s a y liii. verfe 8. 355 

the Ambitious a Chamber of State 5 (o the low and regard- 
left Stable may well fignify the humble fpirit } that both 
is, and efteems it (elf a wretched (inner Not then in the 
Barn of Mifers, nor in the Kitchin of Belly-gods: not in 
the Cellar of Winebibbers, not in the great Chamber of 
Pride and Prodigals 5 but in the defpifed Stable of humble 
and dejefted fpirits, there is he, there will he and no 
where elfeever be born. And every Soul wherein he is 
fo born may be bold to fay with the blefled Virgin that 
firft faw him '-> jcr thou regardefi the lowlinefs of thy 

But yet humility is not more acceptable to him than 
worldly cares and covetoufnefs difpleafing --, than which 
nothing can more hinder his conception and generation 
in our Souls. For God and Mammon cannot dwell toge- 
ther. And for this caufe, as in a Stable, fo he would be 
born in an Inn : For an Inn is downs populi^ free and 
open unto all comers : and fo muft the Soul be where- 
in he will be the fecond time born 5 free and'generous, 
holding nothing as it were in private, and proper to it 
(elf, but open and ready to communicate all things to 
thofe that want and are diftreffed, and no lefs freely than 
the other for money. And the fooner becaufe he knows 
the world it (elf is but an Inn, where we do not inhabit 
but lodge for a feafon : and who is fo mad as to build and 
plant, gamifh and make great provifion in an Inn ? in his 
paflage and upon the way, being to depart ere long, per- 
adventure the next morning? For here we have noa- 
biding place, no permanent City, but as ftrangers and 
pilgrims, we look for one which hath a foundation. And 
in fuch a Soul, which is in it felf as an Inn, and efteems 
the world for no other, and therefore void of all (crap- 
ing and wretched dcfires, the Son of God is ever moft 
infallibly born, and will as certainly bear it where are 
true riches and everlaftittg. Now thcfe three,pleafure,pro- 

Z z fit 

554 ^ third Sermon on Cbrifimas day y 

fit and pride, that is, # the flefb, the world and the Devil, 
are the three heads whereunto all fins are reducible: and 
as Chrift cuts th^m all off in his birth, fo muft we cut 
them off in our felves, or he will never be born in us. 
Carnal pleafure muft depart, he will be born of a Vir- 
gin : Devilifh pride abandoned, he is born in a Stable : 
worldly cares and covetous defires utterly difcharged, he 
is born in an inn. And when the Soul is thus prepared, 
by being truly cleanfed from all thefe, the time is at hand 5 
and then let him make haft and go up with confidence 
unto Bet blew, for there he will be born, that is the laft 
and general place of his nativity, born in Bethlem. 

And Bethlem is domus pants (fo the name fignifies) 
the houfe of bread 5 and never fo truly as now, when 
the bread of life was born in it. And as then, fo will he 
ftill be born in Bethlem in the houfe of bread. Of bread 
not corporal but fpiritual ^ and fuch as can nourifh the 
Soul: and what houfe think you is that? furely Beth- 
lem is nothing but Bethel^ the houfe of bread, noneo- 
ther but the houfe of God. Where Men eat Angels food, 
and that bread of life is freely difpenfed ^ not only panis 
verbi, but panis verbum^ the bread of the word, but 
the bread which is the word, the eternal word of God 5 
panis de Ctelo^ bread from Heaven, of which whofoever 
eateth fhall never die. And this is that houfe : & ecce, 
and behold there is that heavenly bread indeed, not fo 
much bread as the body of thy Redeemer, the bread 
which we breasts it not the Communion of the Lords 
body f the Communion fure of his body and blood too : 
of himfelf and all that he did or fuffercd, yea or pur- 
chafed either. For all are communicated in thefe 5 the 
fame Symbols of all, and Conduits by which all are con- 
veyed to us. And therefore Chrift Jefus himfelf is under 
this bread 5 and comes down to thee as from Heaven 
ki this (hape 5 that he might be at once both received in 


Upon Es ay li'ii verfe 8. 355 

thy mouth and conceived in thy heart 5 conceived and 
born j live and inhabit there for ever. So juftly was Bet h- 
lem the feat of his Nativity : and therefore as Jacob faid 
when he awoke out of flcep, in that place where fome 
fuppofethe Temple was afterwards built: how fearful, 
faith he, is this p lace? the Lord was in it and I was 
not aware : this is none other than the houfe of God and 
the gate of heaven : if he faid fo of the Temple the 
houfe of that bread, how much more juftly may we fay 
of the bread of this houfe, How fearful is this bread $ 
the Lord is in it, and much more, efpecially than, in the 
Temple 5 and wo unto them that are not aware of it, 
that difcern it not ^ for they do but eat damnation to 
themfelves, becaufe they difcern not the Lords body. 
Take heed therefore above all things unto thy felf when 
thou comeft to this fearful, twice fearful place, this dou- 
ble Temple 5 the Temple of his worfhip, and Temple of 
his Body : and fo, that thou make thy approach with due 
regard and diligent preparation, with that deep forrow 
as becometh thy fins, that low reverence as becometh 
thy Saviour. And fo in the end think on the night where- 
in he was to be born, and betake thee to thy fweet and 
filent meditations : confider the deep of Winter, and em- 
brace thine affliftions : Look upon the days of peace, and 
let go wrath : view the Stable, and down with thy pride: 
fee the Inn, and contemn the World : contemplate the 
Virgin, and cleanfe thy felf from all pollutions of the flefh : 
fo (hall the King have pleafure in thy beauty and thy Vir- 
gin Soul \ come up fafely into Bethlem and take of the 
bread of life freely, and with it the bleffed Lord of life 
himfelf : who will make thy fpirit another fpiritual Beth- 
lens or houfe for this living bread 5 an habitation for this 
living Lord, to be born and live in,fo long as thou lived, 
and give thee everiaftipg life, when thou canft live no 
longer . Which God 5f his infinite mercy. &c. To whom, 
&c. Laus Deo in at emu n/- 

3 5 6 The Firfl Funeral Sermon^ 



The FIRST for the 



Upon P s a l. cxlii. verfe ult* 

'Bring my Soul out of Trifon, that 1 may give thanks 
unto thy Name 5 which thing if thou wilt grant me y 
then fhall the Righteous refort unto my Company. 

D, O notmarvel, the Text may be fitter than you 
I imagine , or I could have made choice of: for 
f it is not I, but another : it was not taken, but 
given me. She that is now gone and at reft (and 
may (he reft for ever in peace) (he whofe diffolved Ta- 
bernacle^ the prifon of whofe blcfled Soul lies here before 
your eyes, as a fpedtacle of mortality, as a document of 
the frailty of our humane condition, which I would, (if 
I might fo wifh ) it had this day appeared by fbme other 
example : She, this worthy and honoiyred Lady, now glo- 
rious Saint in Heaven, to whom We are at. this time to 


Upon P s a l cxlii. verfe nit. 3 zn 

perform our laft office and Chriftian duty : She it is who 
as (he made it her frequent praife in her life, fo (he de- 
fired it might be commended to your meditations in her. 
death. And you will anon perceive how juftly 5 when 
you fhall fee how well it fortcd with the one, and hov/; 
fully it is now accomplifhed in the other. But for this 
you muft ftay a little. Firft therefore of her Theam,thcn 
of her (elf. Bring my Soul, &t. 

The whole Pfalm is a prayer of Davids, purfued by 
Saul and fhut up in a Cave as appears by the Title, but 
whether that of Adullam in the xxii. of Sam net as Haimo 
and RemigiHs ^ or elfe of the other of Engedi in the 
xxiv. of the fame book, as AmLrofe and Athanafuu 
fuppofe, is uncertain, nor is it material to enquire;' In 
one of them it was, and in this diftrefs he Hees unto the 
Lord for fucour, in this whole rfalm 5 the fum and fab- 
ftance of whofe devout prayer you have in this laft 
verfe, Bring my, Soul, &c. This is the Hiftorical truth 3 
and the literal fence of the Text which arifeth from 
thence is manifeft. Deliver my Soul out of Prifon : Efpe- 
lunca, out of this Cave } and not fo only, not out of the 
Cave alone, for fo he might have fallen into the hands of 
Saul from whom it did fecure him out of that danger and 
deep diftrefs wherewith he was environed on every fide, 
and wherewith he was inclofed, fhut up and furrounded 
as in a Prifon. And out of this Prifon, Rune ammam. re- 
deem, deliver, bring forth my Soul. 

But befides the literal, the holy Scripture (it cannot be 
denied) efpecially the old Teftament, and the Pialms mere 
than any cl(e,. doth every where abound with many other 
both moral and myftical fences: for as St, Pant hath it, 
omnia contingeb ant illls injigura,a\\ things happened un- 
to them under the Law irj a figure 5 and are for examples 
unto us on whom the end. of the world arecome. Their 
very Hiltoi :ics wp;e Prophecies, and tbdr. actions 


2 < 8 The Firji Funeral Sermon 

di&ions, faith St. Auftin : and as when words fignify ani- 
ons, there arifeth the hiftorical fences fo when thofe ani- 
ons again are inftead of words to fignify other feveral ope- 
rations, from thence doth emerge the myftical interpreta- 
tion. For which reafon it is, that the Fathers and learn- 
ed Writers of our own and former ages have given unto 
this place fuch variety of expofitions 3 and that not by way 
only of accommodation, but as the proper and intended 
meaning of the Spirit, that endited it : juftly taking that 
for the Souls Prifon which doth any way either natural- 
ly or morally ftraiten or opprefs the Soul, or reftrain 
the freedom and liberty of it in her operations. And 
therefore every faithful Chriftian under what diftrefi fo- 
ever, whether of outward affliftions or inward and in- 
herent fins, whether of bodily infirmities, or worldly 
troubles and cares, whether meaning any or all and every 
of them, he may truly fay with David, Bring my Soul 
e cuftodia, out of the inclofure and cuftody of this mi- 
ferable Prifon : for though David peradventure did not 
himfelf aftually behold all thole meanings when he pray- 
ed 5 yet the Holy Ghoft which did diftate to him might 
eafily forethink, and intend unto more fenfes, than the 
wits of men can, according to the analogy of faith, find 
out or difcover. And as this firft part is fomething trou- 
bled with diverfity of Interpretations, fo the latter part 
is become much more difficult through variety of read- 

Here it is, Which thing if thou ffjalt grant me, then 
Jloall the Righteous re fort unto my company, as if it 
were promiffory and votive. In the reft it feems ra- 
ther aflertory and pofitive, The Righteous fhall compafs 
mc about ^ for thou f/j alt deal bountifully with we, fo 
our new Tranflation. Then ffja/I the Righteous come 
about me, when thou haft been good or beneficial unto me : 
fo Junius and Tremelius render it. $4e expcSant Jufti 


ZJfon P s a l. cxlii. verfe ult. 359 

dortec retribuas tnihi, The Righteous wait and expe3 
till thou doji reward me with deliverance, fo the vul- 
gar edition. Yet all feem to agree in this, that upon his 
deliverance the Righteous (hall compafs him about, and 
he either to them or they with him (hall praife and mag- 
nify the name of the Lord by whom he was delivered. 
But this help thefe divers readings will afford us, it will 
make the Text more appliable unto the feveral expoiiti- 
onsthe Antients have given us. So having opened the 
paffage and a little cleared che fence of the Text, we may 
now go on without offence to the divifions of it 3 where- 
in we ihall not need to labour much, it requires neither 
Art nor Industry 5 Nature hath already done it to our 
hands : It runs forth of its own accord into two Branches, 
and no mans eye fo weak but he may fee them of himfelf, 
Prayer and Praife Prayer for deliverance } Praife avid 
thankfgiving, when he hath obtained it : in the one ye 
may behold the devotion^ in the other the gratitude of 
his Soul. Deliver my Soul out ofPrifon : fee the Prayer. 
That I may give thanks unto thy name : fee the Praife. 
And yet you fee not all of the praife neither : Praife his 
name he may do in his own heart and within himfelf, and 
that is but private praife : but this is not enough, he will 
have it publick too : his good heart is already filled 
but to think of his deliverance, and he prefently medi- 
tates where he may vent it : and nowhere fo well as in the 
Ears of the righteous, who will foon flock about him to 
rejoyce in his mercy, and gladly bear a part in his fong 
of thankfgiving 5 among them therefore he will pour it 
forth, that the vovce of honour and praife, as from a 
full Qyire, may afcend into the Ears of the Lord his 
deliverer. Which thing if thou wilt grant me^ then , 

But be \iufe it will be more convenient for us to end 
with the Prayer, we will begin firft with this laft, the 


^60 The Firft Funeral Sermon 3 

Praife, and it will agree well with the order of nature: 
for indeed every Mans praife (hould be firft in his refo- 
lution, before he offer to open his mouth in his prayer. 
Offer unto God thanksgiving, faith David, and fay 
thy vows unto the moji High, and then call upon nte in 
the day of trouble, and I will deliver thee 3 as if no 
Man might expeft deliverance in that day, the day of 
trouble, unlefs he firft refolve on and vow thanklgiving 
unto the mod High. And indeed thus far we can go with 
the Prophet : we are all apt enough topromife and vow 
many thankful returns unto the Lord when our Souls are 
in forrow, and his affii&ions lie heavy upon us 5 but for 
performing of thefe promifes and paying of thefe vows 
afterwards, there is the difficulty, and there we leave 
him. Under our burthens and diftreffes, efpecially if 
great and preffing, it is almoft every Mans vow : O if the 
Lord will but deliver me now, free me but this time, 
we will do this and that and marvellous things then : but 
the hand of the Lord is no fooner removed , the prifon 
of our affli&ions broken up, and our Souls brought forth 
in fafety, but all is inftantly forgotten, as if it had never 
been. We are now well and at liberty, and have no need 
we think of the Lord 5 when we have, he (hall hear of us 
again, in the mean time pay vows he that lift 3 it is e-" 
nough for us to fmile in our fleeves, as if we had over- 
reacht the Lord and cheated him out of a deliverance 
with fair language. But God will not fail to reach home 
one time or other, unto fuch falfe hypocrifie : for Hypo- 
crites they are and no better 5 and for fuch they are e- 
fteemed and ftiled by God himfelf, though they promifed 
nothing but what at that time they truly meant to per- 
form. When Godjlew the I fr a elites, faith David, then 
they returned and inquired early after God, they re- 
Mentbred that God was their rock^, and the high God 
their redeemer 3 and no queftion but all this with 


ZJpon Psal cxlii. verfe ult. 361 

true devotion : yet becaufe upon the deliverance they 
fell back like their forefathers, darting afide as a broken 
bow, the Prophet prefently fubjoins, Neverthelefs they 
did but flatter with their lips and difjemble with their 
double tongue, for their heart was not right in them, 
neither were theyjledfafl in his Covenant : not ftedfafr, 
and therefore in Gods account not right 5 but even dil- 
femblers in what they truly intended, becaufe they falily 
forfook it. Hypocrites then they are, and with hypo- 
crites they (hall have their portion. Confider therefore 
faithfully what thy lips fpake, when thy heart was in 
trouble 5 and be lure that thy hand perform it when 
thou art releafed. And yet if your lips fpake nothing, 
if you have no vow upon you, thankigiving is due with- 
out it, pay that at lead with cheerfulness. No fuch Mon- 
fter in the world, not the Hypocrite himfel£ as the un- 
thankful Man 5 he that hath (aid Ungrateful, hath (aid all, 
and the word he can fay. And therefore above all things, 
if there be no vows to pay, yet offer unto God thankfc 
giving 5 next to that of a broken heart, it is the bed (a- 
crifice, thou cand offer him. This Jhall pleafe the Lord 
better than a bullock^ that hath horns and hoofes, PfaL 
lxix. 31. Nay not all thofe Hecatombs and millions of 
Sheep and Oxen which Solomon offered at the dedica- 
tion of the Temple, no nor thoufands of Rams and Ri- 
vers of Oyl, as Alicah fpeaks, can (b glad the Altars of 
God, as thefe Calves of our lips, the facrifice of praife 
and thankfgiving } but then it mud be made a burnt-of- 
fering, that is, kindled with the fire of zeal and true devo- 
tion, fing praife s lujiily, faith our Prophet, and with 
a good courage. And as he gives us the indru&ion, (b 
let him be our example, that you may know he did not 
promife more in this place than he was glad and willing 
to perform afterwards. See how luflily, and with what 
a good courage he doth perform it: he doth not goa- 

A a a bout 

362 The Fir ft Funeral Sermon, 

bout it drowftly, but his very preparation to it is hafty 
even beyond expreffion by any Mans words but his 
Pfcl.Ixxi. own, My heart is fixed O God, my heart is fixed, awake 
up my lute and glory, I my felf will awake right early. 
Vn, My lips will be fain when iftng unto thee, and fo will 
xxxv. my foul which thou haji redeemed : nay my mouth 
fhall be fatisfied as it were with marrow and fatnefr, 
when I pall praife thee with joyful lips : words that 
have vigour and life, and fhew a good courage indeed 5 
but all this is but preparative, for when he comes to 
performance, fee how he ftirs up all the parts of his body 
and powers of his Soul to concur with him in the work, 
Praife the Lord my foul, dnd whatfoever is within 
me praife his holy name : And yet it is not enough, him- 
felf and all his faculties are too little, this is ftill but pri- 
vate praife, he muft have it publick too, and (o it is to 
the purpofe: you may fee him fummon up, not only 
righteous Men, (as here) but all the creatures of Heaven 
and Earth, to bear a part with him : Angels, Sun, Moon, 
Stars, Fir6, Hail, Snow, Vapour, Storm and Tempeft too> 
praife ye the name of the Lord. And as yet not fatisfied;, 
he calls for all the Inftruments of Mufiek, Trumpets , 
Pfaltery, Harp, Timbrel, Cymbals, and the high tuned 
Cymbals to exprefs and fet it forth the more folemnly. 
Neither is it a paflionate flafh, like fire in Flax, as quick- 
ly out as kindled, but a conftant and parmanent affeftion, 
Whilfl I live 1 will praife the Lord, and as long as I 
have any being I will fin g praife s unto my God, Pf cxlvi. 
How mightily doth this upbraid the dead and cold de- 
votion of the prefent world ! fcarce a fpark of this holy 
fire to warm it, can now be found in one bofom of a 
thoufand : we think we have performed a worthy wit i- 
ficc, if with a barren and a dry heart we can only fay 
with the Pharifee, I thank thee O Lord that thou haft 
not made me like other men. Superficial we are and per- 


ZJpon Psal. cxlii. verfe ufc. 363 

funttory in all our fervice, forward in nothing but to run 
on the point of that curfeofthe Prophet, Cur fed be he 
that doth the work, of the Lord negligently. And the 
reafon is, for that if all things do not run according to 
our defires, we are infenfible of the goodnefs of God in 
other matters, and feldom meditate on it thoroughly. 
But had we apprehenfive fpirits, and could duly weigh 
and ferioufly confider the mercies of God, not only to 
Man in general, but every Man his fpecial favours unto 
himfelf in particular, a thoufand ways, when a thousand 
ways he deferved deftru&ion, he would foon find his 
breaft ftraitned and too narrow for his fwelling affecti- 
ons, till he breath them out in our Prophets double expo- 
ftulation of love, not only, Domine quid eft Homo .<? 
Lord what is Man that thou art fo mindful of him^ but 
Domine quid fum ego, what am /, what is my Fathers 
houfe that thou fo regardeft me ? Let fuch meditations 
blow on the little fire that lies raked up in our embers, 
and they will foon kindle into a flame, wherein our de- 
votions may afcend into Heaven like that Angel which 
went up playing in the flames of Manoahs facrifice, 
Judg.xm. And this fhall fuffice for this part, for the thank- 
fulnefs the Prophet promifeth, both private and publick, 
within himfelf and in the refort and company of the 
Righteous. I now leave his praife and come to his pray- 
ec Bring my foul out of prifon Lord, &c. 

And being in prifon, in ftreights and preffures, what 
fhould a good Soul do but pray ? If any man be merry 
let him fingjfhe be ajftiSedJet him pray, faithSt. James. 
For prayer it is the Souls Herald fent forth in extremity 
to parly and intreat for comfort. And as nothing can re- 
lieve our diftrefs better than prayer, fo nothing can again 
aflift our prayer better than diftretics. They inflame our 
zeal, and fet an edge upon our devotions : the cries of 
our own will are weafc and feeble, as cooled with fuc- 

A a a 2 cefs, 

364 The Firfi Funeral Sermon, 

cefs, inrefpect of thofe which grief doth utter. Sorrow 
is ingenious to pray 5 and in an inftant formeth the flow- 
eft tongues to an holy eloquence 5 and furnifheth them 
with fighs and groans which cannot be exprefled. And 
lure thofe are the beft and mod: piercing prayers of all 
other, fideU s or at io plus gemitibus con ft at qnam fer- 
monibus, plus fletu quam afflutu : faithful prayers in- 
deed confift rather of Tears and filent groans than many 
words. And fuch a prayer is this to fpeak on, it is but 
a groan, very fhort but very pithy : few words, but fer- 
vent and full of fubftance, including in it, (as an abftraft 
of all prayer) whatfoever conditions may fcem nccellary 
to a holy and devout fupplication, if you confider the 
objeft, the mapner and the matter of it. The objeft the 
Lord, io fome Texts have it here, but it is evident in 
the former verfes, I cried unto the Lord. The manner 
vehement, by way of crying out, as himfelf in the fame 
Pfalm teftifies, / cried unto the Lord. The matter or ex- 
tent larger than we imagine, even no lefs than delive- 
rance from all evil that may any way inthral the Soul,. as 
will appear when we come to open this Prifon from 
which he defires it may be freed. 'Bring wy Sou/, &c. 

Firft then it is well and rightly directed not to Saint 
or Angel or any creature elfe in Heaven or Earth, but 
unto the Creator of Earth and Heaven and Angels and 
all, to him that made them and is Lo>d over them. He 
cried unto the Lord, this cry, Bring my Soul, &c. He 
well knew what Ifaiah wrote afterwards, Abraham is 
ignorant of us, and ifrael knows us. not. And if they 
(hould know andunderftand him and his prayers, yet he 
well underftood they could not help him in his diftreG: 
for which reafon amongft an hundred and fifty Pialms 
which he wrote (one hundred whereof at leaft are pray- 
ers,) you (hall not find one directed to Cherub or Sera- 
phim, to Gabriel ox Raphael, Abraham or JMofcs, or any 


'Upon P s a l cxlii. verfe ult. 565 

other whatfoever, but ftill his cry is unto the Lord : He 
was fure, he could hear his complaints, and no tefi able 
than willing to relieve him when he complained, ft is he 
only that is Lord indeed of Death and Hell, of fin and 
affliction too 5 who alone hath the Keys of all thefe Pri~ 
fonss who opens and no Man (huts, who (huts and none 
iliall ever open ^ that hath power and ftrengrh in his 
holy arm to break the Gates of Brafs, and finite the bars 
of Iron afunder, and fo make way for the Captives that 
are faft bound in mifery and iron 5, either in the Iron 
chains of fin, or the mifery of diftrefs and affiiftion. To 
him therefore rauft this prayer come of all others, Bring 
my foul out of priftt/?. that of all others can break it up 
at his pleafure. And however in fmall and petty grie- 
vances we may caft about for humane fuccours and ftrain 
our wits for ftratagems to relieve us, negle&ing the Lord 
in the mean time, yet cum dignus vindice nodus inci- 
derit^ in great and overwhelming calamities, efpecially 
if fudden too, when neither head nor hand, counfel or 
force can provide a remedy 5 when it is once come to 
Davids cafe'm thisPfalm, that we have fio place to flee 
unto, nor any Man that careth for our Souls, tunc Deu* 
intervenit, then we run readily whether Papifts or Pro- 
teftants, leave all, they their Papois and Pifturcs, we our 
projects and devices whatfoever, and betake our (fives 
only unto the Lord, the Lord alone of deliverance, and 
in Davids cafe approach with Davids petition, deliver 
thou my foul out ofprifon.. 

So then the objeft was right, and his prayer well di- 
rected: And the planner was anfwcrable, devout and 
fervent, he cried it out, Deliver my foul out of prifon. 
And yet it is not likely he cried with his voice, he now 
lay hid in a cave, and it was not fafe for him to make a- 
ny loud cries, faith Theodoret and Auftin. It was not 
therefore the outward (bund of the lips, but the inward 


3 66 The Firfl l Funeral Sermon, 

affe&ion of the Reart that fent forth this 5 the cry of this 
voice, asthofe Authors obferve 3 for as St. Bernard hath 
it, Defiderium vehemens* clamor magnus* a ftrong and 
eameftdefire cries loud though the lips fay nothing. And 
this is the cry, the cry of the heart that gives acceptance 
to our prayers, and deliverance too from our Prifons. 
The prayer of the Juft availeth much, if it be fervent, faith 
St. James: Dtherwife even the prayers of the Juft if they 
be cold and of cuftom rather than Devotion and Piety, 
may hurt but they profit nothing* The Lord is nigh un- 
to all them that call upon him faithfully* faith David* 
not formally 5 if asthofe Jews we draw near only with our 
lips, when our heart is far from him : he may draw near 
unto us with plagues and miferies, but his heart will be as 
far from our fupplications and diftreffes, when you fir etch 
forth your hands* 1 will hide mine eyes : and though 
yon make many prayers I will not hear you, faith the 
Lord in I fa. i. The reafon is there, your hands are full 
of blood } the reafon to us may be, your hearts bleed 
not. Your Altar is without fire 5 your prayer without 
heat, how (hould I accept your facrifices? The very 
wooden Priefts of Baal may be an inftrudion to us: 
They called* faith the Text, on the name of their god 
from morning till noon^ and when they had no anfwer 
they cried loud^ nay they cut themfelves with knives 
and lances*t\\\ they prayed not only in tears but in blood, 
that they might be heard : and I would the children of 
light were as zealous in their generations, though not fo 
foolifa. But yet rather let us receive directions here at 
home from our own Prophet. You faw how zealous he 
was in yraife* and he is as well affe&ed in Prayer : it 
was his darling this, and delight of his Soul 5 and it is 
hard for any Man ever to pray well, that hath not learnt 
it of him. No Man ever fo frequent, fo fervent in this ho- 
iy exercife 3 I will pray 9 faith he, at Morning, Noon, and 


ZJfon P s a l. cxlii. verfe u!t. ^6j 

Night, yea fcven times a day will I pray, and that in- 
ftantly with the iowardft and decpeft affe&ions of his 
mind. His bleeding heart may eafily be difcerncd at his 
weeping eye, which every night wafht his Bed and water- 
ed his Couch with tears. He mingled his bread with 
weeping, nay made weeping his bread, tears were his 
meat and drink. Sure he had a ftrange fire within rum 
that made him run overfofaft : or at leaft he was water- 
ed plentifully with the dew of Heaven, that could mini- 
fterfuch continual fountains to his eyes. We, why we go 
to prayers as if our Souls and tongues were Lcrfrngens; 
like the right hand and the left in the Gofpel, one fehiom 
knows what the other doth 5 as if we gave God an Alms 
and not prayed for our own neceflity. Our Bodies per- 
adventure are in the Church, butouraffeftions abroad : 
our lips utter prayers, our hearts are on our penny : and 
then no marvel if our eyes be dry when our devotions 
are fo droufie. But this is not it that can do it, fuch faint 
and feeble prayers will break open no Prifous. He muft 
cry louder and deeper, that will be heard in his diftrefs, 
when we can fay with David, ifrofundis, out of the 
deep have I called on the Lord, when the depth of our 
fins calls for the depth of our forrow, and both upon 
God for the depth of his mercies, when Abyffus Abyf 
jnm (hall call one upon another,then with David we (hall 
be fure to be heard, and have our Souls brought out N of 
Prilbn, which is the matter of the Prayer : our laft point, 
but hath many points in it. Bring my Soul out ofpri- 

For it is not a Prayer only for one pcnn'd up 
in a Cave 5 but vvhatfotver doth any way inclofe and 
ftraiten the Soul, as was laid afore, may not unfitly be 
termed the Souls Prilbn, and for ought we know intend- 
ed in this Scripture, at leaft applyable to it. And ofthefe 
things that thus befiege and (hut up the Soul 3 though 


og8 The Firfi Funeral Sermon, 

they are infinite almoftin themfelves, yet they may be re- 
ducible to thefe four. AffiiBie^s, the World, or worldly 
cares, fin, and this body of fin and death ; And under a- 
ny of thefe we may fay and pray with David here, Bring 
my Soul out ofprifon. 
Jk The firft (to take them in order) are afflictions, for- 
rovvs and diftreffes 5 and that thefe imprifon the Soul, and 
are here fpecially meant and intended, there is no quefti- 
on, all agree, tribulatio& anguftia are infeparable com- 
panions, Tribulation and anguifl) upon every Soul that 
hath done cvil^ faith the Apoftle 3 and AnguiJI) is no- 
thing elfe but the Englifh of Anguftia, for ftreights and 
preflure there are in all tribulations. Profperity and Joy 
do dilate the fpirits, and draw forth the Soul 5 but ftrick- 
en with grief and forrow, likeaprickt Snail (he fhrinks 
into her (hell, and is inftantly ftraitned. But yet of 
all the Prifons this is the moft neceffary : It is the Bride- 
wel of the world, and without it we fhould quickly grow 
Bedlam and run mad inexce(s and wanton delights. For 
all fins are frenzies, and fuch firmers feldom recover their 
wits any where elfe. The wild Prodigal whilft free and 
in profperity, runs on in his courfe and never perceives 
his own diftra&ion, till (hut up here and well whipt a 
while red it adfe, then he comes to himfelf and can fay, 
furgam & ibo ad patrem, I will arife and go unto my 
Father. For tribulatio id habet proprium ut howinemre- 
vocet & reducat ad fe : it is the very nature and property 
of affliftion to call home and reduce Men again unto their 
fenfes. Neither doth it only give them their wits but 
fets them on work, affording them matter whereon they 
may exercife themfelves and all the Chriftian virtues, 
Faith, Hope, Patience, Meeknefs, Humility and the reft, 
which otherwife would languifti and vitiate, if not exhale 
for want of imployment. This Prifon therefore is of 
excellent ufe : But why then if it be fo profitable, (hould 


Upon Psal cxlii. verfe ult. ^6 9 

we pray to be freed of it? why, abfolutely we do not; 
but with limitation 5 if God (hall think id expedient for 
us 5 who when the cure is perfe&ed, it may be will dif- 
mifs us 1 or if he keep us mere longer, he will make us 
large recompence for it hereafter. Our Saviours Prayer 
is our rule in this point } becaufe all affli&ions are grie- 
vous for the prefent we may (ay with him, // it be pof 
fible, tr an feat calix ifia, let this cup pajs : but ftill with 
fubmiffion to his good pleafure, not mine, but thy will 
be done. And thus much though not always expreft is 
ever referved and underftood, whenfoever in this cafe 
we (hall fay here with David, Bring my Soul out of 

The fecond is the world, or rather worldly cares, that *• 
clog and fetter the Souls of moft Men, nailing them faft 
unto the Earth that they cannot ftir a foot, not move a 
thought towards Heaven and heavenly meditations. This 
is a large prifon wherein every one hath feen reftraint 
more or lefs, as they have learnt that high precept of the 
Apoftle,* ufe the world as if they ufed it not 5 but fatis- 
fying nature only, account the reft that belongs to pomp 
and fuperfluitv, nothing near at that high rate as they are 
bought and fold for in this Market of Fools, quanti ven- 
duntnr & emuntur in nundinis fiultorum. Thefe in- 
deed have fome freedom, and though they are in a fort 
prifonen, yet they are prifoners at large, and have liberty 
as large as the Prifon, wherein they have elbow roome- 
nougb, not to be ftraitned. But thofe miferable wretch- 
es that, admiring the wealth and honour of the prefent 
world, have inthrallcd and wrapt their Souls in terrene 
and bale iolitudes, how clofe are they (hut up, and how 
miferable a fervitude do they indure ! No Gally-flave can 
be tied in ftronger chains than the Ambitious and Cove- 
tous Man 5 like thole condemned to the Mines he digs 
under earth, and fvveats for Ore all his life long 5 and 

B b b when 

v ■ ■ — . 

^jo The Firji Funeral Sermon 

when he dies hath his mouth ftopt only with a handful 
of gravel. And here every one may freely pray, and 
without any reftri&ion at all, Out of this Prifon Lord 
deliver my Soul. 
J, The Third of thefe Prifons and worft of all, is Sin 5 

the Third indeed it is in order but firft in time, that gives 
power and ftrength unto both the other. Had not that in 
the beginning feifed on our Souls and faft bound them to 
their hands, they could never have touched us. The world 
inftead of a Prifon, had been a Paradife, and the men in 
it, fubjeft neither to Cares nor afflictions: But now be- 
ing faft tyed by this, we have a thoufand Chains caft on 
us, befides$ and are become prifoners alrnoft to every 
thing elfe. This therefore is the head and fountain of 
our mifery, and as the firft fo the worft, ftraiteft and 
clofeft prifon of all other } a common Jayl indeed ra- 
ther than a Prifon, and the very hole of the Jayl wherein 
millions of men lie faft bound indeed, in mifery and Iron, 
putrifying and ftinking in their corruption, like Lazarus 
in his Grave 3 the very emblem both of the Prifon 
and Prifoners. And unlets that Son of God who came 
down himfelf from Heaven to open this Prifon and preach 
liberty unto the Captives, unlets he gracioufly call unto 
us, yea cry aloud as in the Gofpel he did, even groaning 
in his Spirit (to (hew how difficult a thing it is to di£ 
folve thefe bonds wherewith cuftom and habit hath tyed 
us as with cords) unlets he, I (ay, by the power of his 
holy voice cry unto us all as he did unto him, Lazare 
veni for as, Lazarus come forth, we (hall all perifh in our 
captivity- for ever, and never fee light. For this fink of 
(in (wherein the longer we lie, the deeper indeed we 
fink) doth at length empty it felf into Hell, the bottom- 
ks§ Pit and Prifon of everlafting forrow. But blefled 
be his name, the barrsare fmitten afunder, and the doors 
thrown open by his death : And he ftill calls unto us by 


ZJpon P s a l. cxJii. verfe uk. 571 

the voice of his Minifters,yea and Spirit too,tocome forth 5 
and unlefs we be enamoured of our own mifery, and like 
Beafts delight to lie in our own filth till we perifh in that 
nethermoft Gulf, let us hearken unto his calls and roufe 
up our felves betimes, anfwering his voice with another 
call of our own, calling and crying with all our might 
and without ever ceafing, all of us, From this Prifon 
good Lord deliver our Souls. But yet call and cry as long 
and as loud as we can, our Souls (hall never be clearly 
freed either from this Prifon of fin, or thofe others of 
Cares and Sorrows,fo long as they are (till inclofed in this 
of the corruptible body. Which is the Fourth and lad 
Prifon of the Soul, and here intended by David accord- 
ing to the expofition of many Fathers, whofe words I 
cannot now ftand to recite. 

And therefore Laurent ins Juftinianus (aid well of 4. 
this Prayer, Verba funt peregrinationis fine miferias 
meditantk, &c. they are the words, faith he, of one me- 
ditating on the miferies of his peregrination oh Earth, and 
the joyes of the celeftial Jerufalem above, and as it were 
fighing inhimfelf that he was detained fo long frompraif- 
ing the name of God, and finging hymns of thankfgi- 
ving and honour amidft all the company of the righteous 
there, and congregation of the firft-born both Saints and 
Angels, he grieves at his abfence, and groans out the fer- 
ventnefs of his defire inthisftiort Prayer, Bring my Soul 
ont of Prifon, that I may praife thy name. A defire 
which he doth elfewhere often exprefs, As the Hart de- 
flreth the water-brookj, fo longeth my Soul after thee 
God. When flj all I appear before the pre fence of the Lord ? 
Bleffed be they that dwell in thy houfe, theyffjall be always 
praifmg of thee from generation to generation : and that 
he might be in the midft of them praifing his name, his de- 
fire in this Prayer is hevi^Bring my Soul out of Prifon &c. 

And yet, if we (hall fuppofe he did not, yet others 

B b b 2 may> 

?7 2- The Firfi Funeral Sermon, 

may, and no queftion but many do. The Roman Catho- 
licks report, not without Joy, that their holy St. Francis 
died with this very fentence in his mouth, and this fence 
of it to be his mind, which he had no fooner uttered but 
Anima a Corf ore libera evolavit in ccelum, his Soul 
according to his rjequeft freed from his body, flew away 
into Heaven. And certainly whofoever hath but fo 
much goodnefs, as he can grieve to be detained from 
Heaven , or dcfires to be freed from the moleftations 
of fin upon Earth, cannot but efteem of the body as a 
Prifon which hinders him in both. Nay the very Phi- 
lofophers that knew neither of thofe refpefts, out of 
moral regards, could both perceive and acknowledge it 
for fuch, Career & fepulchrum Aniw£^ the Prifon and 
Sepulcher of the Soul. may we term them too, 
iMily we muft be careful we avoid the error of Origen^ 
That our Souls finned in Heaven, and are condemned to 
bodies, but as to Gallies or Prifons where they are to do 
penance for former tranfgreffions.. But as St. Auftin doth 
well diftinguifh, it is not the body in it fell which was 
firft built for a houfe ot delight though fin committed 
in it, but the corruption of it that makes it a Prifon, ao 
cprding to that in the Book of Wifdom Corpus corrupt 
iibile aggravat animaw, the corruptible body prefleth 
dpwn the Soul p, and ceafeth not to fight againft it with 
many noyfome lufts, in regard whereof the Apofrie him- 
fdf was inforced to cry out as even weary of his Prifon, 
qnis liber abit, who Jhall deliver me from this body of 
ueath? why $ Thanhs be unto God through our Lord 
Jefuf hrijl, this is he that (hall deliver us,this is the Lord 
to v/hom David did and we all muft. pray, that defire this 
benefit, Bring my foul out of Prifon Lord. 

And yet though we may lawfully make this Prayer in 
ihh fence, yet it muft be as before with fubmiflion of our* 
will unto. Uis : .wc muft wait the Lprds.kifun; witk pati- 

Upon P s a l cxliL verfe uJr. 370 

ence to whom only belong the iffues of death, and there- 
fore not leek to break through the walls or throw our (elves ■ 
out at the windows \ butftay till he (hall pleafe to open 
the door, and lead us forth in peace, for it is Educ an}- 
mjm.wc may not thruft it out our felves, but he muft lead 
it forth,orwe (halibut thruft it out of one prifon into ano- 
ther infinitely worfe. Nay it feems by that word it (hould 
be no hafty defire, that he himfelf Ihould do it neither : 
it doth not found as if we would have him prefendy 
break down and demolifh the building, and fo fweep us 
away in an inftant 5 that were Eripe animam, pluck forth 
my Soul out of pnfon, but it is Educ^teadh forth, and 
feems to import not fo much an anticipation of our time 
as an humble Petition, that when our time is come, and this 
Tabernacle muft needs be diflblved 5 that then amid ft all 
the conflicts and terrours of death he would be pleafed to 
be with us to fuftain and uphold us with his grace, cheaj 
up and guide forth our Souls with his comforts, for this is 
educere animam, to lead the Soul out of Prifon- And 
happy, thrice happy are thofe Souls that are thus led and 
conducted in this perillous time. Every one indeed pray 
for it, but every one (hall not obtain it, It is Educ ani~ 
mam mean, and we muft put an accent upon that me- 
am on Davids Soul} that faithful and penitent Soul in- 
deed was, and all others without fail (hall be (in their due 
time) thus led and guided out of their, Prifons in peace: 
but thofe that have no part in his penitence, they may (ay 
if they will, but they (hall have no part in his Prayer. Aa 
they neglcdted God and all his ways in their life : fo God 
again will be as far from hearing or keeping them in their 
death, but will rather laugh in their deftrudYion and mock, 
when their fear cometh, as it is in the firftof Proverbs. 
And then on the otherfide how miferablc,thrice mifu'able. 
(hall he be, that muft part with his Soul at a venture, 
flUthout apy coxfcrt tp&ftainit, or light of grace to lead. 

5 74 ^ e Fir ft Funeral Sermon 

it, through the fearful paffages of death! Look on him, 
and you (hall then fee, when after all his mirth and 
revels, you (hall find him at the laft laid on his groaning 
pillow, on the bed of languifhing, as David (peaks. 
confider well how woful and difconfolate his eftate muft 
needs be, when after all his former pleafures being worn 
out with his body, the Soul begins to loath the ruinous 
houfe of age and ficknefs , when it may not ftay, and 
yet knows not whither to go $ at what time thofe fad and 
fevere cogitations formerly beaten from him through 
youth and felicity, return to afflict, and pay him home 
for all his vain and wanton delights: yea peradventure 
when the terrours of God (hall fight againft him, and the 
Arrows of the Almighty ftick within him, the venom 
whereof drinks up the fpirit, as it is in Job , In this 
mifery of his, wounded in body through ficknefs, and di- 
ftrefled in confcience through (in,what (hall lead him forth 
with comfort fince God refafeth to do it > (hall his wife, 
his fons or. his friends, his honours, offices or wealth ? 
why the very thought of thefe and whatfoever elfe he 
hath,that is good, doth but double his affii&on, fince now 
he muft part with them for ever , and may well there- 
fore fay unto them as Job did unto his three friends, mise- 
rable comforters are ye all : what then ? (hall he com- 
fort himfelf as'fome of the fervants of God have done, 
by looking back on the ways of his life ? why nothing 
can poffibly torment him more : he now fees that he 
hath but wearied himfelf in the ways of Iniquity 3 and 
perceives, though too late, what before he refufed to be- 
lieve, that fuch paths lead down unto the Chambers of 
death.Sincethen he can neither comfort himfelf,nor receive 
any from the reft of the world, (hall he for his laft refuge, 
as thoufands of others have done, cry, Lord, Lord, be 
thou my help and comfort, and bring my Soul out of 
Vrifon ? But alas unto what purpofe, and upon what 


ZJfon P s a l. cxlii. vetje ult. 375 

acquaintance? He that gave his Soul unto fin and Satan 
in his life time, why fhould he think God in his death will 
embrace and entertain it? No, no: Either give up thy 
Soul unto God when he calls for it in his word, in the 
provocations of his love, in the holy motions of his Spi- 
rit unto thine 5 or elfe when thou wouldeft give it, he 
will none of it 5 unlefs as an angry Judge to deliver it 
over to the tormentor. And in thefe ftreights what re- 
mains, but that he either take up the ditty of that dy- 
ing Emperour, Ae«, qu<e nunc abibk in loca, fearfully 
part with his Soul he knows not whither, or elfe embrace 
the counfel of Jobs wife, defperately curfeGod and die? 
Either way he comes to his deferved end 5 and he whole 
whole life was as the way of a fnail, not a ftep but lea- 
ving filth behind } at the laft dies like a Candles end in 
the Socket, boyling and burning in the flame of his own 
diftreffed and diftra&ed Soul, till he go out in a fuff, and 
leave an ill favour behind him amongft all good people. 
Such is oftentimes the fearful departure of thofe whom 
God for their former wicked lives fhall refufe to lead out 
of their Prifons when they die. No, this favour belongs 
not unto them, it is referved for thofe faithful Souls that 
with holy David.hzve throughly forrowed for their fins, 
for they only (hall partake of Davids Prayer that imitate 
Davids repentance. And thefe, however he may feem 
to abfent himfelf for a while, and hide his countenance 
from them , yet in that day of need, in that laft and 
fearful time that mod requires it, they fhall be fure of 
his comforts. He will not fail then to difcover his face, 
and make the light of his countenance fliine into that re- 
gion of darknefs : and by the beams thereof chear up his 
people, leading and lighting them through all the dark 
and winding Alleys of death, until they arrive in the glo- 
rious Kingdom of immortality and peace 

Believe not me, but behold the holy man of God and 


%j6 The Firji Funeral Sermon, 

fee it performed with your Eyes. Look upon Jacob the 
Patriarch, and Father of the Patriarchs, he that wreftled 
not onl/that one time at the River Jabbock^, but all his 
lifelong with the arm of the Almighty continually af- 
flicting him, yet in the end, all thele ftorms are blown 
over, and he is gathered unto his Fathers in a calm of con- 
tent and peace. But firft mark how the Lord gave him 
ftrength, before he went hence and was no more feen 5 
wherewith he collefts his fainting Spirits, raifeth himfelf 
up in his bed, calls his Sons about him,gives every one his 
feveral bleffing and benediftion in fuch a high and Pro- 
phetical ftrain, as if an Angel had fate on his lips ; and 
I think many Angelsfate waiting in that door of his body 
for the coming forth of his Soul, which ftayed not long 
after, to convey it into the bofom of his Grand-father A- 
braham^ there to reft in everlafting peace. Look upon 
JoJIjuu the Captain of ifraeU after all his Wars and Bat- 
tles paft 3 at length he fits him down and divides the 
fpoil among the Tribes of Jacob? and death drawing 
near , fee how he fummons the whole people together, 
and with fuch power of fpeech exliorts them to the fear 
and fervice of God, which had dealt fo mercifully with 
them , that the whole Congregation as if it had but one 
heart and one tongue and both throughly affefted, joynt- 
ly cry out unto him, God forbid, that we foould forfa^e 
the Lord 5 nay but we will ferve him, for he is our God. 
Thus out of the flame of his own zeal having kindled a 
fire in the breaft of others ? this great Worthy was led 
forth from his Prifon in peace. See Samuel the Judge of 
■Ifrael going to his grave as to his bed, and in him con- 
fider the power and vertueof a good Confcience, arifing 
from the memory of a well afted life: Whofe Oxe or 
•whofe Afs have I tak^n, whom have I defrauded^ or at 
whofe hands have I received a bribe? faith he unto the 
Congregation, as all bear him Record, faith the Text, hoc 

due it 

Vfon P s a l. cxJii. verfe ulc. 377 

duett ad fun us & fepulturam : This is it which accom- 
panies him to his grave, and laies him in his rotten Se- 
pulchre. Laftly, confider St. Paul and his marvellous 
confidence, even before his death, that made him bold 
to deliver' up his Soul almoft like his Saviour with a con- 
fummatum eji> I have finijhed my courfe, I have kspt 
the fait £, henceforth k laid up for me a crown of rights 
oujnefjy which the Lord thejuji Judge Jhall give me at 
that day : words worthy ota Soul fo near unto its Hea- 
ven : fuch have been the bleffed ends of thefe holy Men 
of God and many more, famous in their generations, and 
fuch it is and (hall be in all others that faithfully ferve 
him, though it be not ever manifeft in all. 

And what is there now that can more deeply affeft a 
good heart? what can a religious mind fo much defire 
unto it felf, or behold with fo great delight in another * 
as to fee a devout and penitent Soul give a peaceful fare- 
wel unto Nature, and in the midft of death depart full of 
comforts of immortality and life ? as thofe Souls only do, 
whom God (hall vouchfefe to lead out of their corruptible 
prifons with the fweet confolations ofhisfpirit. 

But peradventure far ofFexamples,will be left too far off 
refpe&s.Ufually thofe that areneareft do affeft us mod: if 
fo, this fad occafion will afford you a worthy one: for I 
have done with her Text,and muft fpeak as I promifed and 
you expeft of her perfon, that made choice of the Text; 
and by this time you cannot but perceive how juftly. 
She delighted in prayer and praife while fhe lived, and 
(he left this behind her written with her own hand, that 
it might teftify fo much for her even after her death \ and 
that by it (he might in a fort (left her thankfulncfs being 
private (hould die with her felf ) publickly praife the name 
of God amidft the company of the righteous, the con- 
gregation of good men here on earth, even then when 
(he her felf, freed from her prifon, Ihould be tinging ho- 

' C c c nour 

578 The Firfi Funeral Sermon, 

nour and glory with Saints and Angels in Heaven. Yet 
this was not all the reafon of her choice. It forted well 
with her condition whilft ilie was in the body 5 and (lie 
knew it would be fully accomplifhed when (he (h©uld be 
led out of it. For (he had her part of affli&ions, and 
they preft fore upon her too , even ftraitned her Soul. 
Her branches (he faw were rent away, branch after 
branch 5 and to (b loving a nature they could not but go 
off as limbs from her body. What Bernard faid in the 
lofs of his friend is moft true in her cafe: Her bowels 
were pluckj from her , and jhe could not but feel the 
wound 5 and therefore if for nought elfe but her forrow 
and affli&ions fake fhe might well pray ^educ animamj&c. 
But other troubles (he had befides and diftraftions in 
the world, that often called her meditations from Heaven 
where they delighted wholly to eonverfe : efpecially in 
her later time wherein (he (b inured her Soul unto bleffed 
contemplation, as (he had almoft freed her felf from this 
prifon ere, (he was freed from the body : that indeed was 
frill in the world, but her mind and affe&ions were ufa- 
ally with her Maker: So that thofe earthy cares which 
hang at the heels of other mens Souls like talents of lead, 
hung at hers only but as a line that ufually gave her leave 
to (oar aloft, only humane neceffity that held the end of 
it, had power now and then to draw her down, to the 
grief and forrow of her heart. I am a witnefs of her 
complaint, and of her tears too that any worldly occafi- 
ons, though never fo neceffary, (hould trouble and in- 
terrupt her fpiritual devotions, and therefore I am fure 
in this regard it was her frequent prayer, Bring my Soul 
cut of prifon* 

And befides affii&ions and cares, fins (he had too no 
qucftion, for what Soul is without them ? but yet fo few 
and fo far from habit, as I think no man can eafily tell 
what they were. Infirmities and omiffions it may be, 


ZJpon P s a l. cxlii. verfe ult. 379 

though for my part, I know them not, yet this I know, 
that her goodnefs efteemed them as the greateft fins, and 
bewailed them with forrow enough to fuffice one that 
had murdered his Father, or betrayed his Country, never 
ceafing to fend forth her fervent fupplications in this be- 
half unto the laft gafp. Her tongue, her hands, her heart, 
all prayed this prayer : her tongue as long as it could 
move, and when that failed, her hand fpake 5 and when 
both were gone, yet queftionlefs her heart cried this cry, 
deliver my foul out of this prifon, the prifon of fin. But 
yet until the body be fevered from the Soul, the Soul 
can never utterly be fevered either from fin or care, or 
forrow of affii&ion. And a body (he had,it is now you fee 
acarkafe: but fometimes was a goodly frame, a well built 
and comely manfion, and even cut out of an antient 
Quarry 5 but unto her, whofe thoughts were on ano- 
ther habitation above, as it was in it felf, by reafon of the 
corruption whereunto it was fubjeft, fo (he efteem'd it., 
but a prifon unto her Soul : and that did at laft trouble 
her peace with pains, and delay her from thcfe joys that 
are pure and know no mixture of forrow. 

No marvel therefore, if in the defirc of thefe (he could 
make that her prayer, which others tremble to think on, 
deliverance from her Prifon. But yet there needed no 
earneft Prayer for this, death comes faft enough on of 
it felf without haftning 5 it more concerns us to die well 
and with the comforts of God in our bofome9, that may 
(hield us from our fpiritual enemies that are then bufieft} 
and guide and conduft us through the dark valley of 
death, that is terrible in it felf And therefore in this 
refpcft I rather conceive, (he that was fo careful of her 
Soul, could not but make it her humbled and heartieft 
prayer that when the time fhould come, the Lord of his 
mercy would be pleafed to lead it out of Prifon. So fit 
was it every way, and in many regards fo good a choice 

C c c 7 did 

580 The Firji Funeral Sermon, 

did (he make of her prayer, whilfl: (he lived, and the 
Lord from his holy habitation heard her cry and at laft 
accomplifht and fulfilled it all in her death. Though 
before he plcafed to by forrows enough upon her, yet 
now in the midft of them all, his comforts did refreih her 
Soul. Now he comes to it in his deareft loving kindnefs $ 
and leads it forth indeed with his choiceft confolations 
and graces to make her a full recompence for all her 
former affii&ions. How doth k now rejoice others about 
her, even in the depth of their forrows, to fee her full of 
the Spirit, and out of the abundance of it fometimes 
pouring down bleffings on her children and childrens 
children, and every one his feveral bleffings, like Jacob : 
fometimes ftirring up and exhorting to the fear and fer- 
vice of the Lord, with holy JoJIjh* '-, fometimes again fo- 
lacing her (elfin the fweet pe r^eof a good Conference, 
as bleffed Samuel : and laftly fometimes venting out her 
ftrong hope, and ftedfa(t confidence with St. PW, but 
in the words of J-oh^ I kj?ow that my Redeemer liveth^ 
and I fliall fee him with thefe eyes^ as (he often repeated. 
But what may be (aid enough of her fervent praying? 
fhe was ever pious and frequent in this holy exercife 
through the whole courfe of her life, thrice a day at the 
leaft, at morning, at noon and at night, befides her times 
ofpublick prayer: fo five times a day (he prayed, and T 
doubt not but inftantly too. But now when her prifon 
began to mine and death to appear within ken, how affi- 
duous is (he now ? it is not Davids feven, nor twice feven* 
times a day that can fuffice$ but (lie plies it, as if (he had 
meant to fulfil the Apoftles precept* pray continually. 
I told you but now her heart, tongue and hand prayed 
to the laftgafp, and I think that gafp was a prayer too, 
when her understanding failed, and (he could neither 
hear nor fee- others, yet others might fee and perceive 
ttiat (he prayed. So. perfeftty had (he tayght.her tongue 


Vpon P s a l. cxlii. verfe ult. j8 1 

to pray, that when her fenfes were locked up, it could 
run of it felf. And if fuch a Soul as this, be not, whofe 
(hall ever be, led forth with comfort and peace > But yet 
before her leading forth, being remembred of it, (he wil- 
lingly made confeffion of her Faith, acknowledging all 
the Articles of her Belief, and adhering only unto the 
blood of Chrift Jefus for her hope : in thcfe (he had lived, 
and in them (he would die \ but die in charity too, for- 
giving and defiring to be forgiven of the whole world; 
as at other times (he did not refufe to ask it even of her 
own Servants when (lie had but uttered a word with a 
Iktle more earneftneft than ordinary. And this folcmn 
profeffion made, that fhe might farther yet fulfil all 
rights, (he gladly makes her Son her Father, and receives 
his absolution. And not long after the God of all mercies 
on whom (he continually called, anfwered her gently, 
and opening the Prifon, eduxit animam, led forth her 
bleffed Soul fall of gracious comforts unto - everlafting 
glory* for with this all the other prifons are utterly dif- 
iolved. No more affli&ions now, nor fin, nor death for 
ever : all tears are wiped from her eyes, and forrow fronr 
her heart, all pain from her Body and fin from her Soul ; 
which now in the higheft Heavens compaffed about with 
the righteous, fings the fongs of praife and honour and» 
glory unto him that fitteth upon the throne and to the 
Lamb for evermore. 

Who now (hall mourn, who (hall weep for fuch a* 
Soul ? none can forrow for her unlefs they envy her hap- 
pinefi: f&hx ilia antrna, imitationcm dcfiderat not* 
j>U»8um, that bleffed Soul is no fubjcft of grief, but a 
pattern for imitation. And therefore if any weep in her 
death, they muft be tears of joy, not of forrow 5 and if 
they be of forrow, they muft not be for her but for our 
felves, and our own lofs. This indeed is great and in- 
valuable, and when yoa think on it> weep i^Gods name. 


^82 The Fir (I Funeral Sermon, 


ghtis natum in fun ere ntalris flere vetat <? he were bar- 
barous that would forbid it you : yet you (hall not have 
all to your felves, we'll bear you company, for fhe was a 
publick lofs. Such a Wife, fiich a Mother, fuch a Friend, 
fuch a Miftrifs, fuch a Neighbour, fuch and fo good a 
Woman, and fo great an example of Virtue, cannot, 
fhould not go to the grave with dry eyes, in whofe loft 
fo many have intereft. I would praife her if I could, to 
make you weep more, but (he is beyond my commenda- 
tions. A Woman of her Wifdom and Judgment, of her 
Wit and difcourfe, fo free and liberal and yet fo prudent 
and provident withal, for (he was fo in her felf, though 
misfortunes befel her : fo fweet, fo kind, fo mild, fo lov- 
ing and refpe&ive to all, and withal fo charitable to the 
poor, a Chirurgeon to the hurt, and a Phyfician to the 
fick : (he eat not her morfels alone, and their loins were 
warmed with her wool], as Job fpeaks 5 fuch a Woman, 
fo well born and bred, and of fuch a ftrain beyond or- 
dinary, as (he feemed with the blood to inherit too the 
virtues of all her Anceftors : fo upright and clear and in- 
nocent in her whole courfe, that the eye of envy, nay 
were all the malice of the world infufed into one eye, 
it could not find any juft ftain to faften on her 5 fuch a 
one, fo every way compleat, furely no Man unlefs he 
had her own, or the wit and tongue of an Angel can 
fufficiently commend: neither can we, if we regard our 
own lofs, fufficiently bewail. But the truth is, (he is 
not loft, non amijja fed prtemijfa : fent before (he is, 
loft (he is not : And therefore you whom it moft con* 
cerns though you mourn, mourn not as thofe without 
hope. It is but a (hort feparation, and the time will come 
when you (hall fee her again, though not with thefe 
earthly affections. Pay the due tribute unto nature 5 but 
then (hut up the (luces for graces fake. And the God of 
all grace give you comfort 5 the Holy Ghoft the Com- 

ZJpon P s a l. cxlii. verfe ult. 383 

forter himfelf replenifh your heart with confolations. And 
the blood of Jefus Chrift wafh us all from all our (ins, and 
ftrengthen us with the power of his might 5 that we may 
(b live whilft we remain here in this Prifonof the Body, 
that when it (hall be difTolved, we may obtain mercy 
from him, to lead forth our Souls. To lead them with 
his grace, and then (as he hath done to this bleffed Saint) 
receive them unto glory 5 There with her and all the 
company of righteous fpirits that are gone before us, to 
fing praife and honour unto his holy name for ever- 
more. To this God the Father, the Son and the Holy 
Ghoft, &c. 

Lam Deo in sternum. 


384 The Second Funeral Sermon. 






Upon Rom. viii. 10. 

And if Chrijl be in you , the (Body is dead bee aufe of Sin: 
but the Spirit is life becaufe of tf^jghteoufnefs, 

MAN of all Gods Creatures, is the ftrangeft 
compounded, the moft marvellous mixture that 
ever was, a very fardel of contrarieties, won- 
derfully united and wrapt up in one bundte. 
Heaven and Earth, light and darknefs, Chrift and Be- 
lial may feem to dwell together, and man the houfe of 
their habitation : what can be more dire&ly oppofite 
than Flefh and Spirit, Life and Death, Sin and Righte- 
ou(he(s } and lo all of them united here in one vede, nay 
in one man. For the Text is but the Anatomy of man, 


ZJpon Rom. viii. verfe 10. 385 

and muft therefore be compofed of and divided into the 
fame parts man himfelf is. As his body is compofed of 
contrary Elements, heat and cold, fire and water : So his 
perfon is compofed of contrary. Natures, Corporal and 
Spiritual, Body and Soul : His Natures again of contrary 
qualities, Life and Death} the Body is dead, the Soul 
lives : and laftly thefe qualities iffuing from contrary 
caufes, fin and righteoufnefs, death from (in and life from 
righteoufnefs. The Body, &c. And though the fin by 
which the body dies is our own, yet that we may know 
that the righteoufnefs whereby the Soul lives is not of 
our ielves but received from our Saviour, there is a cau- 
tion given in the entrance of the verfe, IfChriJi be in 
you. So then here are three couples, a Body and a Soul: 
Sin and Righteoufnefs : Life and Death : The body with 
her two attendants, fin and death , the Soul with her 
two endowments, righteoufnefs and life. The former is 
univerfal and common to all the Sons of Adam accord- 
ing to the flelh 5 the latter particular and proper only 
to the Children of the fecond Adam begotten by the 
Spirit, IfChriJi, &c. 

I begin with the firft part, which is a meditation of 
death and our chief Chriftian comforts againft death. 
But yet before the Apoftle brings in his confolations he 
premifes a condition, If Chrijl be in you: To teach 
us, that the comforts of God belong not indifferently 
to all men : He that is a ftranger from Chrift, hath no- 
thing to do with them. What haft thou to do to take 
my Covenant into thy mouthy fo long as thou hatcfi to 
be reformed f faith God in the Pfalm I. When our Savi- 
our commanded his Difciples to proclaim peace unto eve- 
ry houfe they came to, he foretold them it fliould reft 
only on the Sons of peace. He forbad them in like man- 
ner to give thofe things which were holy, unto doggs, or 
to caft pearls before Swine. This ftands a perpetual Law 

D d d to 


The Second Funeral Sermon. 

to all his meffengers, that they prefume not to proclaim 
peace to the impenitent and unbelieving § but as Jehu 
faid unto Jehoram's horfman, what haft thou to do with 
peace ? fo are we to tell the wicked who walk on ftill in 
their fins, that they have nothing to do with the peace 
or promifes or priviledges of the Gofpel, IfChrift be in 
you, &c. 

Secondly, if we compare the verfe immediately prece- 
dent, or that which isfubfequent with this between both, 
you (hall eafily perceive after what manner Chrift dwells 
in his Children. Sometimes we are faid to be in .Chrift, 
and fometimes Chrift is faid again to be in us 5 and both 
in effeft come to one : we are in Chrift by faith, and 
Chrift is in us by his Spirit : For fo it follows, If the spi- 
rit of him that raifed up Jefuf from the dead dwell in 
you, he that raifed ftp Chrift from the dead flmll alfo 
quicken your mortal bodies. It is not then a Carnal pre- 
tence, but a Spiritual, that doth link and affociate unto 
Chrift. To make up our union with him it is not need- 
ful that his humane nature fhould be drawn down from 
Heaven^ or that his body fhould be every where pre- 
lent on Earth, as the Vbiquitaries affirm : or that the 
Bread in the Sacrament (hould be tranfubftantiate into 
his body, as the Papifts imagin. His dwelling in us is by 
his Spirit, and his union with us, is fpiritual. So himfelf 
in the fame place where he fpeaks of eating his flefh and 
drinking his blood, doth interpret himfelf, theflefl) pro- 
Jiieth nothings the words that I fpeak^are fpirit andlife. 
And his Spirit, it is, not bis body that fhall give life unto 
the Spirit, when the body (hall pcrifh, IfChrift, &c. 

This touch (hall fuffice for the conditidn, I proceed to 
ihe fubftance of the Text. The Body is dead. It con- 
tains, as I faid, an admonition of our frailty, corruption, 
and death, and comforts againft death. It is but the body 
that is dead, the Spirit is life. Firft of our corruption and 


Vfon Rom. viii. verfe i o. o g~ 

frailry, The body is dead. That we all tend unto death 
we all know 5 but the Apoftle's fpeech is more remark- 
able : he fays not, the body is fubjeft to death, but by 
a more fignificant phrafe of fpeech he prcfleth it homer. 
The body is dead. There is a difference between a mor- 
tal body, and a dead body. Adams body before the 
fall was mortal in fome fort, that is, fubjeft to a poffibi- 
lity of dying: but now after the fall our bodies arefo 
mortal, as they are fubjeft to a neceffity of dying 5 yea if 
we 11 here with the Apoftle efteem of death by the begin- 
ning and feifure of it, they are dead already. The fore- 
runners and harbingers of death, dolours, infirmities and 
heavy difeafes have feifed already on our bodies, and 
marked them out as lodgings which fhortly muft be the 
habitation of their Mafter. 

But how near this manner of fpeech draws unto true 
propriety, they beft conceive, who beft underftand how 
that maledi&ion of God -and curfe of the Law, The day 
that thou eatefi thereof thou /halt die the death, was 
fulfilled. If God fpared not the Angels when they wax- 
ed proud, will he fpare thee , who art but a putrifying 
worm ? lUe intummt in ccelo, ergo in JlerquMnio , 
he was puft up in Heaven, and therefore was caft down 
from the place of his habitation : and if I wax proud 
lying on a dunghil , (hall I not be caft down into Hell ? 
So often therefore as corrupt nature ftirreth up the heart 
to pride,becau(e of youth and health,beauty and ftrength, 
and the like perfe&ions of the body 5 let this considera- 
tion humble thee, that though thefe are fair and beauti- 
ful flowers, yet they cannot but fuddenly wither 5 becaufe 
the root from whence they fprung is corrupt and rotten 
and even dead already. Neither is it more available to the 
cutting down of arrogance and pride, than to teach us 
Temperance and fobriety. What availeth it to pamper 
that Carcafe of thine with excefs of delicate feeding, which 

D d d 2 is 


The Second Funeral Sermon 

is poffeffed by death already ? If Men took the tenth part 
of that care to prefent their fpirit holy and without blame 
unto the Lord, which they take to make their bodies 
fair and beautiful in the eyes of Men, they might in (hort 
time make a greater improvement in Religion and Vir- 
tue than they have done. But herein is their folly 5 they 
make fat the flelh with precious things, which within few 
days the worms (hall devour , but never care to beau- 
tify the Soul with holy and virtuous a&ions, which (hort- 
ly is to be prefented to God. Let us^ therefore refrain 
from the immoderate cherifhing this proud and dead 
flefh 3 meats are ordained for the belly ', and the belly for 
meats^ hut God will de fir oy them both, I Cor, vi. 13, I 
njight inlarge this point almoft infinitely 5 for the bene- 
fit of this confederation is not confined unta Humility, 
Sobriety, and Temperance or any particular virtues, but 
it>univerfal 3 reftraining from all evil, and inciting pow- 
erfully unto all virtue and goodnefs. Nihil Jic revocat 
hominem \ feccato quam frequent ntortk meditatio, 
faith St. Aug. nothing can fc> recalL a Mam from his evil 
ways as the frequent meditation of death , efpecially if he 
confider, as the certainty of death, fo the uncertain 
time of his death, and the unchangeable eftate ofever- 
lafting mifery if he die in his fins. Would to God we 
were wife, thoroughly to apprehend and apply this unto 
our own Souls. It is ftrange that there is nothing fo well 
known, nothing of greater benefit, and yet nothing fo 
little regarded. What a Prodigy is it, that finful Men 
fhould carry about their death in their bofoms and in 
every vein of their .Bodies, and yet fearce admit a thought 
of their mortality into their jpinds, but live here as if 
they verily thought they (hould never die? If we had 
np Religion, yet reafon would teach us that our 
ftrength is not the ftrength of ftones(andyet them even 
the drops of water weareth) nor our finews of Brafs and 

Iron 5 

Vfon Rom. viii. verfe 10. 389 

Iron, as Job fpeaks (and yet thefe the ruft and cank- 
er confumeth) but a vapour, but a finoak, which the Sun 
foon drieth or the wind driveth away. It was wittily 
faid oiEfi&ctus the Philofopher, who going forth one 
day and feeing a Woman weeping that had broken her 
Pitcher, and the next day meeting another Woman that 
had loft her Son, Heri vidi fragi/cm frangi, ho die vi- 
de I ilem man Yefterday, faith he, I faw a brittle 
thing broken, and to day I fee a mortal Man die. And 
what difference of frailty between thefe two? furely 
none unlefs Man be the frailer of the two. For as St. Ah- 
ftin hath it, Take the brittleft veflel of earth or glafsand 
keep it fafe from outward violence, and it may laftmany 
thcufand of years : but take a Man of the moft pure con> 
pjexion, of the ftrongeft conftitution, and keep him as 
fafe as thou canft} he hath that within his own bowels 
and bones that will bring him to his end. Nay I'hear 
fbme fay, faith the fame Father, that fuch a one hath the 
Plague or the Pleurifie, and therefore fure he will die 5 
but we may rather fay, fuch a one liveth and therefore 
fure he will die 5 for diverfe have had thefe Difeafes and 
did not die of them, but never any Man lived, that did 
not die. The Confumption of the Liver is the meffengcr 
of Death, the Confumption of the Lungs the Miniftcr 
of Death, the Confumption of the marrow and raoifture 
the very Mother of Death} and yet many have had thefe 
Difeafes and not died of them. But there is another 
kind of Confumption which could never yet be cured, 
it is the Confumption of the days 5 the common Difeafe 
of all Mankind. David faw it and fpake of it, when 
he find, my days are eonfuwed like fmol^c^ .Pfal. cii. yea 
the Philofopher faw it and could fay of it, qnicqnid pr£- 
teritum eft temporis mors ha bet : all our time that is 
part, death hath fei r ej on it 5 and fb much of our life is 
confumed. Let me then warn you and ftir up your me- 

390 The Second Funeral Sermon, 

ditations of your mortality in the words of Mofes, Deut. 
xxxii. 29. that men were wife, then would they under- 
stand this, then would they consider their latter end. 
Sure we are unwife that we confider not the things paft, 
the evil we have committed, the good we have omitted, 
the benefits of God we have abufed, the time we have 
mifpent 5 and yet we grieve not, becaufe we think not 
yet whether we fhall die. More unwife are we not to 
confider the things prefent, the deadnefs of our Body, and 
uncertainty of our death 5 the difficulty of Salvation, 
and the fmall number of fuch as (hall be faved, and yet 
we fhame not, becaufe we think we (hall not yet die. 
But mod unwife are we that we confider not the things 
to come, Death, Judgment, Hell, all to come 5 and yet 
we fear not, becaufe we think we (hall never die. But O 
that we were wife 3 then fhould we underftand, then 
fhould we confider our latter end, and confidering it, 
we fhould both prepare for it now , and more cheerfully 
entertain it when it comes, memorare novijfima, re- 
member thy end faith the Wifeman, & in aternum non 
peccabis, and thou (halt never offend, never do amifs, 
Ecclus vii. 36. So univerfal is the goodnefs of this confe- 
deration, and therefore I have ftayed the longer on k. 
But now I pafs from mortality to the caufe of it, from 
death to fin, that firft brought it into the world. The 
body is dead becaufe of fin. 
2- Sin it is and only fin, which is, as the caufe of all our 

dolours and calamities,^ of death it felfthat follows them, 
without this there never had been, there never could 
have been any death in the world. Death were not 
death, had it not a fting to kill s but the fting of death is 
fin, as the ftrength of fin is the law, faith our Apoftle. 
Thecurfed apple of difobedience which our firft Parents 
would needs eat, flicks ftill in all our teeth : it was poy- 
fon unto his nature and infefted his blood, and he hath 


Upon R o m. viii. verfe i o. 561 

derived the contagion to all his poftcrity 5 who ftill con- 
tinuing to feed on forbidden fruit as he did, do perpe- 
tually ftrengthen the original Difeafe and draw death up- 
on themfelves more haftily and violently than either that 
fin procured, or the prime corruption of nature for it 
doth inforce. Hence then we may perceive firft how 
foolifh they are, who living ftill in fin yet never confider 
that they are the Butchers and Murtherers of themfelves, 
according to that of the Pfalmift,TAe malice of the wield- 
ed foall flay themfelves, xxxiv. 21. his own fin which 
he hath conceived, brought forth and nourifhed, (hall 
be his deftru&ion. Every Man judgeth Saul miferable 
that died upon his own Sword : but what better are o- 
ther wretched Men whofe fins and iniquities are the cruel 
inftruments of death, wherewith they flay themfelves, 
Souls and Bodies too? Thus are they twice miferable 5 
firft that they muft die 5 and fecondly that they are guilty 
of their own death. O the lamentable blind nefs of Men ! 
who albeit in their life they fear nothing, more than 
death, yet do they entertain nothing more willingly than 
fin which caufeth their death. In bodily difeafes Men 
are content to abftain even from ordinary food, when 
they are informed it will but nourifh their fickneis^ 
and this they do to efchew death : only herein they are 
fo ignorant, that m iwithftanding they abhor death, yet 
they take pleafure in unrighteoufnefs that brings it upon 
them. And ftcondly, which (hall be the laft ufe we will 
make of this point. Since fin it is, that did firft bring 
and doth ftill haften on death, upon wicked Men 5 what 
marvel is it, if in thefe laft and worft days the Lord ftrike 
the bodies of Men with fundry forts of difeafe and fun- 
dry kinds of death, feeing Man by fundry forts of fins 
doth not ceafe to provoke him unto anger ? He framcth 
his Judgments proportionable to our iniquities: if ye 
JVaH^finbbornly again ft me, and will not obey me^ I wiU 


392 The Second Funeral Sermon, 

then bring feven times more plagues upon you according 
to your jins^ Levit. xxvi. 25. He hath a famine to pu- 
nifh' intemperance and the abufe of his creatures, if the 
memory of our own corrupt and putrifying bodies can- 
not do it 5 he hath a devouring (word to bring down 
the pride of our hearts. If we have fiery and unclean 
afR&ions, he doth not need burning -Fevers and loath- 
fome difeafesto puni(h them. And now if the Lord af- 
ter that he hath ftricken us with fuch a dreadful pefti- 
lence (hall renew his Plague amongft us s or go on to fi- 
ni(h that former deftruftion with the Sword of our ene- 
mies, what (hall we (ay ? but the defpifing of his former 
fatherly corre&ions, or our ftubborn walking againft the 
Lord our God hath procured it juftly unto our felves. 
Sluid mirum in pcenas generis humtni crefcere iram 
Dei, cum crefcat quotidie, quod puniatur ? what mar- 
vel that the wrath of God increafe every day to punifh 
Man, when that doth daily increafe which defer ves that 
God (hould punifh it? But enough of this part: it is 
now time to pafi on to the fecond and mod worthy part, 
as of Man fo of my Text, from the Body to the Soul, 
from the memory of death, to the comforts againft 
death: for though the body be dead yet it is but the 
body, the (pirit (which is the higheft confolation of a 
Chriftian) is yet alive, Mans life it fel£ But the fpirit is 

I cannot now ftand to difcourfe of the excellent Na- 
ture of Mans Spirit and the wonderful union of it with 
flefh and blood } for Man you fee is no fimple creature 
but compounded of both 5 both a Body and a Spirit. He 
is the abftrad and brief compendium of all the creatures 
of God. The world was corporeal, the Angels fpiritual, 
and both were united in Man, and made as it were into 
one creature 5 A creature which hath being with the ele- 
ments, life with plants, fenfe with beafts, reafon and fpi- 

Vpon Rom. viii. verfe 10. 393 

ritual exiftence with Angels 3 thatfo the Almighty God 
firft uniting all his creatures in Man, and then uniting 
Man unto himfelf in the perfon of Chrift, might in fome 
fort through Man communicate himfelf to all his creatures. 
Worthily therefore did the Naturalifts term him a little 
World 5 and as worthily did St. Auftin fay of him, that 
of all the miracles that were ever wrought amongft Men, 
Man himfelf is the greateft miracle 3 and that not only in 
regard of his two fubftances, but efpecially in regard of 
their marvellous union} that a mafs of clay (hould be 
quickened by a fpirit of life,and both united into one per- 
fon. That as God himfelf hath diverle perfonsin one Na- 
ture: fo man hath diverfeand thofe contrary natures in 
one perfon Commonly, fays Bernard^ the honourable a- 
grees not with the ignoble, the ftrong overgoes the 
weak, the living and the dead dwell not together. Non 
fie in of ere tuo domine : non fie in commixtione tua : 
notfo in thy work O Lord, not fo in thy commixtione 
here the living and the dead dwell both together : The 
body is dead becaufe offin, but the fpirit it life. 

Here then are the high confolarions of a Chriftian a- 
gainft death, briefly comprifed s and they are three, That 
his death is neither total nor final, but his life is perpe- 
tual: His death is not totaljt is only of the body, for the 
fpirit lives : it is not find, for the fpirit is not faid only to 
live,but that it is life 5 and that in two refpefts, firji becaufe 
it (hall give life again unto the body 5 and that fecondly an 
everlafting life, and therefore it is not barely the fpirit 
fhall live, but in the abftraft, the fpirit is life. So you 
may perceive the reafon why the Apoftle varies his 
manner of fpcech : he faid not the body is death, as he 
fays the fpirit is life j neither faith he the fpirit is alive, as 
he faid the body is dead 5 but the body is dead and the 
fpirit is life : the body is dead and not death, becaufe it 
(hall live again $ and the fpirit is not alive but life, becaufe 

E e c by 

004 *f.he Second Funeral Sermon 

by the virtue of the fpirit it is, that it (hall live, and live 
for ever. The fpirit &c- So our life is perpetuate, our 
death but (hort and not total Amidft thefe comforts 
what hath death in it that (hall greatly trouble or diftrefi 
the faithful Soul? why (hould it not (land ereft in 
the midft of all the panick terrors thereof, fo long as 
there is begun in us a life, which no death (hall ever be 
able to extinguifh ? Albeit death invade the natural and 
vital powers of our bodies, and fupprefs them one after 
another 3 yea though at the length he break in upon this 
lodging of clay and demolifla it to the ground 3 yet the 
inner Man and fpiritual that dwells in the body, (hall 
efcape with his life. The Tabernacle is caft down (that's 
the moft our enemy can do) but he who dwells in it, re- 
moves unto a better. The diffolving of the body, to him, 
is but the breaking up of the prifon wherein he hath been 
fo long detained , that he may thenceforth be delivered 
anto a glorious liberty. For as the Bird efcapes out of the 
fnare of the Fowler : fo the Soul in death mounts up and 
flies away with joy into the reft of her Maker. The A- 
poftle knew this well,and therefore defired to be dijjolved 
that he might be with Chrifi. As in the battle between 
qur Saviour and Satan, Satans head was bruifed, but he 
did no more than tread on our Saviours heel : fo (hall it 
be in the conflict of all his members with Satan 5 by the 
power of our Lord Jefus we (hall be more than con- 
querors: For the God of peace fl)all tread him under 
our feet, Rom. xvi. While he is there, let him nibble a- 
bout the feet, it is no great matter, yet 'tis all he can do, 
and let him do it. Manducet terram meam^ & dentem 
carni infigat^ let him bite theduft ((aith Ambrofe^) it 
was his original curfe : let him eat that part of me which 
is earth, let him bruife my body, all this is ftill but to 
tread upcumy heel: my comfort is,there is a feed of immor- 
ql life in my Soul ? which no power of the enemy is able 

to. i 

Upon Rom. viii. verfe i o. one 

to approach, much left to overcome and extinguifh 5 for 
the fpirit doth not only live, but is life, life eternal. The 
fpirit is life, &c» 

But yet that we may more fully underftand to whom 
thefe confolations belong, and what fpirits they are that 
can live in death and injoy the comforts of life when 
their bodies can live no longer, it is added becaufe of 
righteoufnefs. The fpirit is life, becaufe of right eoufnefs^ 
or for righteoufnefi fake. The righteous then, thefe are 
they to whom it belongs, thefe only are the holy Spirits 
that (hall revive in the midft of life and live in death, as 
they died while they lived : whilft the body lived, they 
died unto fin$ and when the body dies,they fhall live un- 
to God. For as the life of the Soul, is the comfort of the 
heart 5 fo the fpirit of righteoufnefs, is the life of the 
Soul. And therefore deceive not thy felf in a matter of 
fuch moment, in the bufinefs of thine everlafting wel- 
fare, but be moft afTured that fo far forth thou doft live 
as thou art fan&ified, and no farther. As health is to 
the body, (b is holinefs to the fpirit. A body without 
health falls out of one pain into another, till it die 5 and 
a Soul without holinefi is polluted with one luft af- 
ter another, till it perifh eternally : As the Moon hath 
light more or lefs, as it is in afped with the Sun > fo the 
Soul enjoys life, lefs or more, as it is turned or averted 
to or from the Lord of life whofe righteoufnefs only can 
give life, (as this life, peace and joy) unto the Soul. Mi- 
serable are thofe wicked ones, that want both, they are 
as St. Jude fpeaks, bis mortui, twice dead 5 that is, dead 
both in body and Soul. Their Souls indeed do live and 
fhall live eternally, a natural life, but there is a life of 
Grace as well as of Nature ; by the one the Soul lives for 
ever, by the other it lives. for ever in happinefs. This life, 
they do not, they (hall not ever live 5 and as for the na- 
tural, the Spirit of God accounts that but a death, whilft 

E e e 2 the} 

39 6 

The Second Funeral Sermon, 

they live in the body, he faith they are dead in fins 5 and 
when they go out of the body, though they live, yet he 
calls their life, and juftly, an eternal death. Immortality 
feems to be added rather to their forrow, than to their 
Souls : Since their Souls are only kept immortal that 
their puniftiment might be everlafting. It is true 
that fo long as Men enjoy this natural life in health of 
body and profperity of fortune, the lofs that comes 
by want of the fpiritual life is not fo fafely difcerned 5 v 
no more than the defe&s of a ruinous houfe are known 
in time of fair weather : but when the ftorm of affii&i- 
on, when the tempeft of death (hall come pouring down 
upon him 5 then the decaies and breaches will manifeft 
themfelves. How woful then muft his condition needs 
be, that hath now no other life but a natural, and muft 
now part with that, and he knows not whither ? In this 
eftate he cannot but die either uncertain of comfort} or 
rather moft certain of Condemnation. And therefore it 
is not much to be marvelled they arefo loth to think or 
fo much as to hear of that final and fatal time. deaths 
how bitter is thy remembrance unto juch, faith the Wife- 
man. How doth the only apprehenfion thereof even chill 
the blood in his veins & kill the very marrow in his bones ? 
Bel/hazzars doom is no fooner written upon the wall, 
but the joints of his loins are loofed and his knees finite 
one againft another. How did that one word of the 
Witch ftrike Saul thorough and thorough, leaving him 
tumbling on the earth in a fwoon. To morrow by this 
time thou and thy fons Jljall be with me i fo bitter 
indeed is the remembrance even of bodily death un- 
to thofe that have no fpiritual life in their Souls. But 
what mifcry may we think will there be in the endur- 
ing and fuffcring of that whofe only cxpeftation is fo 
fearful > 

Sad and fearful is the departure of the wicked though it 


ZJpon Rom. viii. verfe 10. 397 

outwardly appear not in all : the comforts of my Text be- 
long not to them: as their Spirits were dead whileft 
they lived, fo they fhall not live when they die. Where 
there is no righteoufnefs, there can be no life, For the 
Spirit, &c. No, the righteous, the righteous that is 
the faithful and penitent Souls, thefe are they, who as 
they have the true fpiritual life in prefent, (b in death 
they fhall have the true comforts of the blefled life 
which is to corner for however God at other times 
brings trouble, heavinefs and affliftions on his beftfer- 
vants, yet at that hour he never fails to affifl: them , 
and in the midft of death to make the life of their Souls 
appear more clearly for righteoufnefs fake. He may 
feem to abfent himfelf from them and to hide his coun- 
tenance for a time, but then in that day of need, in that 
laft and fearful time, which moft requires it, they fhall be 
fure of his comforts, he will not fail then to discover his 
face and make the light of his countenance to fhine in- 
to that region of darknefs, and by the gracious beams 
thereof to chear up his people, lighting and guiding their 
feet through that obfeure Valley and fhadow of death 
into the bleifed ways of immortality and peace. Believe 
not me, look upon the holy men of God a little and fee 
it perfomed with your Eyes. Behold the Patriarch Jacob 
the Father of the Patriarchs, he who wrcftled not 
only that one time at the River Jabbocl^, but all his 
life long with the arme of the Almighty continually 
afrliftirig him : But fee how contrary it fell out in the end, 
when all the clouds of affliction being blown over, a 
calm of contentment follows and he is gathered unto his 
Fathers in peace : but firft mark how the Lord gave him 
(frength before he went hence and was no more feen, 
wherewith he collects his fainting Spirits, raileth himfelf 
in his bed, calls his Sons about him, tells them of things 
to come, great things to come for many generations, and 


598 The Second Funeral Sermon, 

with an infpired Spirit ready to expire gives every one his 
feveral bleffing and benediction in fuch a prophetical, fo 
high and Heavenly a ftrain and ftile,as if an Angel had fate 
on his lip, and I doubt not but many Angels (ate waiting 
in that door of the body for the coming forth of his 
Soul (which ftayed not long after) to receive and convey 
it into the bofomof his Grand-father Abraham there to 
reft in everlafting peace. Look upon Jojhtta that valiant 
Captain, who having fpent his life in travail and more 
than Herculean labours, warring againft Gyants and the 
Sons of Anak^: yet at laft you may fee him fitting down 
in peace and dividing the fpoil among the Children of 
Jacob ; And in the end death drawing near, lee how he 
fummons the Tribes of Ifrael together and in a fweet Ora- 
tion recounts unto them all the mercies of God which had 
followed them from Terah the Father of Abraham that 
dwelt beyond the flood, to Chen fern that had now gotten 
polleflion of the promifed land within Jordan. And 
being full of the fpirit and fpiritual life, with fuch power 
of fpeech he exhorts them to the fear and fervice of this 
merciful God, that the whole Congregation as if they 
had had but one heart and one Soul, and both throughly 
afFe&ed, joyntly cry out, God forbid that we foould for- 
fakji the Lord, nay he is our God and we willferve him, 
Jof) the laft. After this manner from the flame of his 
own zeal, having kindled a fire in the hearts of others, 
this great Worthy and worthy Servant of the Lord, li- 
ved in his death,and dyed in peace. See holy Samuel the 
Judge of ifrael going to his grave as to his bed,and in him 
confider the power and vertue of a good confcience arifing 
from the memory of a wella&ed life, Whofe Ox or whofe 
Afs have Itakjn, whom have I defrauded or oppreji. or at 
whofe hands have I received a bribe ft\xh he in the publick 
nflembly, and all the people bare witnefs unto him, faith 
the Text. Hoc dncit adjnnus &fepultHramj\\i$ is it that 


Vfon R o m. viii. verfe 10. 399 

accompanies him to his Grave, and layeshim in his rotten 
Sepulcher. The like bleffed favour of reft did this peace of 
conference fend forth in thebletled Apoftle S. Paul, who in 
that wonderful confidence was bold to deliver up his Soul 
in the breath of the fame words, as it were, his Saviour 
had done before him, a Confummatum ejl,I have finifjjed 
my courfe, I have kept the faith, henceforth is laid up 
for me, a Crown of righteonfnefs which the Lord the 
j h ft 3 U( tge jhall give me in that day : words worthy of 
a Soul fo near its Heaven. Laftly, view the Protomartyr 
Steven, bleffed with peace in the midft of a cruel death, 
for all torments areeafy if they have anfwerable comforts. 
The obftinate Jews threw the (tones of death at him but 
he filled with the Holy Ghoft, looks ftedfaftly into 
Heaven , where he beholds his Saviour (landing at the 
right hand of God, to whom now dying he (peaks as he 
had done before to his Father, in manus tuas, into thy 
hands Lord I commend my Spirit. Such have been the 
blefled ends of thefe holy men of God, and of many o- 
thers famous in their Generations : and fuch it (hall be in 
all others that faithfully ferve him, though peradventure 
it is not manifeft in all. Their bodies are buried in the 
Earth, but they have left a name behind them, and a me- 
mory fweeter than the perfume made by the art of the 
Apothecary, as was fpoken of the good King Jofiah. And 
what is there now that can more deeply affeft an honed 
and a good heart : what can a religious mind cither (o 
much defire unto it felf, or behold with fo great joy in 
another , as to fee a devout and penitent Soul give a 
peaceful farewel unto Nature, and in the depth of death, 
depart full of the comforts of immortality and life? But 
it may be far off examples will be left too far off refpedb ; 
for likely thofe that are neareft do affed us better : if fo, 
you want them not neither, two among the reft more 
remarkable you have had of late. The one not long 


400 The Second Funeral Sermon. 

fince, the other now before your eyes : The Mother and 
the Daughter : of both whom I may truly fay,in the words 
of my Text, their bodies were dead while they lived, and 
their Souls lived in the death of their bodies for righte- 
oufhcfs fake. A memorable and exemplary couple, I may 
well join them in my fpeech, they were fo many ways 
joined in themfelves. They were joined in affinity and 
alliance : they were joined in affe&ion and love : they 
were joined in the quality and nature of their Dif- 
eafe, and would not be fevered till death did it : in 
the time of their ficknefs they were joined in the 
comforts of death, and now they are joined in the 
glory of an everlafting life. But the formers rites are 
paffed } yet they might not be now paffed overs I 
cannot but give her a touch, (he defired it from me, 
and I am fure (he deferved it. For the latter here now 
in your fight, I (hall not fpeak much becaufe I can 
hardly fpeak enough : with her former times I have had 
no acquaintance,and therefore can make no relation of it, 
only I affure my felf that (he who was (b patient and pe- 
nitent in her ficknefs, fo devout and cheerful in her 
death, could not but be well and religioufly difpofed in 
the courfe of her life. But for the latter part of her days 
them I have known, and in them been an eye-witne(s of 
the expreflion of more goodnefs, than I have often 
feen, or from a Woman of her quality, could have expe- 
cted. The things of no:e which I efpecially obferved in 
her and (hall commend unto you are principally thefe : 
her willingnefsto entertain death, and her deadnefs un- 
to the world and worldly affairs, her joy in fpiritual di£ 
courfe?, and her frequency and fervency in devout pray- 
er. For the firft, if weconfider the impediments, it was 
much (he (hould do it fo cheerfully : (he was but young 
and entring upon the prime of her years. She had fmall 
and tender Infants of her own, that went near her : (he 


XJfon Rom. viii. verfe 10. 401 

was well bellowed where (he found both youth and 
love, and means too, wanted nothing nor was likely to 
want: & h<ec font qua faciunt homines invito* mori^ 
and thefe are the things that make Men unwilling to die, 
could the Philofopher fay. Yet notwithftanding all thefe 
(he gently fubmitted her felf unto it : (he refolutely went 
forth to meet it, and left he fhould mifs her, fhe caird 
it unto her, Come gentle death, and even held forth her 
arms to receive and embrace it. For the fecond, I was 
with her often, yet never heard a word of worldly matter 
or (ecular affair, fo much as fall from her tongue : Her 
heart was bent on Heaven which made it delight fo much 
in heavenly contemplations 5 they came down upon her, 
as the Scripture fpeaksjike rain into a fleece of wooll and 
as a (hower upon a thirfty land. With what an open and 
greedy ear did (he fuck in celeftial comforts, which (he 
fhortly after vented out again in devout fupplications, 
wherein the mercy of the Lord did not forfake her even 
to the laft gafp ? And then at laft when her hands for- 
fook her tongue, and her tongue had almoft forfaken 
her heart, yet her heart did ftill adhere unto God in un- 
ceffant prayer, and therefore (he intreated others to hold 
her fainting hands, that her tongue failing they at leaft 
might teftify that her Soul did commune with her Maker. 
It calls to mind the ftory of Mofes having Aaron and 
Hur to fupport his arms, for whilft he prayed, Amahk^ 
fled and Jojfjua conquered. Sure I am whilft (he did in 
like manner, the true JoJIma conquered all the fpiritual 
Amalefytesi and enemies of her Soul, who only could 
batter down the prifon of her body, that her fpirit be- 
ing loofe and at liberty, might freely clear the air and 
mount up to the defired place of everlafting reft : where 
(he now is, and where may (he ftill in peace remain till 
another day (hall invert both Body and Soul with un- 
fpeakable glory. Who-can now mourn, who can weep 

F f f for 

402 The Second Funeral Sermon, 

for fuchaSoul? if ye do, they muft be tears of joy not 
of fbrrow, at leaft they muft be for your felves not for 
her. You may bewail your own lofs, you cannot grieve 
at her death, unlefs you envy her happinefs : f&lix ilia 
anima^ imitationem defiderat n on planiJum^thzt happy 
Soul is no fubjeft of fbrrow but a pattern of imitation. 
And therefore I now leave the dead, and conclude to the 
living, that their Spirits may live in death, as hers hath 
fhown them the example. For this (hould be the chief en- 
deavour, this (hould be the principal care of a Chriftian 
in his whole life, that when his life [hall end, yet the 
life of his Soul may not end with the death of his body. 
It little matters how it fares with us in the reft of our 
time,, fo it go well with us here 5 when if wrath overtake 
us it (hall cleave unto us for ever,but if peace end our days, 
our days afterwards of peace (hall never end. For as the 
rreefalleth there it (hall lie. Wretched Men that can wil- 
lingly think of any thing fave this that infinitely concerns 
them above all things elfe ! that can wi(h with Balaam^ 
let me die the death of the righteous and let my laft 
end be like his^ but never endeavour themfelves in the 
works of righteoufnefs whereby they may procure it i as 
if they might be like them in their death whom they 
refufed to imitate in their adtions. But they may with 
like Solomons fool till their tongue cleave to their gums, 
for fo long as they live the life of Balaam^ loving the 
wages of iniquity, they (hall never die the death of the 
righteous nor have their laft end like his whom they are 
nothing like in converfation. No if the Soul then live, it 
muft be as my Text hath it, for righteoufnefs fake. Set 
thy felf therefore to it ferioufly and fpeedily. Wife Prin- 
ces make many days preparation for a field that muft be 
fought in one. Beloved, let us be wife too and lay up 
lomething every day, for the laft, when we (hall wreftle 
with death. If we win that skirmi(hwe have enough 5 


ZJpon Rom. viii. verfe i o. 40 3 

but where or when or how foon we (hall be called to the 
conflict, who can tell ? be not fecure therefore, andpre- 
fume not on the laft hour 5 it may come fuddenly upon 
thee: flatter not thy felfand thy fins, and frame not de- 
lay unto thine own Soul. Send not Religion before thee 
unto thine old age } whither peradventure thou (halt ne- 
ver come, or elfecome hardned through the deceitfulnefs 
of fin. Give not thy youth and ftrength unto Satan, and 
then when thou art low drawn, and upon the lees, think 
to prefent God with the dregs of thy life. What a folly 
were it for thee to adventure thy fureft, thy everlafting 
weal or wo, making or marring, on fo fandy and fink- 
ing a foundation ? how much better were it for thee to 
remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth btfore 
the evil day come, and thou fay I have no delight here- 
in 5 that thy Creator may not forget thee in thine old 
age, when ftrength faileth and Man return^h to his long 
home. Sure in thefe great water-floods we foall hardly 
come nigh him, and therefore let us feek hi§ f ice while 
he may be found, and make our prayers in an accepta- 
ble time. So (hall our petitions be heard, and we in all 
our tribulations, in the hour of death, and in the day of 
judgment (as we defire) be moft affuredly delivered : 
finding comfort in our life, and life in our laft end And 
what is all the wealth and honour, pomp and glory of the 
work* in comparifon of this ? They may y ielcj^difcontents 
enough as being gotten with travel, kept with care, and 
loft with grief:, but can never give any true fatisfaction 
to the Soul,efpecially in that laft and perillous time which 
moft requires it. 

Surely every Mans thought is a fecret watch unto his 
own heart : let him then ask his own Soul, and it will 
tell him, verfa & rcverfa in tergum^ in later «*, in ven- 
trem, dura fnnt omnia^ Chriflus Joins requies : mufe 
and forecaft, tofs and turn, all the night long from fids 


404 The Second Funeral Sermon. 

to fide ^ (till, ftill no true eafe nor true contentment, no 
perfect joy to be found but in the fweet peace of a good 
Confcience fprinkled and wafhed with the blood of Jefas 
Chrift the Prince of peace. All other things fail us at our 
death, and therefore are unworthy of our care whilft 
we live. No, no, Thoughts of remorfe and joyes of 
lorrow, filent moans and melting tears, an heart truly 
humbled, and a Spirit ever fetled chearfully to live and 
willing to die, in the loving arms of a gracious Redeemer, 
this is the prize, this is the Crown we (hould contend 
for g and this is the way, now to live a Saint on Earth 
and ever hereafter to injoy an exceeding and ah eternal 
weight of glory in the higheft Heavens. Which the Lord 
of all glory grant unto us for and in the meritorious 
Pafiion of his Son Chrift Jefiis our Lord. To whom with 
the blefled Spirit, &c. 

Lam Deo in aternunt, Amen. 

F I N I S.